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The First American from the Fifth English Edition, carefully revised and compared 

zoith the German Editions of 1857 and 1867, with retranslaiions of 

portions of the work, 




13, Beacon Street. 


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by 


In tnc Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 

Cambridge : Printed by Welch, Bigelow, & Co. 


The translation of Madvig's " Latin Grammar," by the 
Rev. George Woods, has been before the public more than 
twenty years, and has passed through five editions in Eng- 
land. The work has been steadily advancing in public 
favor; and the reputation of Madvig himself, as a learned 
and philosophical classical scholar, suffers no change, ex- 
cept as it is more and more confirmed and established by 

This edition is issued to meet the increasing demand for 
the Grammar, which is springing up in all parts of this 
country. It is substantially the translation of the Rev. 
Mr. Woods ; but in the revision of the translation, great 
freedom has been used, especially in making such verbal 
changes as seemed to promote perspicuity and help the 
learner to an instant understanding of the author's mean- 
ing. A translator who is not perfectly familiar with both 
the languages with which he has to do, is in danger of 
occasionally transferring a word from his dictionary to his 
page, without first submitting it to the scrutiny of his own 
thoughts; and where infelicities of expression arise from 
such a cause, they are more likely to catch the eye of a 
stranger than of the translator himself. 


Of the hundreds of changes which have here been made 
in the text of the English edition, some are accounted for by 
what has just been said ; a few by the fact that the phrase- 
ology of Tischer's German edition, published under the 
direction of Madvig himself, has been preferred to that of 
the original work ; and others still have been made because 
Madvig has used new forms of expression in the edition 
issued by himself, to take the place of Tischer's, in the year 

In one particular this edition has ventured to depart both 
from the author and the English translator, in that the 
name usually given to the subjunctive mood by English 
grammarians is here retained. The German grammarians 
usually agree with Madvig in calling this the conjunctive. 
This difference of usage appears among the old Latin gram- 
marians also, while there is nothing in the original signifi- 
cation of the words which seems to decide the choice between 
them. Isidorus, to be sure, calls the mood conjunctivus 
" quia ei conjungitur aliquid, ut locutio plena sit " (I., 8, 4). 
But Probus names the moods " pronunciativus, id est, indica- 
tivus, imperativus, optativus, adjunctivus, inftnitivus" (I., 
VII., 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) ; and Asper Junior, under the name 
qualitates, calls them jinita, imperativa, optativa, adjunctiva, 
infinitiva (VII., 1). 

Maximus Victorinus says, "Modi autem sunt decern: in- 
dicativus, promissivus, imperativus, optativus, conjunctivus, 
infinitivus, impersonalis, g-erundi, hortandi, modus. Addunt 
quidam percunctativum modum" (Ars Grammatica, 20). 

Donatus says, there are seven moods, " ut multi existimant : 
indicativus, qui et pronunciativus dicitur, imperativus, pro- 
mis sivus ; sed hunc nos modum non accipimus ; optativus, 


conjunclivus , infmitivus, impersonalis " (II. , XII. , 1) . Phocas 
names the " indicativus" " imperativus" " promissivus" 
and " infinitivus" 

The above references do not yet give us the name subjunc- 
tive, but they show that the classification of the forms of 
the verb was not a settled thing among the ancient Latin 
grammarians, and that they were far from agreement in 
respect to the names to be given to the moods. 

Charisius, however, whom critics agree in placing high as 
an authority among the ancient Latin grammarians, uses 
the name subjunctive. Cyminius, the editor of the editio 
princeps of his work, which was published in the year 1532, 
speaks of him as "Romance linguce accuratissimus observa- 
lor" and as " grammaticorum omnium facile princeps" 
(See Lindemann's Corpus Grammaticorum Latinorum vete- 
rum, Tomus IV., Fasciculus I., Prcefationes. Lipsias, 1840.) 

In his Institutiones Grammaticce, Charisius treats very 
fully of the verb ; and his testimony is of especial value on 
such a point as the one under consideration, because he 
professes to give his son, for whose benefit he wrote and 
compiled -his work, the teachings of the earlier grammarians, 
as well as his own. He gives the names of the moods, 
which he calls modi verborum sive qualitates, as follows : 
pronunciativus, sen jinitivus, imperativus, optativus, subjunc- 
tivus sen conjunctivus, infinitivus. This list, to be sure, 
leaves us to our choice between the two names in question ; 
but our author himself uses only the name subjunctive in 
the pages of his work which contain the conjugations of 
the verbs, as well as in countless other places. (See Linde- 
mann ut supra, pp. 97, 98, 99, 100, 135, 136, and else- 


It is not necessary to give further proof of the disagree- 
ment among the authorities, hoth ancient and modern, on 
this comparatively unimportant point ; nor, in view of this 
disagreement, to apologize further for using in this edition 
of Madvig's " Grammar " that name for the subjunctive 
mood which will be most familiar to the reader. 

As this book will rarely be used by beginners, it is not 
thought important to indicate the differences between the 
German and the English methods of pronouncing Latin. 
How the Romans themselves pronounced their language 
is not known, nor can it ever be known. Scholars may 
not agree in opinion respecting the extent of this igno- 
rance ; but even if it were in itself very limited, pertain- 
ing, for instance, only to the sound of a single letter, it 
might with reason be made an objection to any attempt to 
imitate the original pronunciation of the language ; for the 
number of distinct sounds is so small in such a language 
as the Latin or our own, that every one of them runs like, 
a thread through every page, and constitutes an important 
element of it. The difficulties which attend this subject, 
and are inherent in it, are such, that there is no nation in 
Europe the classical scholars of which agree in claiming 
that they can reproduce the pronunciation of the Roman 
forum, or in attempting to do so. On the other hand, the 
scholars of each nation pronounce Latin, in the main, 
according to the analogy of their own language. There is 
no method which can properly be called " continental." 

If now scholars who speak English are not to enjoy the 
same freedom as those who live on the Continent, whom 
shall they imitate ? They do not themselves know enough 


about the pronunciation of the ancient Romans to save their 
attempts to imitate that from being a caricature in the cars 
of a Roman, if a Roman could be summoned to hear them. 
It can hardly be urged that they should imitate the Ger- 
mans, for they are confessedly in error in their practice, 
— and the same is true of the scholars of other nations. 
Or if only the continental pronunciation of the vowels is to 
be imitated, must it not still be a matter of doubt how the 
frequently recurring diphthongs, ce and ce, are to be pro- 
nounced ? 

The English method of pronouncing Latin is unquestion- 
ably at a wider remove from the ancient and genuine than 
the German or the French or the Italian method is. But 
the explanation of that fact is to be found in this, that the 
pronunciation of the English language itself has taken a 
freer and wider range than that of any continental nation. 
But to give up a method of pronouncing Latin which is gen- 
erally received by two great nations, and is inwrought also 
into a large constituent part of their own language, — a 
method easily learned and easily retained, — and to adopt 
in its stead a method which is full either of obvious or of 
probable errors, and which comes into constant conflict 
with English words of Latin parts, is, to say the least, of 
doubtful expediency. 

The opinion of Madvig on the question of pronouncing 
Latin according to quantity, as the ancients did, is given in 
the note on page 467 of the " Grammar ;" and the second 
observation on page 468 has a bearing on the same subject. 



Introduction 1 


I. Pronunciation. 

I. The Letters 3 

II. The Measure of the Syllables and Accentuation (Prosody) 11 

II. The Inflection of Words. 

I. The Classes of Words. Inflection, Stem, and Ending . . 18 

II. Of Gender and Inflection by Cases in general 20 

III. First Declension 25 

IV. Second Declension 28 

V. Third Declension 32 

VI. Peculiarities of the several Cases and of the Greek forms 

in the third Declension 46 

VII. Fourth Declension 51 

VIII. Fifth Declension 53 

IX. Of some peculiarities in the use of the Numbers of Sub- 
stantives, and of some Irregularities in their Inflection . 54 

X. The Inflection of Adjectives 63 

XL The Numerals 73 

XII. The Pronouns 80 

XIII. The Inflection of Verbs in general 89 

XIV. The Verb sum, and examples of the four Conjugations . 96 
XV. Verbs with a Passive Form and Active Signification 

(Deponent Verbs) 105 

XVI. Some peculiarities in the Conjugation of Verbs .... 108 
XVII. Irregular Perfects and Supines in general, and especially 

those of the first Conjugation Ill 



XVIII. Irregular Perfects and Supines of the second Conjugation 114 

XLX. Perfects and Supines of the third Conjugation .... 117 

XX. Irregular Perfects and Supines of the fourth Conjugation . 129 
XXI. Irregular Supines (Participles) of Deponent Verbs, and 

some other Irregularities of these Verbs 130 

XXII. Irregular Verbs 133 

XXIII. Defective Verbs 139 

XXIV. Impersonal Verbs 142 

XXV. The Adverbs and Prepositions 145 

III. Bules for the Formation of Words. 

I. Formation of Words in general. Derivation of Substan- 
tives . 150 

II. Derivation of Adjectives .... * 160 

III. Derivation of Verbs 160 

IV. Derivation of Adverbs 166 

V. The Formation of new Words by Composition .... 173 


Rules for the Construction of Words ........ 179 

Part First. 

Of the Combinations of Words in a Proposition. 

I. The Parts of a Proposition. The Agreement of the Sub- 
ject and Predicate, the Substantive and Adjective . . . 180 
II. The Relations of Substantives in a Proposition, and the 

Cases ; the Nominative and Accusative 191 

III. The Dative 209 

IV. The Ablative 221 

V. The Genitive 242 

VI. The Vocative 263 

VII. The Use of Adjectives (Adverbs) , and particularly of their 

Degrees of Comparison 264 

VIII. Peculiarities in the Construction of the Demonstrative and 

Relative Pronouns 276 


Part Second. 

On the Mode of distinguishing the Character of the Assertion, and the 
lime of the Fact asserted. 


I. The Kinds of Propositions, and the Moods in general . . 285 

II. The Indicative and its Tenses 288 

III. The Subjunctive 300 

III. (Appendix.) Object-clauses in the Subjunctive, and the 

Particles used with them 325 

IV. The Tenses of the Subjunctive 336 

V. The Imperative 343 

VI. The Infinitive and its Tenses 345 

VII. The Supine, Gerund, and Gerundive 368 

VIII. The Participles . 378 

IX. Combination of Coordinate and Subordinate Propositions, 
and the use of Conjunctions for this purpose. Inter- 
rogative and Negative Particles 388 

Part Third. 


Order and Position of Words and Propositions. 

I. Order of Words in a Proposition 425 

II. Arrangement of Propositions 435 

First Appendix to the Syntax. 
Some Special Irregularities in the Construction of Words . 440 

Second Appendix to the Syntax. 

Signification and Use of the Pronouns 448 

The most important Rules of Latin Metre (Versification) . 466 

Supplements to the Grammar. 

I. The Roman way of expressing the Date 479 

II. Computation of Roman Money and Fractions 480 

III. Abbreviations 483 

INDEX 485 


§ 1. Latin Grammar teaches the Form of Latin Words, 
and their Combination in sentences. It is divided into 
Etymology and Syntax. Latin Metre, or the rules for the 
structure of Latin Verse, will be treated as supplementary 
to the Grammar. 

§ 2. The Latin language was formerly spoken by the Romans, 
first in a part of Central Italy, and subsequently in the whole of 
Italy, and in other countries which the Romans had subjugated ; 
at present it is known only from books and other written monu- 
ments of this nation. 

The oldest Latin writings which have come down to us were 
composed about 200 years before the birth of Christ. In the sixth 
century of the Christian era the language became entirely extinct, 
having been thoroughly corrupted and mixed with their own 
tongues by foreign nations which had migrated into the Roman terri- 
tories. By these means, various new languages (the Romance 
languages, as Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese) were gradually 
formed. The numerous authors, who have written in Latin in 
later times, learned it as a dead language. 

7 OCT 

During the long period above specified, the language underwent 
many changes, not only in the number of words, and in their signi- 
fications, forms, and combinations, but partially also in the pro- 
nunciation. In this Grammar it is for the most part represented 
as it was spoken and written during the most brilliant period of 
Roman literature ; and, where this is not the ease, the usage of the 
most approved writers of that age is designated as the best. This 
period, extending from about the time of Caesar and Cicero till 


shortly after the birth of Christ, is commonly termed the golden 
age of the language. The next, to about 120 years after the birth 
of Christ, is called the silver age. 

Obs. The Latin language is originally most nearly related to the 
Greek, and from this it also borrowed many terms at a later period, 
when the Romans became acquainted with the arts, the sciences, and the 
institutions of the Greeks. Both languages, moreover, belong to the 
same stem, from which the German and Northern tongues, with many 
others, have sprung ; as the ancient Sanscrit, now totally extinct, in 
India, and the Zend in Persia. All these languages are designated by 
the common name of Indo-Germanic, or Japhetic. 


§ 3. Etymology treats 1, — Of the Sounds, of which words 
consist, and their pronunciation ; 2. Of the Inflection of 
words ; and 3. Of their Derivation and Composition. 



§ 4. The Latin language is written with twenty-three Letters, 
a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, (j), k, 1, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, (v), x, 
y, z (zeta). The consonants which have an affinity with the 
vowels i and u, — viz., j (i consonans) and v (u consonans), — 
were written by the Romans like those vowels (v for U as well as 
for v). These vowels and consonants are now usually distinguished 
in writing. The letters y and z do not belong to the original Roman 
characters, and are employed only in Greek words, which were 
adopted by the Latins at a later period. 

Obs. 1. The Romans made no distinction between large and small 
letters. According to the present usage, large initial letters are usually 
employed only at the commencement of a sentence, and in proper names, 
with the adjectives and adverbs derived from them. 

Obs. 2. The Latin characters, as well as the Greek, were borrowed 
from the Hebrew and Phoenician. 

§'5 a. The Vowels (litterae vocales) were pronounced some- 
times short (with a sharp utterance, broken off by a movement of 
the organs of speech), sometimes long (the voice dwelling on the 
lengthened sound) ; but this difference of pronunciation is not dis- 
criminated in writing. 

Obs. 1. In elementary books (as, for example, in this Grammar) the 
long vowels are sometimes distinguished by "", and the short by w , 
placed over them. The sign - denotes that the vowel over which it is 
placed,was pronounced sometimes lpng and sometimes short. In the 
earliest period a long vowel was sometimes distinguished by reduplica- 


tion. The long i was also expressed by ei (heic for hie, as it was 
always pronounced; eidus, arteis). 

Obs. 2. I is a consonant (j) at the beginning of Latin words before 
every other vowel, except in the participle ieus. So also in the middle 
of words between two vowels (major, Poinpejus, butGai), except in 
tenuia, tenuior, assiduior (in the Greek names Achaja, Grajus, 
Maja, Ajax, Troja, but Troius). Before a vowel at the beginning of 
Greek words, it is a vowel (i-ambus). 1 

Obs. 3. U is a consonant (v) at the beginning of w r ords before a 
vowel (vado) and in the middle of words between two vowels (avidus), 
also after ng, 1, and r, when u does not belong to the inflectional 
ending (angvis, solvo, arvurn, but colui), and in some words after 
the initial s (svadeo, svavis, svesco, Svetonius). In compound 
words it follows the same rule as in the simple ; e.g. e-ruo. After v it 
was the old usage to pronounce and write o in the place of u; e.g. 
servos for servus, divom for divuni : and in some w r ords o for e ; e.g. 
voster, vortex, for vester, vertex. 1 

Obs. 4. For the sake of the verse, the poets sometimes make i and u 
consonants after a consonant; e.g. abjes, consiljuni, genva, tenvia, 
for abies, consilium, genua, tenuia. Conversely, they resolve v into 
u, as su-emus instead of svemus, and frequently after 1 (silu-a, dis- 
solu-o, dissolu-endus. This is called diaeresis (resolution). 2 

Obs. o. In some cases the pronunciation wavered between two cog- 
nate vowels, or varied at different periods, which also led to a variation 
in the orthography: e.g. in classes and classis (accus. plur.), heri 
and here, yesterday; faciendus and faciundus. In some few words 
and forms, where i was both spoken and written at a later period, the 
sound of ii was formerly predominant (even down to the time of Cicero 
and Caesar) ; e.g. lubet for libet, optumus for optimus. 

b. Of the compound vowel sounds (Diphthongs), those commonly- 
met with are ae, oe, and au ; en occurs only in a few words (heus, 
hen, eheu, ceu, sen, neu, neuter, neutiqvam) ; ei only in the 
interjection hei ; ui in huic and cui, and in the interjection hui. 

Obs. 1. Ae originated in ai, as it was also written in the earliest 
times, oe in oi. In pronunciation, oe had some resemblance to u 
(poena, punire). These Diphthongs correspond to the Greek ai and oi 
(Hecataeus, Philetaerus, Oeta). 

1 The variation of the sound of these consonants as we utter them does not affect the rule. 
Thus j is a consonant in Troja, Achaja, abjes, consiljum, &c, although scholars who 
speak English usually give it the ordinary English sound in Troja, and the ordinary Germaa 
sound (like y) in the other words. (T.) 

2 The word diaeresis is Greek, as well as the names synaloephe, synaeresis, syni- 
zesis, ecthlipsis, and syncope, which occur in the ensuing paragraphs. 


Obs. 2. In words adopted by the Latins from the Greek, ei is ex- 
pressed before consonants by l, before vowels by I or e (Heraclitus, 
Euclides, Aristogiton, Eclipsis ; Dareus and Darius, Alexandria 
and Alexandria, Aristotelius and Aristoteleus) . 

Obs. 3. In some words the pronunciation and orthography waver 
between ae and e (saeculum, saepire, taeter, are better than secu- 
lum, &c., heres better than haeres) ; in others between oe and e 
(fecundus, femina, fenus, fetus) ; in others again between ae and oe 
(caelum, caeruleus, maereo) ; in obscoenus, between all three forms. 
Au and 6 were also interchanged in some words (plaudo, plodo, 
Claudius, Clodius) . A preference should be given to such forms as 
are most sanctioned by ancient inscriptions. 

c . The following remarks apply to the permutation of the vowels 
as resulting from the inflection, derivation, and composition of 

If the radical vowel be lengthened in the inflection, a is gener- 
ally changed into e (ago-egi). If the radical vowel be weakened 
by a prefix, ae is often changed into l (laedo, illido), a into I, if 
the syllable be open (i.e. ending in a vowel), and into e, if it be 
close (i.e. ending in a consonant) ; e.g. facio, perf i-cio, perfec-tus : 
c in an open syllable is often changed into I (teneo, contineo, but 
conten-tus ; nomen, nomi-nis ; semen, but seminar ium ; before r 
it remains unchanged, e.g. affero, congero, from fero, gero) ; con- 
versely, l is changed into e in a close syllable, e.g. judex from the 
theme judlc: 6 in an open syllable often becomes u in a close 
one ; e.g. in adolesco, adultus ; colo, cultus ; ebur, eboris ; cor- 
pus, corporis: u often takes the place of other vowels before 1 
(pello, pepuli; scalpo, exsculpo; familia, famulus). 

§ 6. When two consecutive vowels are to be separated and pro- 
nounced distinctly, a kind of hesitation (hiatus, gap) is produced 
in the utterance, especially if one vowel concludes a word and the 
other commences one ; e.g. contra audentior. Hence in reading 
verse, the former vowel is regularly omitted without regard to the 
quantity, which is termed elisio (striking out), or synaloephe 
(blending) ; e.g. saper' aude for sapere aude, qvoqv' et for qvoqve 
et, Dardanid' e niuris for Dardanidae e muris, ultr' Asiam for 
ultro Asiam. The same takes place if the second word begins 
with h, or the first ends in m ; e.g. toller' humo for tollere humo, 
mult' ille for multum ille. See § 8 and 9. (For the exceptions 


compare § 502 b.) Without doubt something like this occurred 
iu ordinary pronunciation. 

Obs. 1. It often happens also, that in the formation and inflection of 
words, what were originally two vowels are contracted into a long 
vowel or diphthong, especially when a or o is followed by another 
vowel, or the same vowel is repeated ; e.g. cogo from coago, tibicen 
from tibilcen, mensae from mensai. Sometimes only one vowel 
was pronounced, though two were written (deest, deerunt) . In some 
cases, contrary to the prose usage, the poets allow themselves to com- 
bine two vowels into one sound (by synaeresis or synizesis, sinking 
together) , as dein, deinde, proinde, quoad, particularly e with i, a, and o, 
in words the nominative of which ends in eus, ea, or eum ; e.g. alvei, 
cerea, aureo, as well as anteis, anteit, from the verb anteeo. The 
old Comic writers (Plautus and Terence) go much further in this 
(quia, &c). 

Obs. 2. In the interrogative enclitic ne, the vowel was sometimes left 
out in ordinary pronunciation, even before a consonant (e.g. nostin', 
qvaeso) ; in this case, the final s is also omitted in the second person 
sing. pres. of some verbs, and in satis (viden' for videsne, audin' for 
audisne, satin' for satisne). 

§ 7. Of the Consonants, some are mutes ; b, c (k, q), d, f, g, p, t, 
which have an abrupt sound : some, liquids ; 1, m, n, r, which (par- 
ticularly 1 and r) may be easily attached to a preceding consonant. 
To these may also be added the sibilant s. x is a double letter for 
cs, z (Greek) for sd. 1 

Of the mute consonants, c (k, q) and g are palatals, p and b 
labials, t and d dentals. Some have a harder and more abrupt 
pronunciation (c, p, t, tenues), some a softer and with somewhat 
of an aspiration (b, g, d, which are called mediae, as compared 
with ch, ph, th, which have the strongest aspiration), f approaches 
nearly to the labials, but has at the same time somewhat of a dentnl 

§ 8. With reference to the pronunciation of the particular con- 
sonants, it may be observed, that c was always pronounced by the 
ancients like k, or with only a slight modification of that sound (in 
doces as in doctus, in accipis as in capis). At a very late period, 
when the language was on the verge of extinction, that pronun- 
ciation came into vogue which is now usual in Germany ; viz., of 

1 Of. Corssen, "fiber Aussprache, Vocalismus und Betonung d. Latein. Sprache," I. 122, 
123. (T) 


giving c before e, i, y, ae, oe, eu, the sound of ts (compare ti). A 
peculiar variety of the sound c was qv (qu), which is reckoned as 
one consonant, as inqvilinus from incolo. The subordinate sound 
was occasionally dropped in some words (qvotidie and cotidie, as it 
was often pronounced and written coqvus and cocus). Before a 
consonant, qv is either changed simply into c, as in relictus, coxi 
(coc-si), from relinqvo, coqvo, or in some cases into cu, as in 
secutus from seqvor. If in the inflection of a word u would have 
to stand after qv, the Latins pronounced and wrote either cu, or 
qvo (according to § 5, a, Obs. 3), as secuntur or seqvontur ; at a 
later period, however, they wrote qvum, and, according to the pres- 
ent usage, seqvuntur, relinqvuntur, (Conditio, from qvatio.) 

K was only used in a few words as an initial letter before a, 
especially in abbreviations : K. =s Kaeso (a praenomen) , K. or Kal. = 

Ti is now pronounced before vowels like tsi, 1 except after s and t 
(justior, mixtio, Attius), in the lengthened passive infinitive (pa- 
tier), and in Greek words (Isocratius = Isocrateus, Boeotia) ; but 
this pronunciation dates from a very recent period. Thus, in the 
later pronunciation, ti before a vowel, and ci, came to have the 
same sound, and were occasionally interchanged in writing ; e.g. in 
the derivative ending cius (patricius, suppositious). 

M as a final consonant, when followed by a vowel, had an obscure 
and scarcely audible sound, on which account it is dropped in read- 
ing verse (by ecthlipsis, squeezing out), together with the vowel 
which precedes it, precisely as if that terminated the word (ventur' 
excidio for venturum excidio, need' etiam for necdum etiam). 
See § 6. 

M and n are related in such a way (as nasal sounds) that m is 
heard before m, b, and p, but n before the remaining consonants 
(comburo ; but concipio, condo ; turn, but tunc). Before the 
enclitic particles ne and que, m is retained (deorumne, hominum- 
qve). Before c (q) and g, n had the same sound as in the English 
word long. 

It now stands in many Latin words where there was formerly an 
S, since the Romans, with the exception of a few words (such as 
qvaeso, vasis, &c, from vas, asinus, miser), have changed s be- 

1 By German scholars ; but not by those of the English race, nor even by the Italian de- 
scendants of the Romans. (T.) 


twcen two vowels into r (Papirius, Veturius, for Papisius, Vetu- 
sius ; arborem for arbosem ; gero for geso, whence gessi ; oris for 
osis, from OS). S, however, always remains unchanged, when an- 
other consonant has been dropped before it (divisi for dividsi, from 
divido), or when it begins the last part of a compound word (de- 

§ 9. H is not a consonant, but the sign of a guttural aspiration 
of the vowel, so that two vowels with an h between them are con- 
sidered as immediately following each other, and the elision of a 
final vowel is not prevented by h (§ 6). Hence some words with 
h between two vowels are occasionally contracted (nihil and nil, 
prehendo and prendo, vehemens and vemens). At the beginning 
of some words, h was sometimes prefixed, and at other times omit- 
ted (arnndo, harundo ; ave, have ; hedera, edera ; hems, erus). 

In the earliest times the consonants were scarcely ever aspirated 
(pronounced with h) : afterwards this was done in Greek words 
(thesaurus, elephantus, delphinus), and in those of barbarous origin 
(rheda), but only in very few genuine Latin words ; as brachium, 
pulcher, triumphus (sepulchrum is incorrect), and in some proper 
names, as Cethegus, Gracchus. 

§ 10. A regard for Euphony and convenience of pronunciation 
has often much influence on the consonants in words, and leads to 
alterations in. them. 

At the end of words (as a final consonant), no consonant is 
doubled (we have therefore mel, fel, although the gen. is mellis, 
fellis) : no consonant is doubled before another in the middle of a 
word, except a mute before a liquid (effluo ; but falsum from fallo, 
cursum from curro). Yet among the words compounded with the 
prepositions trans and ex (ecs), we sometimes find transscribo, and 
frequently exspecto, exstinguo (ecsspecto), for expecto, extinguo. 
A consonant has sometimes been dropped from the end of a word 
which has no inflectional ending (sermo, sermonis ; cor, cordis ; 
lac, lactis). 

Changes take place more especially when consonants of a differ- 
ent character are brought together, either by the composition of 
words, or by the addition of an inflectional ending or of a suffix used 
in the formation of derivative words. 

Before a liquid, a tenuis (c, p, t) is often changed into the cor- 
responding media (b, g, d) (negligens from nee) ; and a media 
before a tenuis or s into the corresponding tenuis, in the pronuncia- 


tion, though not always in writing. G before t and s always be- 
comes c, as actus from ago, unxi (unc-si) from ungo ; and b before 
t and s generally becomes p, scriptus, scripsi ; yet we find both 
obtineo and optineo, absens, obsideo, urbs. 

Sometimes (by assimilation) a consonant was completely changed 
into that which succeeded it, — d, t, and b into s in cessi, fossum, 
passus, fassus, jussi, from cedo, fodio, patior, fateor, jubeo, d 
into c in qvicqvam, qvicqvid, n and r into 1 in corolla, agellus, 
from corona, ager, — especially the final consonant of the preposi- 
tions (attingo from ad and tango), in which case, however, the 
change was often not distinguished in writing (compare § 173 and 
204, Obs. 1). Sometimes one consonant disappeared entirely before 
another, particularly d and t before S : e.g. divisi for divid-si, from 
divido; mons for monts, nox for nocts (genitive noct-is), flexi 
for flectsi. 

§ 11. In order to facilitate the pronunciation, a vowel is some- 
times inserted between two consonants (e in ager, gen. agri; u in 
vinculum, which was also pronounced vinclum). On the other 
hand, a vowel was sometimes left out in familiar discourse, and here 
and there in writing' (by syncope, abbreviation) ; e.g. dextra for dex- 
tera, consumpse (instead of consumpssse, § 10) for consumpsisse. 
Abbreviations of this kind are frequent in the Comic w r riters. 

Ons. The oldest pronunciation of all nations shows itself inclined to 
certain combinations of sound, and averse to others ; and particular sounds 
are somewhat modified by different nations of kindred origin. Pronuncia- 
tion is also subject to very frequent changes, so long as the language 
remains unwritten. These are the causes of certain differences of pro- 
nunciation between the Greek and Latin languages ; e.g. in the sounds 
v and f, in final m and n, in the aspirate (which is the first sound of seve- 
ral words in Greek which in Latin begin with s:-e.g. V7t£Q, super ; vtto, 
sub; vh], silva; vg, sus). Hence also arise other differences in several 
particular words which were originally identical : e.g. an initial consonant 
has been dropped in Latin in uro {tCvq, comburo) and fallo (oqidlXoa), 
and in Greek in tm'£o) (strido). Such variations in the pronunciation and 
form of words show themselves also in the inflection, which has some- 
times preserved traces of an older form of the word; e.g. fluxi, struxi, 
from fluo, struo. 

§ 12. The orthography of the Romans was somewhat un- 
settled, even at one and the same given period, since some writers 
invariably followed the pronunciation, although even this, in some 


WOrda and forms, was not qnite definite and distinct (as in the ace. 
urbes or urbis) ; while others, on the contrary, in compound or 
derivative words, looked more to their origin (e.g. tamqvam, num- 
qvam, although they were pronounced as tanqvam or nunqvam), 
or adhered to an orthography which had been once adopted, though 
it no longer agreed with the pronunciation then in vogue. Far 
greater was the diversity in the orthography of different periods, 
inasmuch as the pronunciation also underwent many changes. 
On the whole, it is now best and safest to follow the orthography 
of the later Roman grammarians, which corresponds to the pronun- 
ciation of their times, or to a gradually established usage. In 
doubtful cases, we shall often find what is right by considering the 
origin of the words, and what may from thence be probably in- 
ferred as to their pronunciation (e.g. condicio from condicere)* 
But in editions of the works of the older writers, e.g. Cicero and 
Virgil, the antiquated orthography is retained in many words ; e.g. 
divom, volt (§ 5, a, Obs. 3). 

§ 13. In the manuscripts of the ancients, the words at the end of 
the lines were not divided accurately according to the syllables (syl- 
labae). A consonant between two vowels belongs to the last vowel, 
with which it is also combined in the pronunciation ; of two or more 
consonants, the last — or, if they can begin a Latin word, the last two 
— go with the following vowel, the other or others with the preceding 
(pa-tris, fa-scia, ef-fluo, perfec-tus, emp-tus). The double letter 
X, Avhich belongs partly to the preceding, partly to the following 
vowel, is best connected with the preceding. In words compounded 
with prepositions, the final consonant of the preposition is not sepa- 
rated from it (ab-eo, ad-eo, praeter-eo, so prod-eo, red-eo). 

Obs. 1. Latin words cannot begin with any other combinations of con- 
sonants than with a mute followed by 1 or r or s, with a tenuis (sc, sp, st), 
or s with a tenuis and r or 1 (splendor, scribo, spretus, stratus). Yet 
we find gnarus and (rarely) gnavus, gnatus. 

Obs. 2. In many books, however, according to a very prevalent tradi- 
tional usage, the words are so divided, that all those consonants likewise, 
which can begin a word in Greek, and all mutes with liquids (even if they 
cannot begin a Greek word, e.g. gin), and, finally, similar combinations 
of two mutes (e.g. gd and ct), are attached to the syllable following 
(i-gnis, o-nmis, ra-ptus, Ca-dmus, i-pse, scri-psi, Le-sbos, a-gmen, 
Da-phne, rhy-thmus, smara-gdus). 




§ 14. The pronunciation of the syllables varies according to the 
duration of the sound (the quantity of the syllables) and the ac- 
centuation. In the pronunciation of the Romans themselves, the 
distinction of quantity, which also controls the place of the accent 
in Latin, was the most marked and perceptible ; and euphony de- 
pends on this, both in prose and verse. But in the modern pronun- 
ciation of Latin (as in our own and in modern languages generally), 
the difference of accent only is commonly heard with distinctness, 
— and indeed with more stress than was the case with the ancients ; 
while the difference of quantity is only observable in particular 
cases, and not in all the successive syllables which the speaker 

§ 15. Some syllables are long, some short; to the first is given 
twice the duration (mora) of the last ; a very few only are doubt- 
ful (ancipites), so that they may be pronounced either way. A 
syllable is long either by nature, when its vowel has of itself the 
long, continued pronunciation ; e.g. sol, trado (§ 5, a), or by the posi- 
tion of its vowel, when the vowel-sound, which is in itself short, 
must be sustained for a longer time, on account of two or more con- 
sonants following it, as in the first syllable in ossis. 

Obs. In the old pronunciation, it was distinctly perceived by the ear 
whether a vowel before two or more consonants was long in itself, with- 
out any reference to position (as in mons, gentis; pax, gen. pacis; est, 
for edit) , or whether the vowel itself was short, and the syllable conse- 
quently only long by position (as in fax, gen. facis ; est from sum) ; but 
we are often unacquainted with this distinction, since we generally ascertain 
the quantity of syllables only from the usage of the poets, where, if a 
vowel is long by position, its nature is of no importance. 

§ 1G, a. All diphthongs are long. 

Obs. The diphthong ae in prae is shortened before a vowel in com- 
pound words; e.g. praeacutus: but in all other (Greek) words, it is 
always long, even before a vowel ; e.g. Aeolides, Aeetes. 

1 The Greek word npocudia (properly an accompanying song, a tone accompanying 
the pronunciation) signifies at first the accentuation ; but at a later period it was used also to 
denote the quantity (length or shortness) of the syllables, and the rules relating to it. 


/>. Every vowel before another vowel in the same word (even if 
an h be interposed, § 9) is pronounced short (deus, contraho, ad- 

From this rule are excepted, — 

1 . e before i after a vowel in the genitive and dative of the fifth de- 
clension (diei, but fidei). 

2. a in the resolved genitive in ai in the first declension (mensai). 

3. i in the genitives in ius (alius, &c, for alterius. See § 37, 
Obs. 2). 

•L a and e before i in the vocative of proper names in jus in the sec- 
ond declension (Gai, Pompei). 

5. The first vowel in the interjections eheu and one (but also one), in 
the adjective dius, sometimes in the proper name Diana (more frequently 
Diana), and in all the forms from fio, except flerem (fieres, &c.) and 

C. Greek words in which the vowel retains the quantity which it has in 
Greek ; aer, eos, herons, Menelaus. In such words, therefore, e and i 
are long before another vowel, when r\ or u occur in the Greek (Briseis, 
Medea, Aeneas, Alexandria or Alexandria, Epicureus, Spondeus ; 
chorea alone is sometimes chorea) ; on the other hand, they are short 
when the Greek has £ or i (idea, philosophia). But we find academia 

Obs. At the end of a word, a long vowel or ae may sometimes be 
shortened in verse before a vowel following, instead of being elided. 
Compare § 502, b. 

§ 17. Vowels formed by contraction and syncope in the middle of 
words are long (cogo from coago, malo from magevolo, tibicen 
from tibiicen, junior from jlivenior). 

§ 18. The quantity of the radical syllables of words which are not 
monosyllables cannot be determined by rules ; but the radical sylla- 
bles and their vowels retain the same quantity in all inflections of 
the word, and in all its derivatives and compounds, even if the vowel 
be changed into another cognate vowel : e.g. mater, maternus ; 
pater, paternus ; scribo, scrlbere, scriba, conscribere ; amo, 
amor, amicus, amicitia, inlmicitiae ; cado, incido ; caedo, in- 
cido. In the same way, the vowel of a particular form of inflec- 
tion retains the same quantity in the further modifications of this 
form, and in the words derived from it : e.g. docebam, docebamus, 
docebamini ; amatus, amaturus ; monltum, admonltio. 

From this rule are excepted, — 

1. Inflections, a. Perfects in i, formed without reduplication, which 


lengthen the first syllable, unless one vowel stands before another (see 
§ 103, b) ; b. Perfects and supines (with the forms derived from them), 
in which the last radical consonant of the verb has been dropped before 
si, sum, turn (divido, divisi, divisum; video, visum; moveo, motum ; 
cado, casum) ; c. Posui, positum, from pono ; d. Some monosyllable 
nominatives of words of the third declension, in which the vowel is 
long, though the radical syllable in the other cases is short (see § 21, 

2. Derivatives, a. humanus (homo) ; secius (secus) ; rex, regis, 
regula (rego) ; lex, legis (lego) ; tegula (tego) ; suspicio (suspicor) ; 
vox, vocis (voco) ; sedes (sedeo) ; persona (sono) : b. ambitus, 
ambitio (ambitum from ambire) ; condicio (condico) ; dicax, and 
the words in dicus (maledicus, &c.) from dico ; dux, diicis (duco) ; 
fides, perfidus (fido, fidus, infidus) ; nota, notare (notus) ; paciscor 
(pax, pacis) ; sopor (sopire) ; labo (labor, labi) ; lucerna (luceo) ; 
molestus (moles). From stare come both staturus and statio, sta- 

3. Compounds, dejero, pejero (juro) ; cognitus, agnitus (notus) ; 
proniibus, inniibus (nubo). For connubium, we have also coiinii- 
bium (or connubjum, according to § 5, a, Obs. 4). 

Obs. If a word with a particular grammatical termination becomes the 
first part of a compound, or has an additional syllable appended to it, 
the quantity of the termination remains unchanged : e.g. qvapropter, 
qvatenus (qva) ; mecum, memet (me) ; qvilibet (qvi) ; alioqvi 
(alio) ; introduce (intro) ; agricultura (agri). (Yet we find siqvidem 
from si, qvandoqvidem from qvando.) 

§ 19. The quantity of those syllables by which derivative words 
are formed, and of the penults of inflectional endings, is noticed in 
its proper place among the rules for the formation and inflection of 
words. We now give the rules by which the quantity of the final 
syllabic may be determined, both in monosyllables and words of more 
than one syllable. 

In the termination of words of more than one syllable, which end 
in a vowel, — 

1. a is short in nouns (mensa, nom. and voc, ligna, animalia, 
Palladia), except in the abl. sing, of the first declension (mensa), 
and in the voc. of nouns in as (Aenea ; Palla, from Pallas, Pal- 
lantis) ; but long in verbs in the imperative (ama) ; and in inde- 
clinable words (intra, extra, erga, antea, quadraginta), except 
ita, quia, eja, and puta, signifying for example. 

2. e is short (patre, curre, nempe, prope, facile, legere, hosce, 
reapss, suopte) except in the ablative of the fifth declension (spe- 


cie), in the imperative of the second conjugation (mone), in the 
adverbs in e formed from adjectives in us (docte), together with 
fere, ferine, ohe, hodie, and in Greek words in ?/ (crambe, Tempe). 
But the adverbs bene, male, inferne, and superne, have the e 

Obs. The poets use also some dissyllable imperatives of the second 
conjugation, the first syllable of which is short, with a short final syllable ; 
e.g. cave, habe, vale, vide, tace. The ablative of fames (third de- 
clension) has the e long, fame. 

3. i is long (pnerl, gen. and norm, patri, fructui, vidi, videri) ; 
short only in the voc. of Greek words in tg (Pari), and in nisi, 
qvasl (and cul, when considered as a dissyllable) ; either long or 
short in milii, tibi, sibi, ibi, ubl From ubl are formed necubf, 
sicubl, ubivis, ubinain, ublqve, ubicunqve.) 

4. o is most frequently long in the nominative case of nouns, and 
in the first person of verbs, but occasionally short (in the later poets 
especially) ; in Greek words in co, it is always long (lo, Echo) ; 
long in case-endings of the second declension ; in amto, and in 
adverbs (e.g. porro, quo, falso, qvando, idcireo, vulgo, omnino, 
ergo), with the exception of modo (with its compounds, tantum- 
modo, dummodo, qvomodo), cito, inuno ; it is short in duo, oeto, 
ego, cedo (tell me), endo (for in). 

Obs. The poets of the silver age also use the adverbs ergo (there- 
fore), qvando, porro, postremo, sero, and the ablative of the gerund 
(vigilando) with a short o (always qvandoqvidem). 

5. u is always long (cornu, diu) ; y, occurring in a very few Greek 
words, is short (moly). 

§ 20. All final syllables of words of more than one syllable, which 
end in any (single) consonant except s, are short (donee, ilitid, 
consul, amem, carmen, forsitan, amer, amaretur, ager, pater, 
caput, amat), except alec, lien, compounds of par (dispar), cases 
(except the nom. masc.) and adverbs from illic and istic (illoo, 
iliac), and except Greek words with a Greek form, which retain 
their original quantity (aer, accus. aera, aether ; crater, accus. 
crateras; Siren, Aenean, Calliopen, Epigranimaton). But the 
ending coo is shortened into or (Hector, rhetor, from "Extcoq, 

Of the final syllables in s, — 

1. as is long (mensas, aetas, amas), except in anas (anatis), 


in Greek nominatives in as, gen. adis (Ilia/3), and in the Greek 
accus. plur. of the third declension (heroas). 

2. es is long (clade3, aedes, nom. sing, reges, series, ame3, 
dices, qvoties), except, — a. The nominatives sing, of the third 
declension, which have in the gen. etis, liis, Idfs (ceges, miles, 
obses) ; the following, however, with etis in the gen., have es long: 
abies, aries, paries, b. Compounds of es (from sum), ades, abes, 
potes. c. The preposition penes, d. Greek nominatives plur. of 
the third declension in eg (crateres, Arcades), e. Greek neuters 
in eg (Cynosarges, Hippomanes). 

3. is is short (ignis, regis, facills, dicis), excepting, a. in the 
dat. and abl. plur. (mensis, pueris, nobis, vobis), and in the accus. 
plur. of the third declension (omnis for omnes) ; b. in gratis (gra- 
tiis), foris ; c. in the second pers. sing. pres. of the fourth conjugation 
(audis), and in the verbs vis, sis (adsis, possis, &c), fis, veils, 
noils, malls, and often in the second person of the future perfect 
and perfect subjunctive (amaveris) ; d. in the nominatives Qviris, 
Samnis, Salamis, Eleusis, Simois. 

4. os is long (honos, multos, illos), except in compos, impos, 
and in the Greek termination of cases in og (Delos, nom. Erinnyos, 

5. ns is short (annus, tempus, vettis, fontibus, legimus, tenus, 
funditus) except, a. in the gen. sing, and nom. and ace. plur. of the 
fourth declension (senatiis, but in the nom. sing, senatus) ; b. in 
the nominatives of the third declension, which have long u in the 
genitive (virtus, virtutis ; palus, paludis ; tellus, telluris) ; c. in 
the Greek gen. ovg in the third declension (Sapphus), and in some 
Greek proper names with ovg in the nom. (Panthus, Melampus), 
but (Oedipus, Oedipi). 

G. ys, in Greek words, is short ; e.g. Cotys. 

§ 21. 1. All words of one syllable, which end in a vowel, are 
long (a, e, ne, that not ; da) ; only those particles which are attached 
to the end of other words are short (qye, ve, and the interroga- 
tive ne). 

2. Of words of one syllable which end in a consonant, it is to be 
observed, — 

a. Those which are declined or conjugated follow the general 
rules for final syllables (das, fles, scis, dat, stat, flet, qvls nom. 
Is, Id, his, qvls dat. and abl., qvi, qvos, qvas, hoc, hac) ; es from 
sum is short, from edo long. 


b. The nominatives of substantives and adjectives are long (os, 
gen. oris ; mos, as, sol, ver, fur, plus), even if the radical vowel 
in the other eases is short, (lar, sal, pes, mas, bos, vas, gen. vadis, 
par) ; but vir, cor, fol, lac, mel, os, gen. ossis, arc short. The pro- 
noun bio is either long or short ; llOC is long. 

c. Words that do not vary are short (ab, ob, per, at, qvot, nee) ; 
but the following are long: en, non, qvln, sin, eras, cur, and the 
adverbs in C (lllC, hue, Sic). 

d. The imperatives die, duo, fao, and fer, retain the quantity of 
their verbs. 

§ 22. A syllable -with a short vowel is long by position, when it 
ends either with two consonants or a double consonant (amabunt, 
fax) ; or when the syllable itself ends in a. consonant, while the next, 
either in the same or another word, begins with a consonant 
(dantis, inferretqve, passus sum) ; or when the next syllable of the 
same word begins with two consonants which are not a mute and 
r or 1, or with j (resto, major) : j, when standing between two 
vowels, is, as it were, doubled in pronunciation. But it does not 
constitute position in the compounds of jugum (bijugus, qvadriju- 

If the next syllable of the same word begins with a mute and 
1 or r, only weak position (positio debilis) results, i.e. the syllable 
may be used as either long or short ; e.g. patris, tenebrae, medio- 
cris, vepres, poples, Atlas, assecla, as in this verse of Ovid (Met. 
XIII. G07) : Et primo similis volucri, mox vera volucris; 
and the following of Virgil (JEn. II. C63) : ETatum ante ora pa- 
tris, patrem qui obtruncat ad aras. (We always have ob-repo, 
sub-rlgo, &c., when the mute and the liquid belong severally to 
their part of the compound. If the vowel be long by nature, the 
same quantity, of course, holds, Avithout any reference to the posi- 
tion , as in salubris, from salus, ambulacrum, delubrum.) 

Ous. 1. In certain words, however, overy-day use, as well as the prac- 
tice of particular poets, has established a certain custom, so that in some 
the vowel is almost always lengthened, as in the inflected cases of niger and 
piger (nigri, pigri) ; in others never, as in arbitror. In prose, that sylla- 
ble which is only lengthened by positio debilis is always pronounced 
short (tenebrae). 

J. 2. In Greek words, weak position is also formed by a mute with 
m or n (Cycnus, Tgcmessa, Daphne). 

. 3. If a word ends with a short vowel, and the following begins 


with two consonants or a double consonant, no lengthening by position 
takes place (praeniia scribae, ilice glandis, nemorosa Zacynthos). 

Ons. 4. The oldest poets (before Virgil and Horace) often allow s as 
a final consonant (on account of a certain weakness in the pronunciation) 
to form no position with the following initial consonant ; e.g. certissi- 
mus nuntius mortis, or certissimu' nuntiu' mortis. 

Ons. 5. Since the lengthening of syllables by position is quite distinct 
from the proper length of the vowels, the older Comic poets have often 
thought themselves justified in disregarding it. 

Ons. G. The poets allow themselves, in certain defined cases, to supply 
the place of a long syllabic in a verse with a short one ; but this is 
founded on the structure of the verse, not on the nature of the syllable. 
(See § 502. a.) 

§ 23. In every word, the accent falls on a particular syllable, and 
is either acute or circumflex, but is not distinguished in writing. 
(In books of instruction, the acute accent is designated by i, the 
circumflex by i). 

Monosyllables have the circumflex accent, if the vowel is long by 
nature ; otherwise, the acute accent. 

In words of more than one syllable, the last (ultima) is never 
accentuated. In dissyllables, therefore, the accent falls on the first. 
In words of three or more syllables, it falls on the penult, if this be 
long; but if this be short, on the antepenult. The accent on the 
penult is a circumflex, if the vowel be long by nature (not the syl- 
lable only by position) and the last syllable short ; otherwise, an 
acute ; on the antepenult it is never a circumflex (Boma, Homa, 
homo, lectus; Romanus, Romanas, Metellus, mdribus, carmi- 
nibus, homines). 

Obs. 1. In compounds of facio with other words than prepositions 
(palamfacio, calefacio), the accent always remains on facio (cale- 

Obs. 2. If a new word is formed by the addition of qve, the accent fol- 
lows the general rule (itaqve, uterqve) ; but if qve, ne, ve, are attached 
to a word as enclitics, the accent is thrown on the last syllable of the word 
(itaqve = et ita, Musaqve in the abl., Musaqve in the nom.). 




§ 24. Words (verba or voces) are divided according to their 
different uses in speech into certain Classes (partes oraticnis, 
classes of words = parts of speech) . 

1. The word by which a thing (a conception) is expressed inde- 
pendently, is called a noun substantive, nomen substantivum, 
(from substantia, existence) : e.g. vir, the man ; domus, the house ; 
actio, the action. It either denotes a thing with reference to its 
kind and the general idea, which may comprise a number of indi- 
vidual objects (an appellative or common noun, nomen appella- 
tivum), e.g. corpus, ovis, flos ; or a single defined object without 
reference to its kind or the general idea (a proper name, nomen 
proprium), e.g. Lucius, Sempronius, Roma. 

2. The word by which a thing is named and defined according 
to some quality or attribute appertaining to it, is called a noun 
adjective, nomen adjectivum ; e.g. magnus, great. "When joined 
to the substantive, it forms a descriptive appellation ; e.g. vir mag- 
nus (the property itself is expressed by magnitude). 

Substantives and Adjectives are comprised in the class of nouns. 

A noun which denotes a number, is called a numeral, nomen 
numerale, and is usually an adjective, inasmuch as it serves to 
describe a thing by its number ; e.g. tres homines. The number, 
however, may be conceived and described as a thing by itself, and 
the word is then a substantive ; e.g. millia, thousands. 

Instead of naming an object, we may designate it by pointing to 
some relation in which it stands. An indicative word of this kind 
is called a pronoun : e.g. hie, this here ; ille, that there ; ego, /; tu, 
thou. A pronoun may either be employed alone, to denote the idea, 
and then it stands as a substantive, e.g. ego, tu, hie ; or it may be 
combined with a substantive to define it more precisely, and then it 
is an adjective, e.g. hie, vir, ilia, domus. 

Ojj.s. 1. Numerals and pronouns are not distinct classes of words in 
the same tense as the rest, since their use in the sentence is not different 
from that of the other nomina; they belong, therefore, to the class of 
nouns. In their inflection, they have some peculiarities. 


Obs. 2. The Latin language does not distinguish, like the English and 
many other languages, by the addition of" a word (the article), whether 
a substantive is intended to denote a definite person or thing, or an 
indefinite one amongst several of the same kind: e.g. vir, the man, and 
a man; viri, the men, and simply men, — as the context may determine. 

3. A verb is that word which expresses the idea of an action, 
or condition of a thing, and thus forms an assertion, or proposition : 
e.g. vir sedet, the man sits ; puer currit, the boy runs. (The action 
or condition in itself is called sessio, cursus.) 

From the verb are derived certain forms, which are used as nouns, 
either to denote the action or condition more independently, e.g. 
legendo, by reading ; or to specify and describe some object, to 
which the action or condition appertains as a quality : e.g. liber lec- 
tus, the book read; vir legens, the man reading. The substantive 
forms are called the Supine and Gerund ; the adjective form is 
termed the Participle. 

4. An adverb is a word which serves only for a stricter defini- 
tion of a description (with an adjective), or of an assertion (with 
a verb) : e.g. vir valde magnus, a very great man ; eqvus celeriter 
currit, the horse goes swiftly. 

5. Words which only denote a relation to a thing are called pre- 
positions (from praeponere, to put before) : e.g. in, in ; apud, with ; 
or at the house of; as, in urbe, in the town. 

6. Conjunctions mark the combination of individual words or 
whole sentences, and their connection in discourse: e.g. et, and; as, 
vir et femina, the man and the woman ; vir sedet et puer currit. 

Obs. Prepositions, conjunctions, and the adverbs derived from pro- 
nouns, are also called Particles. The same word may at one and the 
same time show the connection of two propositions; and by this con- 
nection define the assertion more exactly (e.g. turn venit, qvum ego 
absum), so that certain adverbs and conjunctions are intimately con- 
nected with each other. 

7. The interjections are mere sounds, which are called forth 
by certain feelings, but represent no idea ; as, ah ! They are there- 
fore only improperly called words. 

§ 25. Nouns and verbs are inflected (fleetuntur, declinantur) ; 
i.e. altered in their form, in order to denote the various connections 
and relations of words in a proposition, and the various kinds of 
propositions. The change generally takes place only in the last 
part of the word ; the remaining part is more rarely varied either 


in the pronunciation (veni from venio), or by a prefix (tetigi from 

Of the adverbs, only a few have a certain inflection (that of com- 
parison) : the remaining adverbs, with the prepositions, conjunc- 
tions, and interjections, are indeclinable. 

Obs. Inflection sprung in part from the custom of subjoining certain 
words, which in pronunciation gradually became incorporated with those 
words to which they were appended, and could no longer be distin- 
guished (as e.g. the personal endings of the verbs originated from pro- 
nouns), and in part from the pronunciation alone, which varied according 
to the way in which an idea was conceived or combined with other ideas : 
in this way originated the lengthening of the radical vowel (veni), or the 
reduplication (tetigi) in the perfect. 

§ 26. That which remains of a word capable of inflection, after 
the variable terminations or affixes are removed, is called the stem, 
to which the signification of the word properly belongs : e g. ama- 
tor in amator-i, amator-es ; leg in leg-o, leg-is, leg-tint In 
most Latin words, the stem does not appear alone, but only as 
united with some termination. The stem and termination are fre- 
quently so incorporated that one or both undergo some modification. 

Obs. From the stem, we must distinguish the root; i.e. the original, 
simple primary word, which has received no accession of any kind. For 
many words not only have terminations of inflection, but are previously 
formed from other words by derivation and composition. 




§ 27. The Latin substantives are considered as being either of 
the Masculine gender or the Feminine, or neither of the two : the 
last class is comprised under the appellation Neuter gender. The 
adjectives and participles have generally different forms, according 
to the gender of the substantive to which they belong: e.g. masc. 
vir magnus, a great man ; fern, femina magna, a great woman ; 

1 Bedlnatio properly signifies any grammatical inflection, but is now more particularly 
used in this restricted sense. 


neutr. folium magnum, a great leaf. In some words, the gender 
may be determined from the signification, but in by far the greater 
number it must be inferred from the termination. 

Obs. 1. The names of things, which have not, like living creatures, any 
actual sex, are often referred to the masculine or feminine gender, 
because in certain relations of things the imagination discovered a resem- 
blance with male or female qualities. But this comparison was very for- 
tuitous, so that no fixed rule can be founded on it ; and one often fails to 
perceive the ground for the determination, especially as in many in- 
stances words have changed their signification. From the termination, on 
the other hand, we can draw an inference as to the gender ; because 
many derivative and some inflectional endings (especially in the nom. and 
accus.) have been applied according to the gender of the words. 

Obs. 2. The gender of some words may be explained from the consider- 
ation, that they are properly adjectives, in which case regard is had to an 
omitted substantive ; so, for instance, annalis is masc. because liber is 
masc. Greek words generally retain the same gender which they have in 

§ 28, a. The following are Masculine, without reference to the 
ending. All general and particular appellations of men and beings 
of the male sex (vir, the man ; scriba, the clerk ; consul, the con- 
sul ; poeta, the poet; Deus, God; genius, the genius); the male 
of animals (aries, the ram ; verres, the boar ; taurus, the bull) ; 
and the names of rivers and winds (Tiberis, Albis, Sequana, 
Garumna, Cremera, Etesiae). Of rivers, some few in a are ex- 
cepted, particularly Allia (Matrona, Albula) and the imaginary 
rivers Lethe and Styx in the lower world, which are feminine ; 
with some of barbarous origin (i.e. neither Latin nor Greek) in r, 
(e.g. Elaver), which are neuter. 

Obs. 1. Words which are only improperly used of a man, and strictly 
denote an impersonal object, are regulated by their termination and proper 
meaning: as, mancipium, a slave (strictly, property) ; acroama, a flute- 
player or jester (strictly, entertainment for the ear). So also words which 
are used in an improper sense of men taken collectively : e.g. vigiliae, 
sentinels ; auxilia, auxiliary troops. 

Obs. 2. The names of the months are masculine, as adjectives belong- 
ing to the word mensis understood, which is masculine; e.g. Aprilis 
(frequently mensis Aprilis). 

b. The following are Feminine. All appellations of women and 
female beings : uxor, the wife ; soror, the sister ; socrus, the mother- 
in-law ; Dea, the goddess; nympha, the nymph. The only excep- 

I. \l IN QRAMMAE. § 30 

ticms an the terms of reproach scortum and prostibulum, which 

originally did not signify • person. 

ie names of trees and towns with certain endings are also fem- 
inine, although these endings do not otherwise imprj this gender. (Sec 
§ 39, I and e, and § 47.) 

§ 29. General names of persons, in which the distinction of sex 
is not thought of, are masculine; e.g. hostis, enemy: but some 

of them may be Used Bfl feminities, if a woman bo expressly referred 
to, ami these are therefore called Common ; e.g. civis Gaditanus, 
civis Gaditana. Such words arc adolescens, a young man or 
woman ; affinis, a male or female relative ; antistes, a priest or 
prit stess (though the latter is commonly expressed by antistlta) ; 
artifex, artist ; civis, citizen ; comes, attendant ; conjux, husband 
or wife (generally the latter) ; dux, leader (male or female) ; 
heres, heir or heiress; hostis, enemy; infans, infant; interpres, 
interpreter ; municeps, citizen (of the same municipal town) ; 
obses, hostage; parens, father or mother; patruelis, cousin; 
sacerdos, priest or priestess ; satelles, body-guard; vates, seer. 

Obs. 1. The poets use also as common, — auctor, author; augur, 
soothsayer', custos, guardian; hospes, host or guest -(the feminine is 
better hospita) ; judex, judge ; juvenis, youth; miles, soldier; par, 
comrade; testis, witness, 

Ous. '1. Some other words, though used sometimes of persons of the 
female sex, and in apposition to feminine substantives, are never them- 
selves found as feminine substantives with an adjective ; e.g. index, vin- 
dex, incola (vox index stultitiae). 

§ 30, a. The names of the different classes and species of ani- 
mals have usually a particular gender, either masculine or fem- 
inine, which is known by the termination, without reference to 
the actual sex of the animal named: e.g. the masculines, cancer, 
crab ; corvus, raven ; passer, sparrow ; piscis, fsh ; and the 
feminine*, avis, bird; anas, duck; aqvila, eagle; feles, cat; 
vulpes, fox. These are called epicene (epicoena 1 ). The actual 
sex of the particular animal is denoted by the addition of 
mas (male), or femina (female) : e.g. anas mas, drake (also with 
the adjective masculus, anas mascula) ; vulpes femina, fox 

i 'EiTTiKQiva, common to both genders. 

§ 32 

ft, 8 of rlsssos vi animals, nrnislly mfitr 1 ^"' 

(as ii.uiiis of common gend< feminine, if it i»«- intended 

ite a female, particularly bos, ox ; in the 
tonally, lepus, mus, elephantus, anser ; e.g. mures 
praegnantes repertae sunt (Plin, Blaj.). 

riir names ft' lome species of animal- are need (without i 
enoe to the individual) l *« » 1 1 1 in the masculine and tin- feminini 
uncertain is angvis, tnake; canis, dog; camelus, c a mel ; 

damn, grus (almost always feminine), crone; serpens, 

nt; sus (usually feminine), boar, or sot*; talpa (generally 
masculine), mole ; tigris, tiger* They are always used as femin- 
ine! when a female i> expressly spoken of. 

in the name of some species of animals, a proper feminine form 
is derived to denote tin- female: e.g. agnus, lamb, agna; cervus, 

cerva, hind; eqvus, horee, ttaUion, eqva, mare; galius, 
galiina, hen. On the other hand, from the feminines simia, <!]><■; coltl- 
bra, snake; lacerta, lizard; luscmia, nightingale, — which an- gen- 
erally used as epieenes of the whole class, — a masculine form, 
simius, coluber, lacertus, luscinius, is sometime given. (Columba 
ami columbus, </"(v, as a class; columbus, the male; columba, the- 

§31. Tin' following are Neuter. All indeclinable substantives: 

e.g. fas, right; nefas, wrong; gummi, gum ; and all words which 
are used as substantives, without being actually such; eg. scire 
tuum, your knowledge ; also every word quoted with a view t<> it> 
form merely : e.g. hoc ipsum diu, this very v<>nl did ; arx est 
monosyllabum, akx is a monoeySahle. For this reason, also, the 
names of the letters are neuter; though they are sometimes used as 
feminine, with a reference to littera understood. 

I, So likewise the names of ships and dramatic compositions, even 
though they be not feminine, take feminine adjectives; navis, the ship; 
or fabula, the play, being understood (per syiiesim, according to the 
signification) ; e.g. Eunuchus acta est (Svet.), the play entitled Eunu- 
ehus ; Ceutauro invehitur magna (Virg.), the great ship Centaur. (The 
same occurs, though more rarely, and only in some particular miters, 

with the namei of plant-, herba being under.-; 

•in language distinguishes between the S 

and the l'l.t i:\t.. 

In order to express] the connection and relations, of ideas, nouns 



§ 33 

have six forma or casks (casus; strictly, falls); casus nominati- 
vus (by which the thing is named) ; accusativus (which denotes 
the object of an action ; e.g. pater castlgat filium, the father chas- 
tises his son) ; vocativus (by which a person is called to) ; geni- 
tivus (which denotes a connection or possession ; e.g. domus patris, 
the father s house) ; dativus (which denotes the person to whom 
any thing is given ; e.g. pater dat filio librum, the father gives his 
son a booh) ; ablativus (which denotes means, place, circumstances, 
&c. ; e.g. hasta, with the spear). 

All substantives do not, however, have different forms for all 
these cases in both numbers. In the plural, the dative and ablative 
are always alike. In all neuter words, the nominative and accusa- 
tive are always the same. The vocative is distinguished from 
the nominative in only a very few genuine Latin words (in the 
second declension), never in the plural, or in words of the neuter 

Obs. The nominative and vocative are termed casus recti, the others 
obliqvi; but the accusative, both in its form and application, is more 
nearly related to the nominative than to the other cases. 

§ 33. The case-endings are not the same in all words. 
There are five kinds of inflection or declensions, of which the 
endings are, — 


Decl. 1. 






a (e, as, es) 

us, er 

s, (or 



n. um 

undetermined) . 

N. U 


a (e, a) 

e — 





am (en) 


em (im) 

N. like the nom. 

um, u 












ui, u 











i, N. a 

es, N. a (ia) 

us, N. ua 




i, n. a 

es, n. a (ia) 

us, n. ua 




os, n. a 







um (ium) 







ibus (ubus) 






ibus (ubus) 





One. 1. There are properly bu1 two teriei of endings; bu1 they are 
connected In different ways with the item, and also occasionally inter- 
mixed. In the firs1 and second declension, tin- endings, which were 
originallj alike, have become united with the la-t vowel of tin- stem (in 
the first declension a, in the second a, according to the older pronuncia- 
tion 6), or have expelled it. The third and fourth declensions have the 
same endings: bu1 in the third declension, the stem ends in a conso- 
nant; in the fourth, inn. In the fifth declension, the Btem ends in e; 
and the endings arc partly those of the first and second, partly tho 
the third declension. 

OBS. 2. It cannot always be known by the nominative alone to which 
declension a word belongs, because this case maj have the same ending 
in different declensions ; e.g. an in the second, third, and fourth. 

Obs. ;'». Of the Greek substantives which have been adopted into the 
Latin language, those which were most frequently used, and were intro- 
duced at the earliest period, acquired a completely Latin form, occasion- 
ally with some change in the stem. From the Greek word ttoi/ji^' 
is formed, for example, the Latin poeta; from yaorr^ (masc.) the Latin 
charta (fern.). Other Greek words, on the contrary, retained their 
Greek form and ending: e.g. dwuGti^, dynastes ; ' ' AyyiGr^, Anchlses. 
In some of the cases, these words have partially Greek inflections. 
Writers vary from each other in this respect, sometimes keeping nearer to 
the Latin, sometimes to the Greek form. Where both are in use, it is 
better to adhere to the former in writing Latin. 

Obs. 4. For the peculiarities in the declension of the numerals and pro- 
nouns, see chapters xi. and xii. 



§ 34. All originally Latin words of the first declension end in the 
nominative in a, and are declined as follows : — 

(mensa, table ; scriba, clerk.) 






mens a 

mens ae 

scrib a 

scrib ae 


mens a 

mens ae 

scrib a 

scrib ae 


mens am 

meii3 as 

scrib am 

scrib as 


mens ae 

mens arum 

scrib ae 

scrib arum 


mens ae 

mens is 

scrib ae 

scrib is 


mens a 

mens Is 

scrib a 

scrib is 



In this way are declined also the adjectives and participles in a 
(fern.) ; as, magna, great : picta, painted : mensa rotunda, a round 


Obs. 1. In the older poets, ae of the gen. sing, is sometimes resolved 
into ai; e.g. aulai, pictai (Virg.). 

I >B8. 2. At :i very early period, the gen. sometimes ended in as. 
Hence the word faniilia, family, when it is compounded with pater, 
mater, filius, filia, has the gen. familias ; e.g. paterfamilias, father 
<f a family (ace. patremfamilias, gen. patrisfamilias, &c.) ; plur. 
patresfamilias, fathers of families ; though Ave find also paterfamiliae, 

Obs. 3. In the gen. plur. of some words, um, archaic (as in the third 
declension), is used instead of arum, especially drachmum, amphbrum 
(with the addition of a numeral ; trium amphorum), for drachmarum, 
amphorarum ; by the poets also in the words in gena and c51a (from 
gigno, to beget, to bear; and colo, to till) ; e.g. terrigena, earthbom ; 
coelicola inhabitant of heaven; and in patronymics in des ; e.g. 
Aeneadum for Aeneadarum ; so also in some Greek names of peoples ; 
e.g. Lapithum for Lapitharum. 

Obs. 4. Some few words, which have masculines in us corresponding 
to them in the second declension, particularly dea, goddess, and filia, 
daughter (deus, filius), rarely liberta, f reed-woman (libertus), and a 
few others, have in the dat. and abl. plur., besides the regular form (is), 
another, abus; e.g. dis deabusqve omnibus (Cic), cum duabus fili- 
abus virginibus (Liv.). 

Obs. o. Concerning the gen. and dat. of una, sola, and some other 
adjectives in a, see § 37, Obs. 2. 

§ 35. Greek Forms. To the first declension belong some 
Greek words and proper names in e, as, and es (v, ag, ijg), which 
are somewhat irregular in the singular (see § 33, Obs. 3). 

(epitSme, abridgment ; Aeneas, a proper name ; anagnostes, reader.') 


epitSm e 

Aene as 

anagnost es 


epitom e 

Aene a 

anagnost a 


epitom en 

Aene am 

anagnost en 

(Aene an) 

(anagnost am) 


epitom es 

Aene ae 

anagnost ae 


epitom ae 

Aene ae 

anagnost ae 


epitom e 

Aene a 

anagnost a (anagnost e) 


Obs. 1. The greater number of coiomoo nouni in e, especially the 
names of the arts and sciences in ce (e.g. muslce, log!ce),ha\e also (ami 
this is to lie preferred) the purely Latin form, — musica, logica, musi- 
cam, &C. Of proper names, some have ahno>t always the Latin form, 
e.g. Helena, Creta; others most frequently the Greek, as Circe; but in 
this reaped writers differ. 

In answer to the question, where'.' the names of towns always ha\ e tin; 
Latin genitive; as, Sinopae, at Sinope. 

Obs. 2. The Greek nominative as was sometimes changed by the older 
writers, and in the language of common life to a; e.g. Mena, Appella. 
In the accusative, am is most common in prose-writers, an in the 

Obs. 3. Words in es rarely have the Latin form of the nom. in a, either 
in proper names (e.g. Aeeta), or in common nouns (e.g. sophista, better 
sophistes), except in words which have been completely Latinized, and 
never have a Greek form ; e.g. poeta. The voc., besides the termination 
a (Atrida), has also e, when this termination occurs in Greek (in patro- 
nymics, e.g. Atride) ; sometimes a (e.g. Anchisa, Virg.). 

Obs. 4. Of the proper names in es, which in Greek belong to the first 
declension, some are declined in Latin according to the third (Aeschi- 
nes, Apelles, those in des which are not patronymics, e.g. Alcibiades, 
Euripides; and barbaric names, as Astyages, Xerxes). In the accus., 
however, they have likewise en ; as, in the first declension, Aeschinem. 
Some are found declined in both ways ; e.g. Orestes (mostly like the 
third). The common noun acinaces, a sabre, follows the third declen- 
sion ; sorites (the name of an argument in logic) is declined in the sing, 
according to the third, in the plural according to the first declension. 
Satrapes, a satrap, which follows the first, has, however, also the gen. 
satrapis (Third Declension). 

§ 36. Gender. All substantives of the first declension in a are 
feminine, if they are not appellations of men (as, scrlba, clerk; 
nauta, sailor; collega, colleague; auriga, charioteer; advena, 
new-comer) ; or names of rivers (see § 28, a). Hadria, the Adri- 
atic, is also masculine. (With respect to dama, talpa, see § 30, a.) 

Words in e are feminine, those in as and es masculine; e.g. 
cometes. All in as are proper names. 




§ 37. "Words of the second declension end mostly in us and 
(neat.) um, some in er. They are declined in the following 
manner : — 



domin us, lord. 

puer, boy. 

sign um, sign 


domin e 


sign um 


domin um 

puer um 

sign um 


domin i 

puer i 



domin o 

puer o 



domin o 

puer o 




domin i 

puer i 

sign a 


domin i 

puer i 

sign a 


domin os 

puer os 

sign a 


domin orum 

puer orum 

sign orum 


domin is 

puer is 

sign is 


domin is 

puer is 

sign is 

In the same way are declined the adjectives in us and er (masc), and 
um (neut.) ; e.g. bonus, good; miser, wretched; bonum, miserum. 
Dominus bonus, signum magnum, puer miser. 

Like puer is also declined the only word that terminates in ir, — vir, 
the man, virum, viri, viro, — together with its compounds ; e.g. trium- 
vir, and the national appellation Trevir, as well as the adjective satur, 
sated (neut. saturum, saturi, &c). 

Most words in er have the e only in the nom. and voc. (where it has 
been inserted to facilitate the pronunciation), but not in the other cases, 
where it is dropped before r : e.g. ager, the field, agrum, agri, agro, plur. 
agri, &c. ; liber, the booh, librum, &c. The e is retained in the sub- 
stantives adulter, the adulterer; socer, the father-in-law ; gener, the son- 
in-law ; Liber, the god Liber, or Bacchus ; liberi, liberorum, children, ; 
puer, a bog ; vesper, evening. In the adjectives asper, 1 rough ; liber, 
free ; lacer, torn ; miser, wretched ; prosper, prosperous (better pros- 
perus) ; tener, tender} and in those which end in -fer and -ger (from 
fero, to convey, bring, and gero, to carry) ; mortifer, deadly, mortife- 

1 Aspris for asperis Is found in Virgil. 

§ 37 SECOND I ION. 20 

rum, mortiferi ; allger, winged ; armiger, armor-bearer ; and in the 
national appellations Iber, Iberum, Iberi, and Celtiber, Celtiberum, 
Celtiberi. Dexter, right, has dexteri, and more frequently dextri; 
Mulciber (Mulceber), an epithet of the god Vulcan, Mulcibgri and 

Ons. i. Words iniusandium have, according to analogy, 11 in the gen. 
In the earlier period, however, only one i was used in the substantives (not 
SO in the adjectives) ; e.g. Appi, from Appius ; inggni,consIli, instead of 
ingenii, consilii, from ingeniurn, genius, consilium, counsel (but egre- 
gii, from egregius, distinguished) ; and so always in verse in Virgil and 
Horace (Capitoli immobile saxum; elided, Capitol' imm. Virg.). 
Afterwards, this form became obsolete. 

Obs. 2. The following adjectives and pronouns, which in the masc. 
and neut. follow the second, and in the fern, the first declension: uuus, 
solus, totus, ullus, nullus, alius, alter, uter, neuter, with the com- 
pounds of uter (uterqve, utercunqve, uterlibet, utervis, alteriiter), 
have in all genders iua in the gen., audi in the dat., — unius, solius 
totius, ullius, nullius, alius, alterius, utrius, neutrius, uni, soli, toti, 
ulli, nulli, alii, alteri, utri, neutri. (So also in the fern., — una, unam, 
unius, uni, abl. una.) In verse, the i is sometimes made short in the 
gen., — most frequently so in alterius (alterius). The regular forms 
are very rare : e.g. alii generis, in Varro ; aliae pecudis, in Cicero ; 
nullo usui, in Caesar. 

Obs. 3. Words in ius (jus) have in the voc. not ie (je), but i: e.g. 
Mercuri, Gai (Cai), Pompei (sometimes in verse Pompei, as a dissyl- 
lable) ; Demetri ; fili, son ; geni, guardian spirit ; Feretri, from the 
adj. Feretrius. But most common nouns and adjectives (as, gladius, 
the sword; fluvius, the river; egregius) have no vocative. Greek ad- 
jectives — e.g. Cynthius, and proper names in ius (also Greek) or 
eus, Eiog, e.g. Arius — have ie. Meus makes mi in the voc. Deus 
always has the voc. like the nom. (Compare Syntax, § 299, b, 
Obs. 1.) 

Obs. 4. The gen. plur. of some substantives is occasionally formed in 
um, instead of orum ; viz., of the appellations of money, weights, and 
measures, — nummum, sestertium, denarium, talentum, modium, 
medimnum, from nummus, a piece of money ; sestertius, a sesterce (a 
certain coin) ; denarius (also a coin) ; talentum, a talent (a sum of 
money) ; modinus, medimnus, a bushel (especially after millia ; e.g. 
duo millia nummum, decern millia talentum, but tantum nummo- 
rura) ; and of the distributive numerals : e.g. senum, denum, from seni, 
tixctpiece\ deni, t en apiece] sometimes also that of the cardinal num- 
bers in centi (genti) ; e.g. ducentum pedum ; further, liberum, from 
liberi, children ; deum, from deus, duumvirum, triumvirum (also 
liberorum, &c.) : and finally of some other words in certain eombina- 

LATIN miAMMAR. § 38 

tions; e.g. praefectus fahram, prefect of the workmen (in the army), 
lrom faber ; in the potts also virum, from vir ; and of the names of 
nations, as Argivum, Pelasgum, for Argivorum, Pelasgorum. Com- 
pare § 34, Ofrt. ;». 

0B8. 5. Tbe word deus has the regular dei, deis, in the nom. and 
dat. plural, but more frequently di, dis; also, dii, diis. 

§ 38. Greek Forms. 1. Greek proper names of towns and 
islands, and some few common nouns, are sometimes found with 
the Greek termination os, on, in the nom. and ace. sing. : e.g. Delos, 
ace. Delon ; scorpios, a scorpion ; Pelion (neut). In a few soli- 
tary instances, we find in names that are very rarely used oe (oi) in 
the nom. plur. ; e.g. canephoroe, the basket-bearers ; and on in the 
gen. plur. of adjectives in the titles of books (e.g. libri Georgicon) ; 
and in a few proper names (colonia Theraeon, Sail.). The proper 
name Tldvdoog, contracted Tldvdovg, is called by Virgil Panthus, voc. 

Obs. 1. Greek proper names in Qog, preceded by a consonant, generally 
have their termination in Latin (in prose always) in er ; Alexander, 
Antipater, Teucer, Meleager, gen. Alexandri, &c. (Yet we have 
Codrus, and, in the poets, Evandrus, and the like.) So also hexame- 
ter, but diametrus. 

Obs. 2. Greek proper names, which follow the so-called Attic second 
declension, either take a purely Latin form (e.g. Tyndareus, from Tvrda- 
QE(og, or retain some Greek terminations, as in the nom. Athos, Andro- 
geos, Ceos, in the accus. Athon. The name of mount Athos is also 
inflected according to the third declension ; Atho, Athonem, and so 
also Androgeo, Androgeonem. 

Obs. 3. Greek proper names in svg (gen. ecog) are either declined with 
a Latin form — thus, nom. Orpheus (as a dissyllable), accus. Orpheum, 
gen. Orphei (and Orphei), dat. and abl. Orpheo (without a voc), — or 
with a Greek form (like the third declension) ; thus, nom. Orpheus, 
voc. Orpheu, ace. Orphea, gen. OrpheSs, dat. Orphei (Orphei) ; but 
the forms which follow the third declension, with the exception of the 
accus., are for the most part found only in the poets. The gen. Achil- 
leiandUlixei C/fyillevg) are also formed in this way; though Achil- 
les, Ulixes, otherwise follow the third declension. 

The name Perseus {JJsQGtVS) is sometimes declined like Orpheus; 
Perseus, ace. Persea, gen. Persei, dat. Perseo and Persi (for Persei), 
abl. Perseo ; sometimes it has the form of Perses, and follows the first 



§ 39. Gender. Words in us (os) and r arc masculine, those in 
um (on) are neuter. 

But of the words in us, the following arc feminine: — 

a. The words alvus, stomach ; carbasus, linen ; cohis, distaff (rarely 
masc.) ; humus, ground ; vannus, winnowing shovel. 

b. The names of towns and islands, — e.g. Corinthus, Rhodus, — 
with the following names of countries: Aegyptus, Chersonesus, 
Epirus, Peloponnesus. (These names of places in us are all Greek ; 
Canopus, however, is masculine.) 

c. The names of all trees and of some shrubs : e.g. alnus, alder ; 
fagus, beech ; ficus, fig-tree (also fig) ; malus, apple-tree ; pirus, pear- 
tree; pomus, apple-tree; populus, poplar; ulmus, elm, &c. ; ■ buxus, 
box-tree; junipSrus, juniper; nardus, nard (an odoriferous bush); 
papyrus, papyrus plant (rarely masc.) ; with some Greek names of 
plants, chiefly ending in os (buglossos), and the word balanus, acorn, 
or date. 

Obs. Other Latin and Latinized names of plants and flowers are mas- 
culine : as, acanthus, acanthus ; amaranthus, amaranth ; asparagus, 
asparagus; boletus, mushroom ; calamus, straw, reed; carduus, this- 
tle ; dumus, thorn-bush ; fungus, mushroom ; hellebQrus, hellebore ; 
hyacinthus, hyacinth ; pampinus, vine (rarely fern.) ; rubus, bramble, 

d. Some words originally Greek, which in Greek are feminine, as 
those compounded with odog : methbdus, method ; peribdus, period ; 
and the words atomus, atom ; antidotus, antidote (also antidotum, 
neut.) ; dialectus, dialect; diametrus, diameter ; diphthongus, diph- 
thong ; paragraphus, paragraph (which words are originally adjectives, 
with a substantive understood) ; further, the names of most precious 
stones, e.g. amethystus. 2 Lastly arctos (the constellation), the Bear. 
Barbitos, lyre, is both masculine and feminine. 

The following in us are neuter : virus, poison ; vulgus, the common 
people (rarely masc.) ; and pelagus, the sea (to rtslayog). 

1 On the other hand, pomum, apple ; pirum, pear ; malum, apple. (Malus, a ship's 
mast, is masc.) Also buxum, boxwood. 

* But smaragdus, beryllus, opalus (and the Latin carbunculus), are masculine. 




§ -10. Words of the Third Declension have various endings in the 
nominative, since they either attach the nominative ending s to the 
stem, or remain without any special ending for that case. The 
stem, to which the endings are affixed in the other cases, ends with 
a consonant, but is often varied in the nom. ; so that, before we can 
decline a word, it is necessary to know, not only the nom., but also 
the stem, from one of the other cases ; but of this we shall speak 
afterwards (§ 41). (We find the stem by taking the ending is from 
the genitive sing.) 

In consequence of varying of the stem, words which are different 
in the other cases may have the same ending in the nom. ; e.g. 
caedes, death-blow, gen. caedis ; miles, soldier, gen. milltis ; inter- 
pres, interpreter, gen. interpretis. 

The rest of the declension may be seen from the following exam- 
ples, which show at the same time the different forms of the words, 
according as the stem remains unaltered in the nom., or is varied 
by taking an ending and by the pronunciation. 

1. Masculine and Feminine Gender. 

a. Words in which the nominative is simply the stem, without 
any alteration whatever, so that the other case-endings are merely 
affixed to it. 

(consul, consul; dolor, pain.) 


N. consul consul es 

V. consul consul es 

A. consul em consul es 

G. consul is consul urn 

I). consul i consul ibus 

A. consul e consul ibus 

Obs. Stems in 1 or r never have a nominative ending. 

h. Words in which the nominative ending s is affixed to the stem, 
which is otherwise unchanged. 




dolor es 


dolor es 

dolor em 

dolor es 

dolor is 

dolor urn 

dolor i 

dolor ibus 

dolor e 

dolor ibus 



Sing. Nom. 






urb es 


urb em 

urb es 


urb is 

urb ium 


urb i 

urb ibus 


urb e 

urb ibus 

Obs. Of the termination ium (urb-ium) in the gen. pi., see § 44, 1. 




c. "Words in which the num. ending s is affixed to the stem with 
the vowel i or e (so that is and es are dropped from the nom. before 
the other case-endings are added). 

(avis, bird ; caedes, murder.) 





N. avis 

av es 


caed es 

V. avis 

av es 


caed es 

A. av em 

av es 

caed em 

caed es 

G. av is 

av ium 

caed is 

caed ium 

D. avi 

av ibus 


caed ibus 

A. av e (avi) 

av ibus 


caed ibus 

Obs. 1. These words, the stem of which is found by the rejection of 
is and es, are called, to distinguish them from other words of the same 
declension in is and es, parisyllables, because they have the same number 
of syllables in the nom. as in the other cases singular. 

Obs. 2. Of the ending i in the ablative, see § 42, 3. 

d. Words in which, when the s of the nom. is affixed, the stem is 
also changed by the omission of a consonant (d or t), or by the 
passing of i into e, or in both ways. 

(aetas, age; judex, judge; miles, soldier.) 











aetat em 

judic em 

milit em 


aetat is 

judic is 

milit is 


aetat i 

judic i 

milit i 


aetat e 

judic e 


milit e 


aetat es 

judic es 

milit es 


aetat es 

judic es 

milit es 


aetat es 

judic es 

milit es 


aetat um 

judic um 

milit um 


aetat ibus 

judic ibus 

milit ibus 


aetat ibus 

judic ibus 

milit ibus 

Obs. i is changed into e, 

because the open 

syllable becomes a close 

one. See § 5, 












sermon em 

patr em 


sermon is 

patr is 


sermon i 

patr i 


sermon e 

patr e 



sermon es 

patr es 


sermon es 

patr es 


sermon es 

patr es 


sermon urn 

patr urn 


sermon ibus 

patr ibus 


sermon ibus 

patr ibus 

«. Words in which the nom., without any termination affixed, devi- 
ate from the stem lor the sake of the pronunciation. 

(sermo, the discourse ; pater, father ; mos, custom.) 


mor em 
mor is 
mor i 
mor e 

mor es 
mor es 
mor es 
mor um 
mor ibus 
mor ibus 

Obs. In sermo, n has been dropped ; in pater, e has been intro- 
duced ; in mos, s belongs to the stem, and is changed in the gen. into r 

2. Neuter Gender. The words of this gender never affix s in 
the nom., but the stem is sometimes different in the nom. and in 
the other cases on account of the pronunciation. 

a. Words with the stem unchanged. 

(animal, animal.) 


Nom. animal animal ia 

animal animal ia 

animal animal ia 

animal is animal ium 

animal i animal ibus 

animal i animal ibus 
Obs. On the termination ia in the plural, see § 43, 1. 

b. "Words which have the stem different in the nom. and in the 
other cases. 

(nomen, name ; corpus, body ; lac, milk.) 


corpus lac 

corpus lac 

corpus lac 

corp6r is lact is 

corpor i lact i 

corpor e lact e 









nomln is 


nomin i 


nomin e 




Nom. nomin a corpor a 

Voc. nomin a corpor a (not used.) 

Ace. nomin a corpor a 

( I in . nomin urn corpor um 

Dat. nomin ibus corpor ibua 

Abl. nomin ibus corpor ibus 

Obs. In corpus, s is not a mere termination, but belongs to the .stem 
and is changed in the gen. into r (§ 8). In lac, the last consonant of the 
stem has been dropped in the nom. (§ 10). 

c. Words in e, which e does not belong to the stem, and is 
dropped before the other case-endings. 


the sea.) 





mar ia 



mar ia 


mar e 

mar ia 


mar is 

mar ium 


mar i 

mar ibus 


mar i 

mar ibus 

Many adjectives also follow the third declension, and are declined 
like those substantives, with which they agree in the nominative 
and in the form of the stem ; e.g. gravis, heavy (masc. and fern.) 
like avis (but in the ablative only i, gravi), and grave (neut.), 
like mare. Dolor gravis, corpus grave. In the neuter gender 
of adjectives, the accusative is always like the nominative, whatever 
be the termination of the latter ; and the plural, like that of the 
neuter substantives, is formed in a (ia). 

§ 41. In the third declension, the gender cannot be ascertained 
from the nom. alone, but from the stem (as seen in the other cases) 
and the nominative together. There are, however, some forms of 
the stem and the nom. in which no rule could be given for the gen- 
der (especially the masc. and fem.), which would not be liable to 
numerous exceptions. Of some forms of the stem, only a few, or 
even single, examples occur. 1 

1 From the nominative alone, only so much can be inferred of the gender, that a word 
which ends in an s, which does not belong to the stem (and consequently is not found in the 
other cases in the form of s or r). is either masculine or feminine ; but that on the other 
hand it is neuter, if it neither ends in s, nor belongs to one of those forms which never assume 
a for the sake of the pronunciation (as the stems in 1, n, r) ; e g. rete, caput. 


All names of male and female beings follow the natural gender (ac- 
cording to § 28 and 29), although the form may otherwise properly 
belong to another gender: e.g. uxor, wife, feminine; though words 
in or, gen. oris, are otherwise masculine : Juno, the goddess Jiuw, fern, 
(o, ouis, mase.) ; flamen, priest, masc. (en, iiiis, neut.). So also the 
names of rivers are masculine, without reference to the termination 
(§ 28). 

To the third declension belong a number of Greek or foreign (bar- 
barous) words, which came from the Greeks to the Romans, and which 
are declined according to the corresponding third declension in Greek ; 
these conform in Latin, in respect both of the stem and gender, to the 

1. The following summary shows what genitives (and hence, at 
the same time, what stems) correspond to the various nominatives, 
and also gives the gender for every form of the nom. and of the 

The stem of a substantive or adjective, the nominative of which is 
known, may be often determined from other cognate words, especially 
verbs, since in them the letters are found which, in the nominative, 
have been dropped or changed: e.g. custos, gen. custodis, guar- 
dian, because we have custodio, to guard ; nex, necis, death, on 
account of neco, to kill ; but grex, gregis, herd, on account of con- 
grego, to assemble. 

Nom. e, gen. is, Neuter ; as, mare, maris, the sea. 
The abl. of Praeneste, the name of a town, is sometimes fem. by 
synesis ; e.g. Praeneste sub ipsa. (Compare § 31, Obs.) 

Nom. o, gen. onis, Masculine ; as, sermo, sermonis, discourse. 

But words in io, which are derived from verbs or adjectives, are Femi- 
nine : e.g. lectio, reading ; oratio, speech ; legio, legion (from lego, to 
select) ; regio, district (from rego, to rule) ; natio, nation (from nas- 
cor, to be boi~n) ; coenatio, dining-room (from coeno, to dine) ; 
seditio, uproar (from eo, to go, and se) ; communio, community (from 
communis, common) ; consortio, the community (from consors, par- 
ticipating). (Other words in io are masculine: e.g. papilio, butter/iy ; 
septentrio, north ; vespertilio, bat ; scipio,staff'; unio, pearl ; senio, 
six ; ternio, three ; so also pugio, dagger, though from pungo.) 

Further, some names of (Spanish) towns are feminine : as, Barclno, 
Barcelona ; Tarraco, Tarragona. (Other names of towns are mascu- 
line ; as, Sulmo, Narbo, Vesontio). 

Obs. Some names of nations have the gen. bnis: as, Macedo, Seno 
(Laco, Laconis ; Io, Ionis.) 


Nona, o, gen. Inis (in do and go), Feminine : hirundo, hirundlnis, 
swallow ; imago, imaglnis, picture ; Carthago, Carthaglnis. 

But the following arc masculine: ordo, order; cardo, hinge; and 
usually margo, edge. (Cupido, as the name of a god, is masculine ; 
as a common noun, it is masculine in the poets only; in all other cases, 

Obs. The following words in do and go have onis, and are conse- 
quently masculine : praedo, rubber ; spado, eunuch ; ligo, spade ; 
mango, slave-dealer ; harpago, hook. 

Norn, o, gen. Inis (without a preceding d or g), masculine: turbo, 
whirlwind; and besides, only homo, man ; nemo, no one; and the name 

The feminine, caro, Jlesh, gen. carnis, stands by itself. 

Nom. c, Neuter ; as, lac, lactis, milk. 

(Besides lac, we have only the word alec, alecis, brine, from fish, 
which has also the form alex, alecis, fern.) 

Nom. al, gen. alis, Neuter ; as, animal, animalis, the animal. 

Sal, salt (which is masculine, rarely neuter in the sing.), has salis, 
So also foreign proper names ; as, Hannibal, Hannibalis. 

The following substantives in 1 are to be noticed separately: the 
neuters, fel, gall ; mel, honey ; fellis, mellis. The masculine, sol, 
solis, the sun ; some masculine names of persons in sul : consul, con- 
sul; exsul, exile; praesul, leader in a dance; consiilis, &c. ; with 
pugil, boxer, pugllis ; and vigil, sentinel, vigilis (as an adjective, 
watchful). 1 

Nom. en, gen. Inis, Neuter ; as, nomen, nomlnis, the name. 

The following are masculine : pecten, comb ; and, from their signifi- 
cation, flamen, priest ; cornicem, horn-blower ; fidicen, harper ; tibi- 
cen, jlute-playcr ; tubicen, trumpeter. 

Nom. en, geu. enis, Masculine ; as, ren, renis, the kidney (com- 
monly only in the plur., renes). 

Ons. Besides this, only the following are similarly declined : lien, 
spleen ; and the Greek words splen, spleen ; lichen, a disease of the 
skin ; attagen, partridge ; Anien, the name of a river (in the nom. 
likewise Anio) ; with the feminines Siren, Siren ; and Troezen, a Greek 

1 Mugil, mugilis, a kind of fish ; also, nom. mugilis. with the nominative termina- 
tion la. 


Nom. ar, gen. aris. Neater ; as, calcar, calcaris, spur. 

The following (also neuter) have the gen. aris: baccar, a kind of 
plant ; jubar, radiance; nectar, nee tar; and the masculine names Caesar, 
Haniilcar, Arar, the Saone ; and lar, laris, household god. 

The following, which are neuters, are to be separately noticed : far 
farris, corn ; and the Greek word hepar, hepatis, liver. 

Nom. er, gen. eris, Masculine; as, career, carceris, prison. 1 

But the following are neuter : cadaver, corpse ; tuber, swelling (also 
truffle) ; uber, udder ; verber (only in the plur. verbera), blow. 
And all botanical names : e.g. acer, maple ; papaver, poppy ; piper, 
pepper. Tuber, a kind of apple, is masculine. (Mulier, woman, 

Nom. er, gen. ris, Masculine ; as, venter, ventris, belli/. 

Linter, boat, is feminine (so mater, mother'). 

In the same way are declined imber, shower, and all ending in ter 
(except only later, lateris, masc. , brick) . 

We must notice separately the two neuters, iter, itineris, journey ; 
and ver, veris, spring; with the name of the god Jupiter (Jovem), 
Jovis, &c. (The nom. is compounded of the old name and the word 

Nom. or, gen. oris, Masculine ; as, dolor, dolor is, pain. 

The following are feminine, by reason of their signification : soror, 
sister ; uxor, wife. 

Obs. The words honor, honor, and lepor, wit, have frequently, in 
older writers (Cicero), the nom. honos and lepos; so also occasionally 
other words, if they are not derived from verbs ; e.g. labor, labor, 

Nom. or, gen. oris, Neuter ; as, aequor, aequoris, the surface of 
the sea. 

(So marmor, marble; ador, spelt.) Arbor (arbos), tree, is fem- 

The following is to be separately noticed : cor, cordis, heart, neu- 

Nom. ur, gen. tiris, Neuter : as, fulgur, fulguris, lightning ; 
Tibur, the city Tibur. 

The following are masculine : furfur, bran ; turtur, turtle-dove ; vul- 
tur, vulture ; and, from its signification, augur, a soothsayer. 

1 Also tho two Greek words, air, aether. 


Nom. ur, gen. 5ris, Neuter ; as, robur, robBris, strength. 

Of this kind, we have only the following: ebur, ivory ; femur, thigh ; 
jecur, liver. 

Fur, furis, thief, masc. from its signification, is to be separately 

Norn, as, gen. atis, Feminine ; as, aetas, aetatis, age. 

Anas, the duck, has anatis, fern. 

The following are to be separately noticed : the masculines, as, assis 
an as (a copper coin) ; mas, maris, male ; vas, vadis, surety ; and the 
neuter, vas, vasis, vessel (in the plur. vasa, vasorum, see § 5, C) . 

Nom. es, gen. is Feminine : as, caedes, caedis, murder. 

Palumbes, wood-pigeon, masc. and fern. ; vepres, thorn-biisli (not 
used in the nom., commonly in the plural), masc. Verres, boar, and 
the names of rivers, — e.g. Euphrates, — are masc. from the significa- 

Ons. Some words in es, gen. is, have also is in the nom., with the 
same gender; e.g. aedes, temple; feles, cat ; vulpes, fox ; and aedis, 
felis, vulpis. 

Nom. es, gen. Itis, Masculine ; as, miles, milltis, soldier. 

Ales, bird (properly an adjective, winged), is masculine and femi- 
nine ; merges, sheaf, feminine. 1 

Nom. es, gen. Stis, Masculine or Feminine : as, paries, parietis, 
waU, masculine ; seges, segetis, corn-field, feminine. 

Besides the above, the following are masc. from their signification : 
aries, ram ; interpres, interpreter. Abies, fir, and teges, mat, are femi- 

The following are to be separately noticed : the masculines, bes, 
bessis, two-thirds of an as; pes, pSdis, foot (with its compounds ; as, 
sesqvipes, a foot and a half) ; praes, praedis, surety ; obses, hostage ; 
and praeses, protector ; obsidis, praesidis; heres, heredis (common), 
heir or heiress : the feminines, merces, mercedis, wages ; qvies, qvi- 
etis, rest (reqvies, rest, recreation) ; Ceres, Cereris, the goddess 

Ons. From pes comes the feminine compes (generally compSdes, 
\)\ur.), fetters ; the adjective qvadrupes is used for any quadruped as a 
feminine or neuter substantive. As a feminine, it seems to have refer- 

1 Like miles are declined the personal names antistes, comes, eqves, hospes, 
pedes, satelles, veles ; and of other substantives, ames, cespes, fomes, gurges, 
limes, merges, palmes, poples, stipes, termes, trames, tudes. 

40 1 A TIN GBAMMAB. §41 

enCQ to bestia; as I neater, to animal. It is also used as a masculine 
substantive when a horse is spoken of. 

The neuter, aes, aeris, capper, must be separately noticed. 

Norn, is, gen. is, Masculine or Feminine : as, piscis, piscis, fish ; 
avis, avis, bird. 

The following are masculine : amnis, river; axis, axle; callis, path 
(rarely fern.); canalis, conduit; cassis, a huntsman's net (generally 
casses, plur.) ; caulis, stalk; collis, hill; crinis, hair; ensis, sword; 
fascis, fagot; finis, end, boundary (rarely fern., and that only in the 
singular signifying end) \ follis, bellows; funis, rope; fustis, club; 
ignis, fire : mensis, month; orbis, circle; panis, bread; piscis, fish ; 
postis, door-post ; scrobis, ditch (also scrobs, sometimes fem.) ; sen- 
tis, thorn-bush ; torqvis, collar (also torqves, rarely fem.) ; torris, 
firebrand; ungvis, nail; vectis, lever; vermis, worm. Further, some 
words originally adjectives, which are used as substantives, and with 
which a masculine substantive is understood : annalis, the year-book 
(liber) ; natalis, birthday (dies ; also natales, natalium, descent) ; 
molaris, mill-stone (lapis), grinder (dens) ; pugillares. pugillarium, 
writing-tablets (libri). Further, the compounds of as: e.g. decussis, 
ten asses ; manes, manium, spirits of the dead ; Lucretflis, the name 
of a mountain. (So also from their signification, hostis, testis, and 
the names of rivers ; as, Tiberis.) 

The following are more frequently masculine than feminine : angvis, 
snake ; canis, dog ; the following sometimes one, sometimes the other : 
corbis, basket ; clunis, the hind leg. 

The rest are feminine. 

Obs. Here, too, may be noticed the Greek words in sis (also femi- 
nine) which are derived from verbs : e.g. poesis ; the names of towns 
ending in polis : as, Neapolis ; and some few other words and feminine 
proper names. 

Norn, is, gen. eris, Masculine ; as, cinis, cineris, ashes. 

One. In this way are declined only cucumis, cucumber, more rarely 
cucumis, in the gen. ; pulvis, dust; and vomis, ploughshare, which has 
more frequently the form vomer. 1 

Nona, is, gen. Idis, Feminine; as, cuspis, cuspldis, the point of a 

Lapis, stone, is masculine ; also, from their signification, the names of 
rivers ; as, Phasis. 

1 The 8 ia these words belongs to the stem, and has been changed into r in the genitive. 


Obs. Only a very few Latin words hire this termination: e.g. cassis 
helmet ; l but it belongs to various Greek words, which have been 

adopted in Latin: e.g. pyramis, pyramid; tyrannis, tyranny; and 
several names of men and women. Ibis, ibidis, ibU, has in the plural 
ibes, ibium. Tigris, tiger, has in the gen. both tigridis, fern., and 
tigris, masc. and fern. ; in the plur. tigres, tigrium. 

The following in is are to be separately noticed: the masculines 
sangvis, blood; -poWis, fine jlour (not used in the nom.) ; sangvlnis, 
pollmis ; glis, gliris, dormouse ; semis, semissis, half an as : the femi- 
nines, lis, litis, lawsuit ; vis, force, without a genitive. (See § 55, 2.) 

Obs. The Greek names Salamis, Salaminis, feminine, and Simo'is, 
Simoentis (a river), masculine. 

Like lis are declined the proper name Dis, the adjective dis, and the 
national names Qviris and Saninis. 

Nom. os, gen. oris, Masculine ; as, mos, moris, manner. 

Os, oris, the moirth, is neuter. 

Nom. os, gen. otis ; cos, cdtis, whetstone, and dos, dowry, are femi- 
nine : rhinoceros is masculine. So also, from their signification, 
nepos, grandson ; sacerdos, priest. 

The following are to be separately noticed : custos, custodis, 
watchman, masc. ; bos, bbvis, cattle, common ; os, ossis, bone, neuter. 

Nom. us, gen. utis, Feminine ; as, virtus, virtutis, virtue. 
Nom. us, gen. udis, Feminine ; as, palus, paludis, marsh. 

(Like palus arc declined incus, anvil, and the following with a 
diphthong : laus, laudis, jiraise ; fraus, deceit. 2 ) Pecus, a head of cat- 
tle, has peciidis. (See also pecus, pecoris, ncut., § 56, 7.) 

Nom. us, gen. eris, Neuter ; as, genus, generis, a kind, race. 3 
Venus (the goddess so called) is feminine. 

Nom. us, gen. oris, Neuter ; as, corpus, corporis, body. 
Lepus, hare, is masculine. 

Nom. us, gen. uris, Neuter ; as, jus, juris, right, law. 

Mus, mouse, is masculine; tellus, the earth, feminine. Ligus, a 

1 Capis, promulsis. 

2 Subscus. 

3 Like genus are declined acus, thaff; foedus, funus, glomus, latus, munus, 
olus, onus, opus, pondus, rudus, scelus, sidus, ulcus, vellus, viscus, vul- 
nus. Like corpus are doc-lined decus (dedecus). facinus, fenus, frigus, littus, 
nemus, pecus (see us, gen. udis). pectus, penus (see § 56, 7). pignus, stercus, 
tempus, tergus (commonly tergum, tergi). From pignus we have also pigneris. 
Like jus are declined the monosyllables crus, pus, rus, tus. 


has Liguris. (Lemiires, ghosts, occurs only in the plu- 

following must be separately noticed: sus, sow; grus, crane; 
suis, grnis, mostly fern., rarely tnasc. 1 

i. ntis, Masculine; as, mons, montis, the mountain; 
dens, dentis, tooth. 

>me words belonging to this class are properly Participles, with 
which a masculine substantive is understood: as, oriens, east; occi- 
dens, watt, — sol being understood. 

The following are feminine: gens, family or race; lens, lentils; 
mens, intellect, mind; frons, forehead; bidens, a sheep of two years 
old (bidens, the axe, is masc). Serpens, serpent (properly a parti- 
ciple), ii usually feminine (bestia), rarely masculine (angvis). Ani- 
mans, a living being, is feminine, in the plural also neuter (animantia) ; 
signifying a rational being, it is masculine. Continens, the continent, 
il usually feminine (terra), rarely neuter. The rare philosophical 
words ens, the being; consequens, the conclusion; accidens, an acci- 
in logic), arc neuter. 

N "in. ns, gen. ndis, Feminine; as, glans, glandis, acorn. 

Thus, juglans, walnut; frons, foliage; lens, a nit, and masc. libri- 

Nom. bs, gen. bis, Feminine ; as, urbs urbis, city. 
m. ps (eps), gen. pis (Ipis) : — 

The following are feminine : stirps, stem (in a few cases masculine, 
when it denotes the trunk of a tree) ; and daps, dapis, food: adeps, 
forceps, n pair of tongs, are masc. and fem. The rest are mascu- 
line. Personal names in ceps: as, princeps, first, chief. Auceps, 
the fowler, baa aucupis in the genitive. 

< tea. Greek words in ps, which have been received into the Latin, are 
dine, and their inflection is regulated according to the Greek: as, 
hydrops, hydropis, dropsy; Pelops ; Pelopis (a proper name) ; gryps, 
gryphis, griffin. 

Nom. rs, gen. rtis, Feminine j as, ars, artis, art. 

following feminine* in s, with a consonant preceding, must 
larately noticed: hiems, higmis, winter; puis, pultis, broth. 

« TbeM two word., with strues, Btruis, the heap; and lues, luis, a contagious dis- 
tnu, are the only Latin word* of the third declension, the stem of which terminates in a vowel ; 
viz. u. 


Nom. t. The only example is caput, capitis, head, Neuter, 
with its compounds occiput and sinciput. 
Nom. ax, gen. acis ; as, pax, pacis, peace. 

The Latin words pax, fornax, oven ; fax, gen. facis, torch, are femi- 
nine. The Greek are masculine; as, thorax, thoracis, breast- plate, 
except the feminine Umax, snail. 

Ons. Greek proper names have also acis: as, Corax, Coracis; and 
those in anax have anactis : as, Astyanax. 1 

Nom. ix, gen. Icis, Feminine ; as, salix, sallcis, willow. 
The two following are masculine : calix, cup ; fornix, vault ; varix, 
a varicose vein, is both masculine and feminine. 

Nom. ix, gen. Icis, Feminine ; as, radix, radlcis, root. 2 

Phoenix, phoenix (a Greek word), is masculine (also a national 
appellation, — a Phoenician) . 

The following feminines should be separately noticed : nix, nivis, snow ; 
strix, strigis, a fabulous being, in the form of a bird. 

Nom. OX, gen. ocis, Feminine ; as, vox, vocis, voice. 
The only other word declined in this way is celox, a swift vessel. 
The feminine nox, noctis, night, must be separately noticed. 
(The national names Cappadox, Allobrox, have Cappadocis, Al- 

Nom. ux, Feminine ; as, crux, crucis, the cross. 

The genitive is variously formed with c and g, ii and u : nux, niicis, 
nut, nut-tree; lux, lucis, light ; conjux, conjugis, wife (as of common 
gender it denotes also a spouse) ; frux, frugis, fruit (not used in the 
nom.) ; faux, faucis, throat (not used in the nom.). 

The following are masculine : tradux, tradiicis, the layer of a vine ; 
and dux, diicis, leader (also common) ; Pollux, Pollucis, proper 

Nom. x, with a consonant preceding, gen. cis, Feminine; as, 
arx, arcis, citadel. 

The words in unx, denoting the twelfth parts of an as, are masculine : 
deunx, eleven-twelfths of an as ; quincunx, septunx (rarely calx, heel ; 
lynx, lynx). 

1 In Greek we find also common names in ax, acis, but scarcely any one of these is met 
with in Latin. 

2 Like salix are declined besides the words cited above ; coxendix, filix (fulix), hys- 
trix, natrix, pix, and the national name Cilix, a Cilician. Like radix are declined several 
words ; viz. cervix, cicatrix, comix, coturnix, lodix, perdix, vibix, and the fem- 
inine appellatives in trix, e.g. victrix. la appendix the quantity is uucertain 


Om. The Creek words Sphinx, the Sphinx; phalanx, a certain order 
of battle; syrinx, reed, have gis; e.g. sphingis. 

1). ex, gen. Icis, Masculine; as, apex, apicis, the extreme 

The following are feminine : ilex, holly ; carex, sedge ; forfex, a pair 
; vitex, a species of tree ; and, from its signification, pellex, 
■ inc. 

The following arc masc. and fern.: imbrex, tile; obex, bolt (not 
used in the iiom. sing.) ; rumex, sorrel; and in the poets, also : cortex, 
bark ; silex, flint. (Atriplex, the orache, is neuter.) 

The following must be separately noticed : a. The masculines with an 
irregular genitive: grex, gregis, herd: with aqvilex, a discoverer of 
springs; and the national name Lelex; rex, regis, king; remex, remi- 
gis, vwer; vervex, vervecis, ic ether ; senex, senis, old man; foenisex, 
foenisecis, haymaker. 

b. The feininines with an irregular genitive : nex, necis, death; prex, 
precis, prayer (not used in the nom. sing.) ; lex, legis, law ; supellex, 
supellectilis, household goods ; faex, faecis, lees. 

2. Further, there are found in the foreign words which have 
been adopted from the Greek and other languages different forms 
of the stem and of the nominative, which do not occur in words 
originally Latin. (A more copious notice of the Greek words must 
ight for in the Greek dictionary.) The endings referred to 
a iv, — 

Nom. ma, gen. matis, Neuter ; as, poema, poematis, poem. 

Nom. i, gen. is, Neuter ; as, sinapi, sinapis, mustard. 

Obs. In this way are declined in the sing., without a plural, some 
names of foreign products, and those of a few Spanish towns ; as, 
Illiturgi. Most of them are not used in the gen. ; the other cases 
all end in L Sinapi has also the fern, form sinapis (nom.). 
Oxymeli, oxymelifcis, a mixture of vinegar and honey, is neuter 
(/'/') ; so also one or two others in mcli. 

Nom. y, gen. yis (yos), neuter: as, misy, misyis (contr. misys), 
vitriol (.') 

There are very few words of this class : misy is also found indeclina- 
bk : asty or astu, the city [of Atht ns], only in the accusative. 

Nom. on, gen. onis, Feminine; as, Alcyon, Alcyonis, the king- 

> aedon, nightingale ; sindon, muslin; with some names of towns : 
Anthedon, Anthedonis ; Chalcedon.) 

Canon, rule, or plummet, is masculine ; also, names of men ; as, 
Ixion, &e. 


Nom. on, on, an, en, in, ) ,_ 

« - . - !. _ : ~ . _ . £■ Masculine. 

Gen. onis, ontis, anis, ems, mis, ) 

Greek proper names, of which the names of towns are feminine : as, 
Babylon, Babylonis ; Ctesiphon, Ctesiphontis ; and Eleusin. (Del- 
phin, Delphinis, dolphin, also delphinus, delphini.) 

(Of the nom. of names in on, see § 45.) 

Norn, ter, gen. teris, Masculine ; as, crater, crateris, bowl. 
-Nom. as, gen. adis, Feminine ; as, lampas, lampadis, torch. 

(The national names Nomas and Areas, employed also as feminine 

Nom. as, gen. antis, Masculine ; as, adamas, adamantis, dia- 

Melas, Melanis, masc, the name of a man, a river, and a disease. 

— Nom. as, gen. atis, Neuter; as, erysipelas, erysipelatis, the 
complaint so called. 

(Very few instances, commonly only in the nom. and ace.) 

Nom. es, gen. etis, Masculine ; as, lebes, lebetis, caldron. 
(So magnes, magnet; tapes, carpet; Tunes, the city Tunis.) 

Nom. es, Neuter ; as, cacoethes, a malignant tumor. 
Nom. os, Neuter ; as, epos, an epic poem. 

(Both of these occur in but very few words, and only in the nom. and 

Nom. OS, gen. ois, Masculine ; as, her OS, her Si's, hero, demi- 

Nom. us, gen. untis, Masculine ; as, Pessinus, Pessinuntis (a 

(Only geographical names are thus declined. The names of towns 
are sometimes used as feminine by synesis ; e.g. Amathus in Ovid.) 

Nom. us, gen. bdis, Masculine ; as, tripus, tripodis, tripod. 

(None but compounds of rtovq. Oedipus generally, and polypus, 
polypus, always follow the second declension.) 

Nom. ys, gen. yis, Feminine ; as, chelys, chelyis, cithara. 
(Mostly proper names. Othrys, the mountain Othrys, is masculine.) 


Xom. ys, gen. ydis, Feminine ; as, chlamys, chlamydis, cloak. 

\ yx. gen. ycis, ycis, ygis, ygis, ychis, Masculine; as 
calyx, calycis, the cup of a flower. 

The genitives follow the Greek. In Greek, many words in yx are 
feminine : of those which have been received into the Latin, onlysandyx, 
sandycis, a kind of rod color; and occasionally bombyx, bombycis, 
tin >ilk worm ; sardonyx, sardonychis, a precious stone. 



§ 42. 1. In some words in is (gen. is), the accusative singular 
ends in im instead of em : namely, in amussis, ruler ; buris, 
plough-tan; cucumis, cucumber; ravis, hoarseness; sitis, thirst; 
tussis, cough ; vis, force ; and in the names of towns and rivers : 
e.g. Hispalis, Tiberis; commonly, too, in febris, fever; pelvis, 
basin; puppis, the hinder part of a ship; restis, rope; turris, 
tower ; seciiris, axe ; more rarely in clavis, key ; messis, harvest ; 
navis, sit I p. 

Ons. The accusative also ends in im (or in the Greek form in), in 
many Greek words in is. See § 45, 2 b ; and in the names of the rivers 
Arar and Tiger. 

2. The genitive of Greek and foreign proper names in es (parisyl- 
lables; see § 40, c, Obs. 1) often ends in the earlier period (e.g. 
in Cicero) in i instead of is; e.g. 1 Aristoteli, Isocrati, Neocli, 
Achilli, Ulixi. (But this never happens in those words of which 
the stem has been altered in the nominative; e.g. Laches, 

S. The ablative commonly ends in e, but in some words in i ; in 
some, both in e and i. 

The following have i : — 

a. Those words which have onlyim in the accusative ; e.g. siti, Tiberi 
Cpoe'3i, see 1, Obs.). 

1 [Regnum Alyattei (Hor. iii. 0d. 16, 14.)] 


b. All neuter words in e, i, al, ar, gen. aris ; as, mari, sinapi, animali, 
calcari (but sale, masc., and nectare, farre). 

Obs. But the names of towns in e have e in the abl. : e.g. Prae- 
neste, Caere; so likewise mostly rete, and mare frequently in the 

c. The adjectives of two and three terminations (is, e, and er, is, e) : 
as, facilis, abl. facili; acer, abl. acri, with those substantives in is, which 
were originally adjectives ; e.g. familiari, natali. 

Obs. 1. Such substantives, even if they be no longer in use as adjec- 
tives, are recognized by their adjective endings (alis, aris, ilis, ensis, 


Obs. 2. But some such substantives often — (as, aedile, from aedilis) 
or, at least, occasionally ; proper names of this kind almost always — have 
e ; as, Juvenale. Adjectives formed from the names of towns (e.g. Ve- 
lieiisis, from Velia) have also sometimes e, other adjectives only in some 
particular passages of the poets. 

The following have both e and i : — 

a. Those words which have both im and em in the accusative ; e.g. 
puppi and puppe. (But restis always has reste, and securis, se- 

b. Adjectives and participles of one termination ; e.g. prudenti and 
prudente, inerti and inerte. I is, however, the prevailing form : e.g. 
prudenti, ingenti, felici, vecordi, Arpinati, except in ablatives absolute 
(see § 277), when e is always used : e.g. Tarquinio regnante ; or, when 
adjectives in ens stand for substantives : e.g. a sapiente, in omni ani- 

Obs. The following adjectives, however, have e only : compos, im- 
pos, coelebs, deses, pauper, princeps, pubes (puberis), superstes, 
and almost always ales, dives ; commonly, too, vetus, uber. Par ! and 
memor, on the contrary, always have i. 

c. The comparatives of adjectives : e.g. majore, majori; e, however, 
is the more usual termination. 

d. Sometimes, too, the ablative in i is used in other substantives in s. 
gen. is (parisyllables) , besides those above-named: e.g. igni, avi; like- 
wise in some which have another termination ; as, imbri (imber),supel- 
lectili (supellex), ruri, in the country (rus) ; and in some names of 
towns, to denote the place in which: e.g. Carthagini, in Carthage; Ti- 
buri, Anxuri. 2 

§ 43. 1. The nominative and accusative plural of neuter words 
generally end in a ; but the substantives in e, al, ar (aris), and 

1 The substantive par has also pare. (Impare numero, Virg.) 
3 In the antiquated style even parti, carni. 


adjectives and participles in the positive (uot in the comparative), 
have ia ; e.g. animalia, calcaria, elegantia, inertia, animantia. 

Vetus only has vetera. 

3. Several adjectives of one termination, which follow the third 
declension, form no neuter in the plural. See § 60, c. 

2. Those masculines and feminines, which end in iuminthegen. plur. 
; 44), had, in the accusative, in the older period, besides es, the ter- 
mination is, which was long the usual one ; e.g. classis, omnis. (It was 
also written classeis, omneis.) But this pronunciation and orthography 
were not without exceptions. At a later period, they disappeared; but 
the more ancient orthography is still found here and there in the editions 
of Latin authors. 

§ 44. 1. In some words the gen. plur. is formed by affixing ium 
to the stem instead of um ; viz. : — 

a. In the parisyllables in es and is (§ 40, 1, c) ; e.g. aedium, cri- 
nium ; except ambages, a circuit (of which the ablative alone is used in 
the sing.) ; strues, heap ; vates, canis, juvenis, which have um (am- 
bagum, canum) ; with volucris, bird (properly an adjective), which 
most usually has um; and apis, bee; sedes, seat; mensis, month, which 
often have that termination. 

b. In the several words imber, linter, venter, uter, a leather bottle, 
Insuber (a national name), and caro (carnis) ; e.g. imbrium, car- 

c. In the monosyllables in s or x, preceded by a consonant : e.g. 
mons, montium ; arx, arcium (except opum, from ops, unused in the 
nom.) ; and in the several monosyllables as, glis, lis, mas, mus, os, gen. 
ossis, vis (vires, virium) , faux (not used in the nom. sing.), nix (nives, 
nivium), nox, and sometimes fraus (also fraudum). 

Obs. 1. The Greek words gryps, lynx, sphynx, have um. 

Ons. 2. Some monosyllables do not occur in. the gen. plur., though 
the remaining cases of the plural are in use ; of these, the following 
may be especially noticed : cor, cos, rus, sal, sol, vas, gen. vadis. 

d. In words of more than one syllable in ns and rs: e.g. clientium, 
cohortium, from cliens, client: Conors, cohort ; but sometimes, particu- 
larly in the poets, these words have um (parentes, parentum, a form 
also common in prose). 

e. In neuter words in e, al, ar (gen. aris), and in those adjectives and 
participles which have a neuter pleral: e.g. marium, animalium, calca- 
rium, from mare, animal, calcar ; acrium, facilium, felicium, elegan- 
tium, inertium, 1 locupletium, from acer, facilis, felix, elegans, iners, 

1 Facilium according to rule a; also, elegantium and inertium, according to d. 


locuples, except the adjective vetus (veterum), and qvadrupes, versi- 
color (anceps, praeceps), which have urn. 

From the adjectives in ns, we find, now and then, um, instead of ium : 
e.g. sapientum; from those in is, very seldom, and only in the poets: 
e.g. caelestum, from caelestis. 

Obs. But if the adjectives have no neuter plural (§ 60, c), the geni- 
tive ends in um ; consequently, we have inopum, divitum, uberum, vigi- 
lum, from inops, dives, iiber, vigil. Celer, hebes, teres, are not found 
in the gen. plur. Celeres, the body-guard of the Roman kings, has in 
the gen. celerum. 

f. In national names in is and as : e.g. from Qviris, Qviritium ; from 
Arpinas, Arpinatium; and in the two plural words, penates, the guar- 
dian^ gods; and optimates, the nobles (rarely um). Other words 
also in as, atis, sometimes have ium ; e.g. civitatium (but civitatum 
is better). 

2. The names of some Roman festivals, which end in alia, and are used 
only in the plural, have, in the genitive, iorum (as in the second declen- 
sion) as well as ium; e.g. Bacchanalia, Bacchanaliorum, the feast of 
Bacchus. So also the word ancile, a shield, which fell from heaven (an- 

3. The dative and ablative plural of Greek words in ma generally have 
the termination is, for ibus ; e.g. poematis, from poe'ma. 

4. The word bos, bovis, has, in the gen. plur., bourn; in the dat. 
and abl., bobus, or bubus ; in the nom. and ace, the regular form, 
b5ves. Sus has, in the dat. and abl. plur., suibus, and (contracted) 
subus. » 

§ 45. (Greek forms in Greek words.) 1. Greek proper names in 
cov, gen. covog (onis), and ovog (Qnis), the Latin form o : e.g. Plato, 
Zeno, Dio, Laco, Agamemno ; but on is retained in some writers (as 
Cornelius Nepos) : e.g. Dion, Conon ; and almost always in geographical 
names : e.g. Babylon, Lacedaemon. Those in cov, ovzog, and co'vzog 
(ontis), for the most part, retain the n ; Xenophon. (In Plautus 
and Terence, however, some names of this kind are altered in the 
inflection; e.g. Antipho, Antiphonis, instead of Antiphon Antiphon- 

2. a. In the poets, and some prose-writers, the accusative occasionally 
ends in a, when the Greek has this termination ; but, in prose, this is con- 
fined, with a few exceptions, to proper names ; e.g. Agamemnona, Baby- 
lona, Periclea (Pericles), Troezena, Pana, and, in the poets, heroa, 
thoraca. Only the words aer and aether have, in prose, too, almost 
always aera, aethera. 

b. Greek words in is, gen. is, have, in the accusative, im (Latin), and 
in (Greek) ; e.g. poesim, poesin, Charybdim, Charybdin. Of the 


words in is, idis, those which, in Greek, have iv and 18a in the aecus., 
have, for tin' most part, im (in), in Latin, rarely idem (Greek ida) : 
e.g. Paris, Parim, Parin, rarely Parideni ; except those in tis, which 
have both forms: e.g. Phthiotis, Plithiotini (Phthiotin),and Fhthioti- 
dem (Phthiotida). 

Those which, in Greek, have only ida (i.e. all oxytones), have, in 
Latin, also idem (ida) ; e.g. tyrannis, tyrannidem (tyrannida). (So 
espe( ially feminine patronymics and national names ; e.g. Aeneis, 
Aeneidem, and Aeneida.) 

c. Words in ys, gen. yis, have, in the ace, ym (Latin), oryn (Greek) ; 
e.g. Othrym, Othryn. 

d. Those proper names in es, gen. is, which in Greek follow the first 
declension (§ 35, Obs. 4), have en as well as em: e.g. Aeschinen, Mith- 
ridaten; so also sometimes those which, in Greek, follow the third deck, 
but have, in the ace, both ?] (according to the third deck) and ijv 
(according to the first) : e.g. Xenocraten. (Others but rarely ; as 
Sophoclen, instead of Sophoclem.) 

e. Proper names in es, etis, are like Thales, which has, in the ace., 
besides Thaletem, a shorter form, Thalem, Thalen (abk, Thale; in the 
gen. and dat., this shorter form, Thalis, Thali, is unusual). 

3. In the genitive of Greek words, the poets use, not unfrequently, 
the form os, but particularly in words in is and as, gen. idos and ados 
(especially in proper names) : e.g. Thetis, Thetidos ; Pallas, Pallados ; 
in those in ys, gen. yos: e.g. Tethys, Tethyos; and in proper names 
in eus, gen. eos: e.g. Peleus, Peleos (Latin, Peleus, PeleL See 
§ 38, 3.) 

The gen. seos, from words in sis, — e.g. poeseos, from poesis, — is 
not found in good writers. 

Greek names of women, in o, as Io, Sappho, have mostly the Greek 
genitive us (ovg). In the ace., dat., and abk, o is used; e.g. Sappho 
(ace. ZcutCfxa, dat. £a7tq;oi), rarely the Latin form Sapphonem, Sap- 
phoni, Sapphone. 

4. The Greek words in is,ys, and eus, have the Greek vocative, which 
is formed by the rejection of s : e.g. Phylli, Alexi, Coty, Orpheu ; but 
those in is, idos, have often too (in Latin) the voc. like the nom. : e.g. 
Thais. Names of men in as, an tis (the voc. in Greek being av and a), 
have a; e.g. Calchas, voc. Calcha. 

Proper names in es have es and e; e.g. Carneades and Carneade, 
Chremes and Chreme (from Chremes, Chremetis). 

5. In the nom. plur. of Greek words, the poets often use es (eg) 
short, instead of making the final syllable long, as is usual in Latin words 
(§ 20, 2). In the name Sardis (gen. Sardium),is stands for the Greek 




6. The accusative plural sometimes ends in as, as in Greek, especially 
in the poets ; e.g. Aethiopas, Pyranridas. This termination is also 
used in some barbarous national names which, in their form, resemble 
Greek words ; e.g. Allobrogas, Ling6nas, from Allobrox, Lingon. 

7. The Gre.ek ending of the gen. on is used only in the titles of books : 
e.g. Metamorphoseon libri. 1 

8. The termination of the dative in si (sin) is very rarely used, by a 
few poets, from feminine words in as and is ; e.g. Troasin, Charisin, from 
Troades, Charites. 

9. From the few Greek neuter words in os and es, there are formed a 
nom. and ace. plur. in e (>/), without any further inflection; e.g. melos, 
mele. (Tempe, § 51, g.) 



§ 46. Words of the fourth declension end in US or (neut.) U, 
and are declined as follows : — 

(fractus, fruit; cornu, the horn.') 







fruct iis 

fruct us 


corn ua 


fruct iis 

fruct us 


corn ua 


fruct urn 

fruct us 


corn ua 


fruct us 

fruct uum 

corn us 

corn uum 


fruct ui 

fruct ibus 


corn ibus 


fruct u 

fruct ibus 


corn ibus 

Obs. 1. Like cornu are declined only a few words (genu, knee; veru, 
spit). Some cases of other words are formed according to this example ; 
but the word has, at the same time, other forms ; as, from pecu, cat- 
tle, nom. and ace. plur. pecua, and dat. pecubus ; but otherwise, pecus, 
peciidis, and pecus, pecoris, after the third declension. (See amongst 
the abundantia, § 56, 7.) Gelu, cold, is, in ordinary language, used 
only in the ablative. (In other cases, we find the form — not a common 
one — gelum, geli. The nom. gelu belongs to the later Latin, and gelus 
is obsolete.) 

Maleon, Mafaeuv, the Maleans (Curt.). 


Obs. 2. The ending us, in the gen. sing., is contracted from uis, 
which sometimes occurs in the older language ; e.g. anuis, of an old 
woman. From some words, — especially senatus, the senate; and tu- 
multus, the stir, — some writers (e.g. Sallust) form the gen. ini; e.g.' 
senati, tumulti. 1 

Ons. 3. In the dative, ui is often contracted into u; e.g. eqvitatu 
for eqvitatui, as in cornu. 

Ons. 4. In the dative and ablative plur., dissyllables, with c before 
the ending (acus, needle; arcus, bow; lacus, lake; qvercus, oak; 
specus, cave, and pecu) ; with the words artus, joint; partus, birth; 
tribus, tribe; and veru, spit, — have iibus, instead of ibus; e.g. artu- 
bus. Portus, haven, has portibus and portubus. 

Ons. 5. The names of some trees in us, — especially cupressus, 
cypress; ficus, jig-tree; laurus, the laurel; and pinus, the pine, — are 
sometimes declined throughout like the second declension : sometimes they 
take those cases of the fourth declension which end in us and u ; e.g. 
gen. laurus, abl. lauru, nom. and ace. plur. laurus. (Qvercus is 
declined entirely according to the fourth declension.) So also the word 
colus, distaff. 

Domus, house, forms some cases exclusively according to the second 
declension ; while, in others, it has both forms, as follows : — 




dom us 


dom us 

dom iis 


dom urn 

dom os (rarely dom us) 


dom us 

dom uum, dom orum 


dom ui (rarely 



dom ibus 


dom o (rarely 


dom ibus 

The genitive form domi is used only in the signification at home. See 
§ 296, b. 2 

§ 47. Gender. Words of the fourth declension, in us, are mas- 
culine, those in u neuter. But of those in us the following are 
feminine : the names of trees ; as, qvercus : with acus, colus, domus ; 
manus, hand; peuus, a store of provisions (see § 56, 7) ; porti- 
cus, portico ; tribus, tribe: and the plurals idus (iduum), the thir- 
teenth or fifteenth day of every month ; and qvinqvatrus, a certain 

1 It is not correct to assume that the words in u had u also in the genitive. Only cornu 
bubulum, cow's horn, and cornu cervinum, stag's horn, were inflected, in later times, 
as if the substantive and adjective made only one word ; cornububuli, comucervilli. 

2 By some written also domui, on the authority of manuscripts. 


feast : in the older language also specus (also, from their signifi- 
cation, anus, old woman ; nurus, daughter-in-law ; socrus, mother- 

Obs. Colus is also found in the masculine, specus (in the nom. and 
ace.) in the neuter, — both but rarely. 



§ 48. This declension comprises only a few words, which all end 
in es, and are declined as follows : — 

(res, the thing ; dies, the day.) 



re s 

re s 


die s 




die s 

die s 



re s 

die m 

die s 


re i 

re rum 

die i 

die rum 


re i 



die bus 





die bus 

Obs. 1. In the gen. and dat. singular, the e in ei is long after a vowel, 
short after a consonant. In the earlier period, the contracted termina- 
tion e was also used in these cases (e.g. fide, acie, die, for fidei, aciei, 
diei, in the gen. in Horace, Caesar, Sallust ; fide, in the dat., in Horace). 1 
In the genitive, there occurred also an old form in i ; e.g. pernicii, for 

Obs. 2. Only res and dies are declined throughout in the plural. The 
words acies, facies, effigies, species, and spes (in Virgil, glacies), are 
used in the nom. and ace. plur., — not in the other cases. The remain- 
ing words have no plural. 

Obs. 3. Some words have a double form, according to the fifth declen- 
sion, and according to the first with the nom. in a : see among the abun- 
dantia, § 56, 3. 

§ 49. All words of the fifth declension are feminine ; except 
dies, which is masculine and feminine in the singular, in the plural 

1 [Constantis juvenem fide (Hor. Od. Hi. 7, 4) ; Libra die somnique pares ubi 
fecerit horas (Virg. Georg. i. 208) ] 

54 LATIN GRAMMAR. . § 50 

only masculine. In the singular too, with the signification day, it 
is usually masculine in good prose-writers ; but, with the significa- 
tion term, time (longa dies), it is almost always feminine (in prose 
always). (Meridies, mid-day, is masculine.) 



§ 50. Peculiarities relating- to the Numbers. Many words 
in Latin (as in our own language) are used only in the singular ; 
because they are either proper names of definite individual objects 
(e.g. Roma ; also, tellus, humus, the earth in general, — terrae, 
plural, means lands) ; or because they denote an idea in its general 
or abstract sense, and in its absolute meaning, without reference to 
the particular objects in which it appears in the concrete. Such 
are the names of the qualities, properties, and condition and cir- 
cumstances of a being; as, justitia, justice; senectus, old age; 
fames, hunger ; scientia, knowledge ; indoles, natural gifts : names 
used in a collective sense ; as, plebs, vulgus, the common people ; 
supellex, household furniture : names of a material ; as, aurum, 
gold; triticum, wheat ; sanguis, blood; virus, venom. 

If such words as usually designate a whole alter their significa- 
tion, and are used to denote individual objects, they have also the 
plural : e.g. aera, instruments of copper, bronze statues ; cerae, wax 
tablets, wax masks ; ligna, pieces of wood, billets. 

Obs. 1. Such changes of the signification must be ascertained by atten- 
tive reading, and from the dictionary. Thus, mors, death, is used in the 
plural, of cases of death, kinds of death; while letum, death, is never so 
employed. In this, the poets go further than the prose-writers ; e.g. tria 
tura, three grains of incense, from tus, incense. Sometimes, the poets 
employ names expressive of abstract ideas, and names of classes or mate- 
rials, in the plural, without a change in the signification (as of a whole, 
consisting of several parts) : e.g. silentia, silence; murmura, murmur- 
ing; flamina, blowing; hordea, barley; but chiefly only in the nom. and 


ace. Thus, the poets sometimes used ora, pectora, corda, of a single 

Obs. 2. The Latin word may sometimes have originally a more ab- 
stract signification than the English which most nearly corresponds to it, 
and therefore be without a plural ; as, specimen, a proof. (Various hor- 
ticultural productions, — as fruit and flowers, — as well as the different 
species of corn, are, in Latin, named in the singular, when it is intended to 
designate the whole kind, or an indefinite quantity ; e.g. abstinere faba, 
mille modii fabae (Hor. Ep. I. 16, 55), beans in general: but fabae, 
beans taken separately ; glande vesci (Cic. Or. 9), in rosa jacere. This 
applies also sometimes to other kinds of produce. 

Obs. 3. The Latins, unlike ourselves, often used the names of abstract 
ideas in the plural, when the idea (an activity, property, condition, being) 
is to be conceived as applying to several persons or things (several sub- 
jects) , or when it is intended to denote that the idea is exhibited several 
times, and in a variety of forms. So, when the mind or mood of several 
persons is spoken of, animi is used (animos militum incendere, animi 
hominum terrentur) ; and we find (in Cicero) , adventus imperatorum, 
exitiis bellorum mites, odia hominum, novorum hominum indus- 
triae, proceritates arborum, invidiae multitudinis, iracundiae, 
timores, tarditates, celeritates, tres constantiae (three kinds of 
constantia), omnes avaritiae (all the ways in which avarice displays 
itself) . l So, of the weather, we find the expressions, nives, snow-storms ; 
grandines, hail-storms ; soles, bursts of sunshine (in the poets, days) ; 
frigora, cold seasons. 2 

Obs. 4. Proper names are used in the plural, not only when borne by 
several individuals (e.g. Valerii omnes, duo Scipiones Africani), but 
also figuratively of men of a certain kind ; e.g. multi Cicerones (many 
orators as distinguished as Cicero). 

Obs. 5. In some historians and poets, certain words, which denote a 
man of a particular class or rank, are sometimes used in the singular of 
the whole class : e.g. Romanus, for the Romans ; eqves, for the knights; 
miles, for the soldiers. 

§ 51. Some words are used only in the plural (pluralia tantum), 
because they either designate several individual things, which are 
so named only in the aggregate, and not when taken separately : 
e.g. majores, ancestors; or because they are used of something 
which originally suggested the idea of several constituent parts, or 

1 Kectiqve cultus pectora roborant (Hor.). Tantaene animis coelestibus 
irae? (Virg.) 

2 Siccitates paludum (Caes. B. G. iy. 38). 


the idea of repetition, or the like : e.g. arma, gen. armorum, ar- 
mor ; fides, gen. fidium, the citkara. 1 

Obs. Of such words, the following are most usual : — 

a. Ldberi, children; majores, ancestors (properly the comparative of 
magnus, great) ; proceres and primores, men of rank; inferi, the in- 
habitants of the lower world; super! the inhabitants of the upper world; 
caelites, the inhabitants of heaven; penates, household gods ; manes, the 
sjiirits of the departed; munia (only in the nom. and ace.), employ- 
ments; utensilia, utensils, provisions; verbera, stripes (verbere, see 

b. Parts of the Body: artus, the limbs; cani (adj., with which ca- 
pilli is to be understood), gray hairs; cervices, the neck (in the later 
writers, cervix) ; exta, intestina, viscera (rarely viscus), the intes- 
tines : fauces, the throat (fauce, see § 55, 3) ; praecordia, the dia- 
phragm; ilia, the flank; renes, the kidneys. 

c. Materials, Compound Objects: altaria, the altar; arma, armor; 
armamenta, tackling; balneae, bath-house (balneum, a private, single 
bath, plur. balnea); cancelli, lattice; casses, a fowler 's net; castra, 
camp (castrum, as the name of a place ; e.g. Castrum Novum) ; 
clathri, a grating; clitellae, pack-saddle; compedes, fetters (com- 
pede, see § 55, 3) ; cunae, cunabula, incunabula, cradle; exuviae, 
an integument stripped off (arms taken in fight) ; fides, lyre (fidem, 
fidis, fide, see § 55, 2) ; fori, rows of seats ; loculi, a repository (with 
several compartments) ; lustra, a lurking-place of wild beasts ; manu- 
biae, booty ; moenia (moenium), the wall of a town; obices, a bolt 
(obice, see § 55, 3) ; phalerae, the ornaments of horses; salinae, salt- 
works ; scalae, stairs ; scopae, broom; sentes, thorn-bush; spolia, spoils ; 
valvae, folding-doors ; vepres, brambles (veprem, vepre, see § 55, 2) ; 
virgulta, the thicket: and, generally, bigae, a carriage icith two horses ; 
qvadrigae, a carriage with four horses; and the participles sata, the 
cornfields; serta, garlands of flowers. 

d. Ambages, a round about way (§ 55, 3) ; argutiae, witty, ingeni- 
ous discourse; crepundia, playthings ; deliciae, delight; dirae, a curse 
(from the adj. dims); divitiae, riches; excubiae, the guard; exse- 
qviae, funeral solemnities ; epulae, banquet (sing, epulum, generally 
a public entertainment) ; fasti, calendar ; grates, thanks (only in the 

1 Majore3 denotes all the individual ancestors, but only as taken together ; a single an- 
cestor is not called major. The same holds good with liberi. In these cases, therefore, we 
think of the individuals which make up the number; and three children is expressed by feres 
liberi. Fides, on the other hand, denotes the compound stringed instrument, hut not its 
several parts (the strings are called nervi) j arma is a suit of armor, which consists of sev- 
eral pieces. We think, therefore, in these expressions of the compound unity, and trina 
arma (according to § 76, c) signifies three suits of armor. Most of the pluralia tantum 
belong to this latter description. 


nom. and ace); induciae, an armistice; ineptiae, silliness (rarely in 
the sing.); inferiae, a sacrifice to the dead; insidiae, ambuscade; in 
imicitiae, enmity (but amicitia) ; minae, threatening ; nugae, non- 
sense ; nuptiae, a marriage; praestigiae, a blind, deception; preces, 
supplication (prece, see § 55, 3) ; primitiae, first-fruits ; reliqviae, 
remains ; sordes, dirt (sordem, sorde, see § 55, 2) ; tenebrae, dark- 
ness ; vindiciae, a judicial process ; so also usually angustiae, a strait 
(embarrassment) ; blanditiae, flattery ; illecebrae, enticement. 

e. Names of Days and Festivals : Calendae, the first day of the 
month ; Nonae, the fifth (or seventh) ; Idus, thirteenth (or fifteenth) ; 
feriae, holiday ; nundinae, market-day ; Bacchanalia, the feast of Bac- 
chus ; Saturnalia, the feast of Saturn ; and other names of festivals, in 
alia and ilia. 

f. The names of many towns ; e.g. Veji, Athenae, Leuctra, Gades. 
Of those in i, some designate both the town and its inhabitants ; e.g. Del- 
phi, I^eontihi. 

g. The mountain chains Alpes and Acroceraunia, and the valley of 
Tempe (§ 45, 9). The poets use some Greek names of mountains as 
neuter in the plural, instead of masculine in the singular ; as, Taygeta, 
for Taygetus. 

§ 52. Some words, which in the singular are employed to denote 
a single object or idea, are used in the plural to express not only 
a number of such objects, but also (as pluralia tantum) a more 
complex object which bears some affinity to them, or a collection of 
objects : e.g. littera, a letter of the alphabet ; litterae, either letters 
or an epistle ; auxilium, aid ; auxilia, resources or auxiliary troops. 
(Binae litterae, two epistles ; bina auxilia, two bodies of auxilia- 
ries. See § 76, c. We also find litterae sometimes without a nu- 
meral to signify epistles ; e.g. affemntur ex Asia qvotidie litterae, 
Cic. pro. leg. Man. 2.) 

Obs. Further instances of such words are : — 


aedes, the temple. aedes, a. temple ; b. a house. 

a.qya,water. aqvae, a. waters; b. a medicinal 


career, the prison. carceres, the space partitioned off 

by the barriers (on the race- 
course) . 

codicillus (rare) , a small log. codicilli, the writing - tablet, the 


copisi, fulness, a store, a number. copiae, a. stores ; b. troops. 





comitium, a place in the market in comitia, an assembly of the peo- 

fortuna, fortune. 
gratia, thankfulness (in action and 

in feeling), 
hortus, garden. 

impedimentum, hindrance. 

ludus,pZa?/, a jest. 
naris, nostril. 

natalis (adj. dies), birthday. 
ops (not used in the nom.), help. 
pars, part. 



beak, the beak of a 

tabula, board, tablet. 


fortunae, the goods of fortune. 
gratiae, thanks. 

horti, a. gardens; b. pleasure- 
gardens, a country-house. 

impedimenta, a. hindrances; b. 

ludi, a public spectacle. 

nares, the nose (rarely in the sing, 
in this signification) . 

natales, pedigree. 

opes, power, riches. 

partes, a. parts ; b. the part (of 
an actor in a play), side, party. 

rostra, the platform for the orators 
in the market at Rome (adorned 
•with beaks of ships) . 

tabulae, a. boards, &c; b. an 
account-book, a document. 1 

§ 53. In some compound words, which consist of two entire un- 
altered words in the nominative, and may be again resolved into 
their constituent parts (spurious compounds), both parts of the 
compound are declined : e.g. respublica, the state, ace. rempubli- 
cam, gen. reipublicae, &c. (according to the fifth and first decl.) ; 
jusjurandum, the oath, gen. jurisjurandi, &c. (according to the 
third and second). 

§ 54. Some few substantives are indeclinable : namely, the Latin 
and Greek names of the letters (a, alpha, &c.) ; the words fas, 
right ; nefas, wrong ; instar, equality (in size and signification) ; 
mane, the early morning ; caepe, onion ; gummi, gum ; but 
these words, with the exception of the letters, are used only as 
nominatives and accusatives. Mane, however, is also used as an 
ablative (summo mane, at the earliest dawn). 

Ons. 1. The names of the letters are also used as genitives, datives, 
or ablatives, when the addition of an adjective (e.g. y Graecae), or the 
connection, clearly shows the case. 

1 Animi, spirit {haughtiness), and spiritus, 

tughtiness, pride; used also of a single 


Obs. 2. For gummi, writers also use gummis, gen. gummis, fem., and 
gumen, neuter : for caepe, often caepa, gen. caepae. 

Obs. 3. Pondo is also indeclinable, being used sometimes as an abl. 
sing., signifying in weight: e.g. coronam auream, libram pondo (a 
pound in weight ; weighing a pound) ; sometimes as a plural noun in the 
nom., ace., and gen. : e.g. qvinqvagena pondo data consulibus; tor- 
qves aureus, duo pondo (by apposition) ; corona aurea pondo du- 
centum (ducentorum). 

Obs. 4. Barbarous names — the Hebrew, for instance (in Christian 
authors) — often receive a Latin termination, in order to make declension 
practicable, either in the nom. — e.g. Abrahamus — or in the other 
cases only, the foreign form being used for the nom. ; e.g. David, gen. 
Davidis. The name Jesus has, in the ace, Jesum; in the other cases, 

Jj 55. Some words have an inflection of the cases, but not through- 
out (defectiva casibus, deficient in their cases). 

Obs. According to the number of the cases in use, such words are called 
monoptota, dipfcota, triptota, or tetraptota, — words with one, two, 
three, or four cases. 1 The cause of this incompleteness is found in the 
meaning or the use of the word, which made only certain cases neces- 
sary, or retained no others in use. 

1. The following words want the nom. : (daps, obsolete), dapis, 
food; (dicio), dicionis, dominion; (frux), frugis, fruit ; (inter- 
necio), internecionis, destruction ; (pollis), pollinis, fine flour. 

2. The following words are used in the sing, only in certain 
cases : — 

fors, accident, in the nom. and abl. (forte, usually as an adverb, acci- 
dentally) , without a plural. 

(fides, or fidis, unused, lyre), in the ace, gen., and abl., fidem, 
fidis, fide. Used only by the poets ; commonly fides, fidium, as a plur. 

(impes, unused, violence), in the gen. and abl. impetis, impete. 
(Without plural. Usually impetus, after the fourth declension.) 

lues, an epidemical disease, in the nom., ace, and abl., luem, lue. (No 

(ops, unused, help), in the ace, gen., and abl., opem, opis, ope. In 
the plural, — opes, opum, power, riches, — it is declined throughout. See 

(sordes, unused, dirt), in the ace and abl., sordem, sorde; both rare. 
Usually, sordes, sordium, as plur. tantum. 

1 From 77T&OiC t case, with the Greek numerals. 


(vepres, unused, bramble), in the ace. and abl., veprem, vepre; 
both rare. Commonly plur. tant, vepres, veprium. 

(vicis, or vix, unused, change), in the ace., gen., and abl., vicem, 
vicis, vice. In the plural, vices, vicibus ; the gen. is wanting. 

vis, force, in the nom., ace., and abl., vim, vi. In the plural, vires, 
virium, the powers, complete. 1 

0. The following when used in the singular are used in the abla- 
tive only : ambage, compede, fauce, obice, prece, verbere, and all, 
if we except prece and (rarely) verbere, only by the poets; other- 
wise they are pluralia tantum, ambages, &c. (§ 51, Obs.) 2 

4. Sponte, an impulse (fern.), is used in the abl. sing, only (with- 
out a plural) with a possessive pronoun : e.g. sua sponte, of his own 
accord, nostra sponte ; so likewise several verbal substantives in 
u from supines, which are constructed only with a genitive or a pos- 
sessive pronoun: e.g. jussu populi, by order of the people; man- 
datu Caesaris, by a commission from Ccesar ; rogatu meo, at my 
request ; together with natu, in respect of age (birth) : e.g. grandis 
natu, advanced in age. (In promptu, in procinctu.) 

o. The following substantives are only used in one particular case, and 
in certain combinations : dicis (dicis causa, for form's sake) , nauci (non 
uauci, as gen. of the price, not worth a farthing ; non nauci facio, non 
nauci est), derisui (esse, to be a laughing-stock, according to § 249), 
and so also, despicatui and ostentui (esse), infitias (ire, to deny) , 
suppetias (ferre, to bring assistance), venum (ire, to be sold ; dare, to 
sell). 3 

Secus, sex, with the adjective virile or muliebre, is used without 
alteration in the ace. in apposition to all cases, signifying of the male or 
female sex ; e.g. Liber orum capitum, virile secus, ad decern millia 
capta (Liv. XXVI. 47). (Otherwise, sexus, after the fourth declen- 
sion.) Repetundarum and (de) repetundis (pecuniarum, pecuniis) 
are found only in these cases, when reference is made to judicial proceed- 
ings on account of money raised illegally. 

G. The gen. plur. is wanting in some monosyllables of the third de- 
clension (see § 44, c, Obs. 2) . 

7. The plural grates, some plurals used only by the poets (see § 50, 
Obs. 1), and the plurals of some monosyllables of the neuter gender (aera, 
jura, rura.farra), are found only in the nom. and ace. ; so, likewise, some 

1 Ace. plur. vis, in Lucretius 

* (Ambages, nom. sing., in Tacitus?); preci, dat., in Terence; verberis, gen., in Ovid. 
3 Astu, craftily, as an adverb : in later writers, also, astus, craft, nom. ; and astus, 
nom. and ace. plur. 


plural words of the fifth declension (§ 48, 06s. 2), and of the fourth; im- 
petus, spiritus. 

§ 56. Some words are declined iu two or more ways (abundan- 
tia), and of these some vary in gender as well as in the termination 
of the nominative case. In some instances, however, one form is 
used more frequently than the other. 

Obs. Words with various inflections are termed heteroclita ; those 
with various genders, heterogenea. 1 

Particular examples of this have been already mentioned : as, laurus, 
lauri, and laurus, domus, &c. (§ 46, Obs. 5) ; as also the variation 
between Greek and Latin forms : e.g. logice and logica (§ 35, 
Obs. 1). 

To this class belong also the following : — 

1. In the second declension, some words end both in us (masc.) and in 
urn (neut.) : as, callus and callum, callosity ; commentarius and com- 
mentarium, memoir; jugulus and jugulum, throat; some names of 
plants: as, lupinus, lupinum, lupine; porrus, porrum, leek; cubitus, 
elbow ; also, cubitum (particularly cubita, ells) ; balteus, belt ; bacu- 
lum, stick ; clipeus, shield, — more rarely balteum, baculus, cli- 

2. Menda and mendum, fault, varies between the first and second 
declension. Vespera, evening, has also vesper, and ace. vesperum, 
after the second declension ; and, in the ablative, usually vespere, ves- 
peri, after the third. (Vesper, vesperi (2d), the evening-star.') Aranea 
and araneus, spider ; columbus and columba, dove; and some other 
names of animals. See § 30, Obs. 

3. Some words in ia and ies vary between the first and fifth declen- 
sion ; e.g. barbaria and barbaries, mollitia, mollities, luxuria, luxu- 
ries. (In the gen., dat., and abl., these words more rarely follow the 
fifth decl.) (The form materies is generally used to denote wood for 
building, — materia, for matter.) 

4. Some substantives of the fourth declension, derived from verbs, have 
an additional form in urn, i; e.g. eventus, eventum, event. So also 
angiportus (4th) and angiportum (2d), a narrow street; suggestus 
(4th) and suggestum (2d), platform; tonitrus (4th) and toiiitruum 
(2d), thunder. 

5. The following are to be separately noticed : — 

plebs, plebis (3d), and plebes, plebei (5th), the common people. (Tri- 
buni plebis and plebei, also plebi. See § 48, Obs. 1.) 

From t'repo^, another, and Klcatg, inflection, yivoc, gender. 


reqvies, reqvietis, rest; in the ace. and abl., also, reqviem, re- 
qvie (oth). 

gausape, gausapis, and gausapum (2d), neut., a kind of woollen 
staff; also gausapa (1st), fern. ; and gausapes, gausapis, masc. 

praesepe, praesepis, neut., manger; also, praesepes, praesepis, 
fern, and praesepium (2d). 

tapes, tapetis, masc., carpet; also, tapete, tapetis, neut., and tape- 
turn, tapeti. 

ilia, flanks (plur. tant.), gen. ilium (3d) and iliorum, dat. and abl. 

6. Jugerum, jugeri, acre, is declined, in the singular, after the second 
declension ; in the plural, after the third : jugera, jugerum, jugeribus 
(rarely jugeris). 

Vas, vasis, vessel (3d) , follows the second declension in the plural ; 
vasa, vasorum, vasis. 

7. In some words, not only the case-endings, but even the stem 
itself varies ; so that they are, properly, distinct words, not merely differ- 
ent declensions of the same. Of this class are to be noticed, — 

femur, thigh, femoris and feminis (from the unused nom. femen) ; 
and so the remaining cases. 

jecur, jecoris, liver; in the gen., also, jocinoris, jecinoris, joci- 
neris ; and so the remaining cases. 

juventus, juventutis, youth ; in the poets, juventa (1st), and Juven- 
tas, Juventatis, the goddess of youth. 

Senectus, old age; in the poets, senecta (1st). 

Pecus, pecudis, fern., a head of (small) cattle (the nom. rare) ; 
pecus, pecoris (generally collectively, cattle) ; also, pecua (plur. tan- 
tum), pecubus 

penus, penoris, plur. penora, a store of provisions ; also, penus, 
penus, fern., and penum, peni, — the last two forms without a plu- 

So, also, colluvio (3d) and colluvies (bt\\), filth washed together, a 
confused mixture ; contagio (3d) and contagium (2d, in the poets and 
later writers), contact, contagion; scorpio (3d) and scorpius (2d), the 
scorpion; with some others. 

Obs. Some Greek words are partly adopted in their Greek form, partly 
employed in a Latin form, somewhat modified ; e.g. crater (3d, masc.) 
and cratera 1 (fem.), elephas (elephantis, 3d) and elephantus (2d), 
tiaras (1st, masc.) and tiara (fern.). See § 33, Obs. 3. Of the words 
chaos, chaos; cetos, ichalc ; melos, song (3d, neut.), we find (but 
rarely) the Latin forms chaus (abl chao),cetus, melus (masc). The 
city of Argos is also named, in Latin, Argi, Argorum (§ 51, f). 

[Hor. Od. iii. 18, 7.] 


§ 57. Some few words change wholly or partially in the plural 
the gender which they have in the singular ; as : — 

jocus, jest ; plur., joci and joca. 

locus, place; plur., loca, places, in a material signification; loci, 
passages in books, subjects. (Some authors, however, use loci in the sense 
of loca.) 

carbasus, linen (fern.) ; plur., carbasa (sails). 

coelum, heaven ; plur., coeli. 

frenum, bit ; plur., freni and frena. 

rastrum, mattock; plur., rastri and rastra. 

ostrea, oyster ; plur., ostreae, and ostrea, ostreorum. 

sibilus, hissing ; plur., sibili, — poet., sibila. 

Tartarus, hell ; plur., Tartara. (A Greek word, used only in the 

Obs. Of balneae and epulae (balneum, epulum), see § 51, 
Obs. c, d. 



§ 58. Adjectives, and likewise participles, are declined by cases ; 
but they are at the same time subject to some variation in form to 
correspond with the gender of the substantive to which they belong. 
Thus those adjectives which in the masculine gender follow the 
second declension, in the feminine add a to the stem throughout, 
and are declined according to the first declension. But those, on 
the other hand, which follow the third declension (of which the 
stem ends in a consonant), are varied only in the formation of the 
nominative and accusative. They thus become adjectives of throe, 
of two, or of one termination in the nominative. They are then 
declined like substantives with a similar stem and of the same gen- 
der, as it has been said already, under the declension of substan- 
tives. (No adjectives belong to the fourth or fifth declension.) 

1. Adjectives of the First and Second Declension, and 
Three Terminations. Those adjectives which in the masculine 
and neuter gender follow the second declension, end either in us, in 
the neuter in um, and in the feminine in a : e.g. probus, proba, 
probum, honest; or in er, erum (ruin), era (ra) : e.g. liber, 


libera, liberum, free; niger, nigra, nigrum, black; one ends 
in nr : satur, satura, saturum, sated. 1 

Those adjectives in er, which retain e before r in the gen. sing, 
(and have already been enumerated in § 37), retain it also in the 
fcm. and neat : e.g. liber, gen. liberi, libera, liberum ; the others 
omit it : e.g. niger, gen. nigri, nigra, nigrum. 

Obs. 1. In this way, are also varied the participles in us : as, amatus, 
amata, amatum, loved ; amaturus, amatura, amaturum, that will love; 
and amandus, amanda, amandum, that is to be loved, lovable. 

Obs. 2. Of the irregular gen. and dat. of some adjectives in us, 
avc have already spoken, in treating of the second declension (§ 37, 
Obs. 2). 

Obs. 8. The distinction between the two classes of adjectives consists 
onlv in this, that those in er have not assumed the ending us in the nomin- 
ative (as properus, praeposterus, and triqvetius have done, as well as 
all those with a long e, as severus), and that in some of them an e has 
been inserted in the nominative. Of cetera, ceterum (ace. ceterum, 
ceteram, ceterum, and so on in all genders) , and ludicra, ludicrum 
(ace. ludicruni, ludicram, ludicrum, &c), the nom. masc. sing, is not 
in use ; that of posterus rarely occurs. 

§ 59. 2. Adjectives of the Third Declension, and Two or 
Three Terminations. Of the adjectives of the third declension 
some end in is in the nominative of the masculine and feminine 
(with the connecting vowel i inserted between the stem and s, see 
§ 40, 1, c) y in the nominative of the neuter in e (with e as an affix, 
see § 40, 2, c) ; e.g. levis, leve, light (abl. levi, neut. plur. levia, 
gen. plur. levium. See § 42-44). The distinction between the 
neuter and the other genders is only marked in the nom. and ace. 
sing, and plur. (levis, leve; levem, leve; leves, levia). 

Thirteen adjectives, the stem of which ends in r, and which are, in all 
other respects, declined like those adduced ending in is, e, have, in the 
nom. sin^. masc. gender, er for ris, and therefore in this case three ter- 
minations ; e.g. masc. acer, fern, acris, neut. acre (gen. acris, &c). 
These adjectives are: acer, keen ; alacer, alert; campester, belonging 
to the field, flat; celeber, much frequented, famous ; celer, sicift; eqves- 
ter, belonging to the cavalry or to knighthood ; paluster, marshy ; pe- 
dester, belonging to the infantry; puter, putrid; saluber, ivholesome ; ' 
Silvester, belonging to a wood, wooded ; terrester, belonging to the earth 

1 It is usual to Dame the genders in this order, though the masculine and neuter are most 
nearly related in respect of form. 


or continent ; volucer, winged : celer alone retains the e in the inflec- 
tion, — fem. celeris, neut. celere, gen. celeris. 

Obs. 1. Sometimes these adjectives end in ris in the masc. also, so that 
they in no respect differ from the others in is : e.g. annus salubris (Cic.) ; 
collis silvestris (Caes.). But this occurs but rarely in most words of 
this class, and chiefly in the poets. 

Obs. 2. To the same form as these adjectives belong the names of the 
months, September, October, November, December, which, in the 
nom. sing., occur only in the masc. (mensis), but are found in the femi- 
nine in such phrases as Kalendae Septembres, &c. (libertate Decem- 
bri, the freedom of December, Hor.). 

Obs. 3. Some few adjectives have both the form in us (a, um) and that 
in is (e) ; viz. hilarus, hilaris, merry, and various adjectives formed by- 
composition from substantives of the first and second decl. : imbecillus 
(imbecillis, rare), weak; imberbus, imberbis, without a beard ; iner- 
mus, inermis, unarmed ; semiermis, semiermus, half -armed; exani- 
mus, exanimis, deprived of life; semianimus, semianimis, half 
deprived of life ; unanimus, unanimis, unanimous ; bijugus, qvadri- 
jugus, multijugus, and bijugis, &c, with two, four, or many horses; 
infrenus, infrenis, unbridled. So of acclivis, rising (in the form of 
a hill) ; declivis, inclined downwards ; proclivis, inclined downwards 
(also inclined to any thing, and easy} ; there is found a rare form, ac- 
cllvus, &c. 

§ 60. 3. Adjectives of the Third Declension, and One 
Termination, a. The remaining adjectives of the third declension 
have only one termination in the nominative : e.g. sapiens, wise ; 
felix, happy ; gen. sapientis, felicis; so also the participles in ns: 
as, amans, loving ; legens, reading. But the neuter gender is distin- 
guished in the singular by having the ace. the same as the nom. 
(masc. and fem. sapientem, felicem, neut. sapiens, felix), and in 
the nom. and ace. plural by the termination ia (masc. and fem. sapi- 
entes, felices, neut. sapientia, felicia). (Only vetus has vetera, 
see §43, 1. Ablative sapienti and sapiente, see § 42; genitive 
plural sapientium, see § 44.) 

b. Adjectives of one termination are found in many of the forms 
of the stem and nominative given under the substantives (§ 41, a). 
Those which occur most frequently are : nom. as, gen. atis : eg. 
Arpinas, Arpinatis, belonging to the city of Arpinum ; ns, ntis : 
e.g. sapiens, sapientis, wise ; ax, acis : e.g. ferax, feracis, fruitful 

The remaining forms are er, gen. eris (viz. degener, pauper, uber) ; 
es, gen. itis (viz. ales, coeles, dives, sospes, superstes) ; es, etis 



(hebes, indiges, praepes, teres : the following should be noticed par- 
ticularly : deses and reses, desidis and resldis; locuples, locupletis; 
pubes, puberis, and impubes, impuberis, which is also declined impu- 
bis, inapubis) ; ex, icis (e.g. supplex) ; ix, icis (felix, pernix) ; ox, ocis 
(atrox, ferox, velox ; but praecox, praecocis) ; the several words 
caelebs, caelibis ; cicur, cicuris ; compos and impos, compotis and 
impotis ; dis, ditis ; memor, memoris ; oscen, oscinis ; par, paris 
(dispar, impar) ; tnix, triicis ; vetus, veteris ; vigil, vigilis; with some 
which are formed from substantives of the third declension, and have the 
stem of these substantives : as, concors, concordis, with others from 
cor ; biceps, bicipitis, with others (anceps, praeceps, triceps) from 
caput ; intercus, intercutis, from cutis ; iners, inertis, from ars ; dis- 
color, discoloris, from color ; qvadrupes, qvadrupedis, with others 
from pes, &c. (Exsangvis, however, has exsangvis in the genitive.) 

c. The neuter plural is only formed from those adjectives of one 
termination, which end in ans and ens, in as (rarely), rs, ax, ix, 
and ox, and from the numeral adjectives in plex ; as : 

elegantia, sapientia, Larinatia, sollertia, concordia, tenacia, feli- 
cia, atrocia, simplicia, duplicia (from elegans, elegant ; sapiens, wise ; 
Larinas, belonging to the city of Larinum ; sollers, prudent, ingenious ; 
concors, agreed ; tenax, tenacious, persevering ; felix, happy ; atrox, 
horrible) ; and from the following, to be separately noticed : anceps, 
two-sided ; praeceps, steep ; locuples, rich ; par, equal ; vetus, old ; 
in later writers also from hebes, blunt ; teres, round ; qvadrupes,ybw- 
footed ; versicolor, of various colors. (Consequently, not, for exam- 
ple, from memor, pauper, supplex, trux, compos, uber, &c.) 

Some adjectives, which otherwise have no neuter in the plural, never- 
theless occur with neuter substantives in the dat. and abl. : e.g. suppli- 
cibus verbis, with suppliant words (Cic.) ; discoloribus signis, with 
signs of various colors (id.) ; puberibus foliis, with sprouting leaves 
(from pubes, Virg.). 

Obs. 1. Some few adjectives vary between one and more endings : as, 
opulens, rich, and opulentus, a, um ; violens, violent, and, more fre- 
quently, violentus. Dives, rich, changes with dis (gen. ditis), neut. 
dite ; the neuter plural is ditia, the comp. and superl. both divitior, di- 
vitissimus, and ditior, ditissimus. 

Obs. 2. The substantives derived from verbs (personal names) in tor, 
which form feminines in trix (see § 177, 2), are sometimes connected as 
adjectives with other substantives, especially victor, the conqueror, as 
an adj., victorious, fem. victrix; and ultor, the revenger, as an adj., 
avenging, fern, ultrix; e.g. victor exercitus, ultrices deae. From these 
two, the poets form a neuter plural, victricia (e.g. arma) and ultricia 


(e.g. tela) ; and in the same way from the substantive hospes, stranger, 
guest, the neuter plural hospita (e.g. aeqvora). 

Obs. 3. Some other appellations of persons are also used by the 
poets and later writers as adjectives (by apposition) : e.g. artifex, artist 
(artifex motus, motion guided by art, Quinct.) ; incola, inhabitant 
(turba incola, crowd of inhabitants, Ovid) ; but very rarely with a 
neuter substantive (ruricola aratrum, the Jield-tilUng plough, Ovid). 1 

Obs. 4. Juvenis and senex are poetically used as adjectives (juvenes 
anni, youthful years, Ovid) . Princeps is an adjective (princeps locus, 
principes viri), but most frequently as belonging to a verb ; as, 
Gorgias princeps ausus est, Gorgias frst ventured. (See Syntax, 
§ 300, a.) 

Obs. 5. Words are formed in Greek from the names of countries, towns, 
and nations, ending in as (ados) and in is (idos), which arc feminine 
national names, and feminine adjectives. These the Latin poets also use 
as feminine adjectives, and form others on the same principle : e.g. Pe- 
lias hasta, the Pelian spear (from Mount Pelion) ; Ausonis ora, the 
Ausonian coast (Ausones) ; Hesperides aqvae, the Hesperian {Italian) 

§ 61. Certain forms of some adjectives are not in use, as the nomina- 
tives primor, eminent; seminex, half -dead; sons, guilty (caeterus, ludi- 
crus, § 58, Obs. 3). Exlex, without law; and exspes, ivithout hope, — 
are found only in the nom. and ace. ; pernox, through the night, in the 
nom. and abl. ; trillcem, of three threads, only in the ace. Pauci, few; 
and generally pleriqve, most (many) , — are used in the plural only, the 
last without a genitive. We find, however, pleraqve nobilitas, juven- 
tus, the greater part of the nobility, of the youth ; plerumqve exercitum 
(ace), and sometimes plerumqve (neut)., signifying the greater part. 
Frugi, good ; and neqvam, good for nothing, — are indeclinable in all 
cases. (Homo frugi, hominem frugi, hominis frugi, &c. ; homines 
frugi, &c.) 

Obs. The words opus and necesse (also undeclined) are only used in 
connection with the verb sum: opus est, sunt, it is necessary; ne- 
cesse est, impers., it is necessary. 

§ 62. Besides the form which is used when a property is simply 
attributed to an object (gradus positivus), adjectives have two 
forms of comparison (gradus comparationis). One is used when, 
in a comparison of two objects, a quality is attributed to one in a 
higher degree than to the other (or than to the same at another 
time), and is called the Comparative degree; e.g. vir probior, a 
more upright man. The other form is employed when a quality is 

1 [populum late regem (Virg.), regina pecunia (Hor.) ] 


attributed to an object iii the highest degree, and is named Superla- 
tive degree; e.g. vir probissimus, the most upright man. The 
changing of the adjective from the positive to the other forms is 
called its Comparison. 

The participles in ns (present participle active), and the passive 
participle (pert part.) in us, are also compared, when they take the 
complete signification of adjectives ; i.e. when they signify a prop- 
erty without reference to time. 

Obs. The participle in urus (future participle active) and the ger- 
undive (in ndus) are never compared. 

§ G3. The comparative is formed by adding to the stem (as it is 
seen in the positive, when the case-ending is removed) the endings 
ior (masc. and fern.) and ius (neut.) ; as : 

probus (prob-us), compar. probior, probius ; liber (ace. liber-um), 
liberior, liberius ; niger (ace. nigr-um), nigrior, nigrius; levis (lev- 
is), levior, levius ; sapiens (ace. sapient-em), sapientior, sapientius; 
felix (ace. felic-em), felicior, felicius. (Ace. probiorem, probius, 
gen. probioris, &c, according to the third declension, abl. probiore, — 
more rarely probiori ; plur., probiores, probiora, gen. probiorum.) 

Obs. From the comparative of some adjectives, there is formed a di- 
minutive in cuius (see § 182, c, Obs.) : e.g. duriusculus (-a, -um) ; 
grandiusculus, longiusculus, majusculus (from major), plusculus, 
sometimes to show a slight preponderance: e.g. Thais qvam ego sum 
grandiuscula est, a Utile older ; sometimes to diminish the force of the 
positive : e.g. duriusculum est, it is somewhat hard. 

§ G4. The superlative generally ends in issimus (a, um), which 
is added to the stem in the same way as the ending of the compara- 
tive; e.g. probissimus, levissimus, sapientissimus, felicissimus. 

In adjectives that end in er in the nom. masc. (both of the second and 
third declension), the r of the nom. is doubled, and the ending imus 
affixed: e.g. liber, liberrimus; niger, nigerrimus; acer, acerrimus; 
celer, celerrimus. On the same principle, are formed veterrimus from 
vetus (gen. veter-is), and prosperrimus from prosperus. Maturus, 
ripe, has maturissimus and maturrimus (especially the adverb matur- 

The adjectives facilis, easy ; difficilis, difficult ; gracilis, slender, 
thin ; humilis, low ; similis, like ; dissimilis, unlike, — form the super- 
lative, after removing the ending, by doubling the 1, and adding imus; 
facillimus, difficillimus, gracillimus, &c. (From imbecillis, weak, is 
formed imbecillimus, but from imbecillus, imbecillissimus. (See 
above, § 59, Obs. 3.) 


Obs. 1. The remaining adjectives in ilia have the usual form ; e.g. 
utilis, utilissimus ; but many want the superlative. (See below.) 

Obs. 2. We may remark the antiquated orthography probissumus, 
nigerrumus, &e., for probissimus, nigerrimus. (See § 5, a, Obs. f>.) 

§ Go. Some adjectives vary from the regular comparison. 
1. Adjectives in dlcus, flcus, volus, derived from the verbs dico, 
facio, volo: e.g. maledicus, slanderous; munificus, liberal; ben- 
evolus, well-wishing, — form the comparative in entior, the superla- 
tive in entissimus (as if from participles in ens) ; maledic entior, 
munificentior, benevolentior, maledicentissimus, munificentissi- 
mus, benevolentissimus. 1 

Obs. Egenus, needy ; and providus, provident, — take, for their 
degrees of comparison, those of the participles egens and providens ; 
as, egentior, egentissimus. 

2. The following adjectives form their degrees of comparison 
either with some change of the stem, as it exists in the positive, 
or from an entirely different stem ; sometimes, too, with variations 
in the ending. 


bonus, good. melior, melius optimus 

malus, bad. pejor, pejus pessimus 

magnus, great. major, majus maximus 

multus, much. plus 2 (neut.) plurimus 

parvus, little. minor, minus minimus 

neqvam, 3 good for nothing, neqvior neqvissimus 

frugi, 3 frugal. frugalior frugalissimus 

From senex, juvenis, are formed the comparatives senior, junior, 
without a superlative. 

Obs. Multus, in prose, signifies much ; as, multus sudor, multa 
cura. In the poets, it denotes, in the sing., many a; e.g. multa ta- 
bella, multa victima. Pluris is used only as a genitive of the price 
(Syntax, § 294). Pluria for plura is rare and archaic. From plures 
come complures, complura (rarely compluria), gen. complurium. 

§ 66. a. Some adjectives which denote the relation of time or 
place which one object bears to another, are commonly used only 

1 Mirifieissimus from mirificus, in Terence. 

2 In the singular only the neut. plus, more ; nom. and ace, with the genitive pluris, in th« 
plur. ; plures, plura, several; plurium, pluribus. 

3 Indeclinable in the positive. 


in the comparative and superlative. The positive is either not used 
at all (but only a corresponding preposition or adverb), or only in 
certain particular combinations, or with a peculiar meaning. The 
superlative in these adjectives has an irregular, and in some a dou- 
ble form. 

(citra, prep.) citerior, on this side, citimus, liitliermost. 

(exteri, in the plur. exterior, outer. extremus, the utmost 

only ; extra, prep.) (rarely extimus). 

Obs. Exten, strangers, foreigners ; also, exterae nationes, extera 
regna, &c. 

(inferum, plur. inferi ; inferior, lower. infimus or imus, lowest, 
prep, infra.) undermost. 

Obs. Inferum. is commonly used only in the combination mare in* 
ferum, the sea below Italy, southward of Italy ; inferi, the inhabitants of 
the infernal regions ; infera flumina, inferae partes, the rivers of the 
lower world, the subterraneous parts of the world. 

(intra, prep.) interior, inner. intimus, most inward. 

(prope, prep.) propior, nearer. proximus, nearest. 

Obs. Propinqvus is used for the positive. Its comparative, propin- 
qvior, is rare. 

(posterus, prep, post.) posterior, later, hinder. postrSmus, the last. 

Obs. Posterus (not used in the nom. masc.) signifies the following, the 
next (in order of time) ; e.g. posterum diem, postera nocte, in the 
poets postera aetas, and so on. Posteri, posterity. The superlative 
form postumus is found, in good writers, only in the signification last- 
born, born after (after the father's death), Alius postumus. (Anterior 
from ante, is found only in later writers.) 

(superum, plur. superi ; superior, upper, cupremus, the extreme, 
prep, supra.) last (in point of time). 

summus, the highest. 

Obs. Superum is usually found only in the expression mare superum, 
the sea north of Italy (the Adriatic) ; superi, the gods above ; supera, the 
upper parts of the world. (Rarely as an adjective, res superae, belong- 
ing to the upper world, limen superum.) 

(ultra, prep.) ulterior, on the other ultimus, the last, 

side, funher. 
prior, the first, former, primus, first. (See 


b. The following comparatives and superlatives also want the 
positive : — 

deterior, worse. deterrimua 

ocior, swifter. ocissimus 

potior, preferable. potissimus 

Obs. 1. satius, better, more advisable (from adverb satis), is only used 
in the neuter with est (impersonally) . 

Obs. 2. (Seqvior) seqvius, of less account, less good, is rare as an 
adjective ; adverb, seciusi 

§ G7. Many adjectives have no forms for the comparative and 
superlative, because they only show that an object does or does not 
belong to a strictly limited class, so that it is impossible or difficult 
to conceive a difference of degree: e.g. aureus, golden; and all 
those which designate a material : Graecus, Greek ; pedester, belong- 
ing to the infantry ; aestivus, belonging to the summer ; hesternus, 
of yesterday ; and others which denote a certain period of time: 
vivus, living ; sospes, uninjured ; merus, mere, pure; memor, re- 
membering. Other adjectives have no comparative or superlative, 
because, from the form of the adjective, these would want euphony. 
On account of one or other of these impediments, the following 
adjectives have commonly no forms of comparison. 

a. Those which have the termination us preceded by a vowel: e.g. 
idoneus, convenient ; dubius, doubtful (but tenuis, thin, tenuior, tenu- 

Obs. Those in mis, however, are sometimes used in the superlative : 
assiduissimus, strenuissimus (from assiduus, persevering ; strenuus, 
vigorous), more rarely in the comparative, as assiduior. Of those in 
ius, there occur the comparative egregior, from egregius, distinguished, 
with some others ; and the superlatives egregiissimus and piissimus, from 
pius, pious, but not in the better writers. 

b. Most of those which are compounded of verbs or substantives : e.g. 
those in fer and ger, from fero, gero ; ignivomus, vomiting f re (vomo); 
degener, degenerate (genus) ; discolor, of various colors (color) ; 
inops, poor (ops) ; magnanimus, noble-minded (animus). We must, 
however, except those in dicus, ficus, volus, from dico, facio, volo, of 
which several (not all) are compared (see § 65, 1), and those from ars, 
mens, cor: as, iners, sollers, demens, concors, discors, vecors (rarely 
misericors) . 

c. Most of those which arc manifestly derivatives (from Latin words 
in use) with the terminations Icus, alis or aris, ilis, iilus, timus, inus, 
ivus, orus (e.g. civicus, naturalis, hostilis, qveriilus, legitimus, pere- 



griuus, furtivus, decorus), with those derived from substantives with 
the terminations atus and itns (e.g. barbatus, bearded). 

Ow^. ^.vaw exceptions, however, occur, partly in the comparative and 
superlative: e.g. hospitalis, hospitable; liberalis, liberal; divinus, 
godlike, divine ( liberalior, liberalissimus, Sec.), partly in the compara- 
tive alone: as, rusticus, rural, rustic} aeqvalis, equal, uniform ; capi- 
talis, fatal, capital ; popularis, favorable to the people; regalis, royal ; 
salutaris, wholesome; civilis, civil; teinpestivus, seasonable (aeqvalior, 

(I. To those arc to be added some particular words, which cannot be 
referred to any general rule: e.g. tenia, wild; gnarus, knowing ; minis, 
wonderful; navus, active ; rudis, raw, unpolished; trux, harsh (while 
verus, clarus, dims, with the same form, have the degrees of compari- 
son ; serus, late, on the other hand, rarely.) 

Obs. 1. Of adjectives with certain terminations, especially ldus, many 
remain -without comparison (e.g. trepidus, apprehensive), while others 
are compared (e.g. callidus, sly ; candidus, white, &c). In some adjec- 
tives, it may be simply accident that the forms of comparison occur in no 
old writer. 

Obs. 2. The words dexter, right ; and sinister, left, express already 
in the positive a relation to some other object ; and the comparative is 
consequently superfluous. Yet some Avriters have used dexterior and 
sinisterior in the signification of the positive, and even the superlative 
dextimus (Sail.). 

§ G8. a. The following adjectives have no comparative in use, 
while the superlative occurs: falsus, false; inclltus, renowned; 
novus, new (novissimus, the last) ; sacer, holy ; vetus, old (veter- 
rimus; on the other hand vetustus, vetustior, vetustissimus). 

Obs. Several participles are also used in the superlative without a com- 
parative ; e.g. meritus, and, compounded with in, invictus, uncon- 
quered, invincible. (But doctus, learned, doctior, doctissimus; 
indoctus, indoctior, indoctissimus, &c.) 

b. Many adjectives in His (bllis), which are derived from verbs, 
have the comparative, but not the superlative : e.g. agilis, active ; 
docilis, teachable ; credlbilis, credible ; probabilis, allowable, proba- 
ble ; also the following: ater, black ; coecus, blind ; jejunus, fasting ; 
longinqvus, distant; proclivis, leaning downwards; propinqvus, 
near (sec under propior, § 66, a); surdus, deaf; teres, round; 
and some others. (Adolescentior from adolescens, young ; com- 
monly a substantive, the youth.) 

§70 Ilii 

Othen in ilia (bills) an. conmand ih,, 
bills, fragilia, fertllis (feio), nobilia (uoicoi, igiiobilia, mobilia, 
utilia. (Subtilia and villa are ... i d« rived froi i 

W^eaacompa quired, and the forms of the oompara- 

uperlative arc nol in use, magi 
a,v P^fixed to the adjective; e.g. magis mirus, maxime 
(summe, in the highest degree) mirus. Otherwise, tli 
lion is generally used only by th< p 

Oas. With aview to heighten the significadon f i»r iipreawdto 

*»d b } all writers; e.g. peroommodua, 
mth prae — e.g. praegelidua, wry e*W—sr, found .... 
md later prose. Adjectives, which have their signification 
in tins way, are not compared. Only praeclarus, iliustrio* 
I as a simple word, and used by all writers. 


Til B N I M l. B V L S. 

§ CO. Those numerals which are used only to count and t 
J a given number are called Cardinal numbers: those d 
from them, whirl, express the number of an object and ; 
ries, — e.g. tertius, the third, — are called Ordinals. 
two kinds, there are in Latin numbers expressing d i 
Lition (Distributives) which express a number as thoc 
al times (one for each object or case) ; e.g. seni. 
six at a time. 

§ 70. The names of the cardinal numbers are as follows : with 
them are given the Latin numerical siffns. 

1 unus, una, unum. \ decern. 

U duo, duae, duo. \| undecim. 

Hi tres.tria. XII duodecim. 

l\ qvattuor; XIII tredecim or decern et tros 

\ qviiiqve. (tres et decim) 

8CX - XIV qvattuoi decini 

TO septem. x y qvindecim 

\ hit ° C ° yiVl sedecini (sexdocim, decern 

N 1UI or 1^ novem. et Bcx y 



XVII decern et septem or sep- 
temdecim (septem et decern). 

XV 111 duodeviginti (properly 2 
from 20, or 20 minus 2) or (more 
rarely) decern et octo. 

XIX undeviginti or (more rarely) 
decern et novem. 

LXXX octoginta. 

XC nonaginta. 

XCVIII nonaginta octo, octo et 

XCIX or IC nonaginta novem 

novem et nonaginta, undecen- 

C centum. 

XX viginti. 

XXL unus (a, urn) et viginti or CI centum et unus, or centum 

viginti unus (a, um). 
XXII duo (duae) et viginti or 
viginti duo (duae), and so on; 

e.g. : 
XXV qvinqve et viginti or vi- 
ginti qvinqve. 

XXVIII duodetriginta or (more 
rarely) octo et viginti or viginti 

XXIX undetriginta or (more 
rarely) novem et viginti or 
viginti novem. 

CII centum et duo, centum duo, 

&c. ; e.g. : 
CXXIV centum et viginti qvat- 

tuor, centum viginti qvattuor. 
CC ducenti, ae, a. 
CCC trecenti, ae, a. 
CCCC qvadringenti, ae, a. 
10 or D qvingenti, ae, a. 
DC sexcenti, ae, a. 1 
DCC septingenti, ae, a. 
DCCC octingenti, ae, a. 

XXX triginta, and so on, as with DCCCC nongenti, ae, a. 

viginti; e.g. : 

XXXIX undeqvadraginta or 
(more rarely) novem et tri- 
ginta or triginta novem. 

XL quadraginta. 

L qvinqvaginta. 

LX sexaginta. 

LXX septuaginta. 

CIO or M miUe. 
CIOCIO or MM duo millia, &c. 
100 qvinqve millia. 
I00CI0CI0 or I0MM septem 

CCI00 decern millia. 
1000 qvinqvaginta millia. 
CCCI000 centum millia. 

Obs. 1. The pronominal words (see § 93) tot, so many ; qvot, Tiow 
many? and totidem, just so many, — have a signification corresponding 
with these numbers. (The numeral adjectives multi, pauci, omnes, 
nulli, nonnulli, pleriqve, are also allied to them in signification.) 

Obs. 2. The Latin numeral signs, with the exception of M (an abbre- 
viation of mille), were originally not letters, but arbitrary signs, which 
subsequently received the form of letters. A stroke (I) with a (in- 
verted) is 500 ; and every additional corresponds to a cipher in our fig- 
therefore, 100 = 5,000, 1000 == 50,000. The number is doubled 
when as many C's are put before the stroke as there stand O's after it; 

1 Sexcenti is used of an indefinite \nr& number ; as, a hundred, a thousand, in English. 
[So trecenti in Horace: Amatorem trecentae Pirithoum cohibent catenae 
(Od. ill. 4, 79.)] 

§ 72 THE NUMERALS. ~ ;> 

therefore, CIO = 1,000, CCIOD = 10,000, CCCIOOO = 100,000. In 
more modern Latin books, our (Arabic) numeral* are lotnetmu 

use of. 

§ 71. The numerals under mille are adjectives: the three 
are declined ; the numbers from qvattuor to decern, those which 
end in decim, and the tens (viginti, triginta, &<•.) with centum, 
are undeclined: so also undeviginti, duodeviginti, and the others, 
which are formed in the same way (by subtraction). Ducenti and 
the following hundreds are declined like the plural of adjectives 
in us. 

Unus, una, unum, has, in the gen., in all genders, unlus; in the dat., 
uni (see § 37, Obs. 2) ; but is otherwise regularly declined after the 
second and first declension. It has also a plural, — uni, unae, una, 
— in the signification alone, of one kind, with plural substantives. Uni 
Svevi, the Suevi alone ; unis moribus vivere (Cic. pro Flacc. 2G), 
to live with manners unchanged. Uni, alteri, the one party, the other. 
Of unae litterae, see § 76, c, Obs.) 

Duo is thus declined : — 


Nom. duo duae 

Ace. duo (masc. also duos) duas 

Gen. duorum duarum 

Dat. duobus duabus 

Abl. duobus duabus 

In the same way is declined the word ambo, ambae, ambo, both 
(e.g. ace. masc, ambo or ambos). The gen. of duo has also the 
form duum, especially duum millium. (See § 34, 06s. 3 ; § 37, 
Obs. 4.) 

Tres is declined according to the third declension, thus : — 





















§ 72. a. Mille is usually an indeclinable adjective ; e.g. mille 
homines, mille hominum, mille hominibus. Sometimes, however, 
it is used as a substantive in the sing., and is followed by the name 
of the objects enumerated in the gen. ; e.g. ea civitas mille misit 
militum (Corn. Milt. 5), but then usually only in the nom. or acc. 


0B8. 1 • When mille Btandfl as ■ nom. in the way last mentioned, i.e. as 
a substantia with the gen. following, it is, notwithstanding, usually fol- 
lowed by ■ ferb in the plural: inille passuum eraiit inter urbem cas- 
traqve (Liv. XXIII. 44). Such a phrase as ibi mille hominum 
occiditur is antiquated. 

Obs. 2. Mille seldom occurs as a substantive in any other case 
than the nom. and ace, and then only in connection with millia in 
the Bame case: cum octo millibus pedituin, mille eqvitum (Liv. 
XXI. 61>. 

b. From mille comes the plural millia (milia), thousands, a 
substantive (gen. millium, dat. abl. millibus), to which the smaller 
numerals are prefixed; tria, sex, viginti, centum millia, with the 
gen. of the objects enumerated (see § 285, a) ; e.g. sex millia 
peditum, duo millia eqvitum. 

Obs. 1. When smaller (adjective) numerals follow millia, the name 
of the objects enumerated, provided it comes afterwards, is put in the 
same case as millia (not in the genitive) : e.g. Caesi sunt tria millia 
trecenti milites ; Caesar cepit duo millia trecentos sex Gallos. 
But if the name of the objects enumerated comes first, it is usually put 
in the genitive governed by millia; e.g. Caesar Gallorum duo millia 
qvingentos sex cepit. Sometimes, however : Gallos cepit duo mil- 
lia qvingentos sex. (Omnes eqvites, XV millia numero, conve- 
nire jubet, in apposition. Cses. B. G. VII. 64.) 

Obs. 2. Bis mille, ter mille, instead of duo millia, tria millia, is 

§ 73. From the examples in § 70, it is seen that, in compounding the 
numbers that fall between the tens from 20 up to 100, either the ten with- 
out et, or the smaller number ivith et, is placed first (viginti unus, unus 
et viginti; viginti et unus is rare). For 28, 29, 38, 39, &c, the 
expressions formed by subtraction are the most usual (duodetriginta, 
undetriginta). The hundreds (in prose) are always placed before the 
tens, with or without, et, and then the tens before the units ; e.g. cen- 
tum et sexaginta sex or centum sexaginta sex (Deviations from 
this are rare.) 

A million is denoted, in Latin, by the expression 10 times 100,000 ; 
decies centum millia or (with the distributive numeral, see § 76, b) 
decies centena millia, and so on, above a million ; undecies, duode- 
cies centum or centena millia (1.10u,000, 1,200,000), vicies, tricies 
centum millia (2,000,000, 3,000,000), vicies qvinqvies centena mil- 
lia (2,500,000). To these, the single thousands are added, in the follow- 
ing way : decies centena millia triginta sex millia centum nonaginta 
sex (1,030, 190;. 



§ 74. The Ordinals arc all adjectives in us, a, um, ind 
larly declined. Their Dames arc: — 

1 primus, first (of two, prior, 28 duodetricesimus, more rare- 

whieh is a comparative. Sec 
§ 66, .0- 

2 secundus or alter. 
S tertius. 

4 qvartus. 

5 qvintus. 
G sextus. 

7 septimus. 

8 octavus. 

9 nonus. 

10 decimus. 

11 undecimus. 

12 duodecimus. 

13 tertius decimus (rarely, deci- 

mus et tertius, &c.). 

14 qvartus decimus. 

15 qvintus decimus. 
1G sextus decimus. 

17 septimus decimus. 

18 duo devicesimus (more rarely, 

octavus decimus). 

19 undevicesimus (more rarely, 

nonus decimus). 

20 vicesimus (vigesimus). 

21 unusetvicesimus (unaetvi- 

cesima, unumetvicesi- 
mum), more rarely, primus 
et vicesimus, vicesimus 

22 alter (rarely, secundus) et 

vicesimus, vicesimus al- 
ter, or duoetvicesimus 
(duoetvicesima, duoetvi- 

23 tertius et vicesimus, vicesi- 

mus tertius. 

24 qvartus et vicesimus, vicesi- 
mus qvartus, and so on. 

lv, octavus et vic< 
vicesimus octavus. 

29 undetricesimus, more ran U , 

nonus et vicesimus, vi- 
cesimus nonus. 

30 tricesimus (trigesimus). 

31 primus et tricesimus, tri- 

cesimus primus, or unus- 
ettricesimus, &C M a- in 21. 

38 duodeqvadragesimus, more 

rarely octavus et tricesi- 
mus, tricesimus octavus. 

39 undeqvadragesimus, more 

rarely, nonus et tricesi- 
mus, tricesimus nonus. 

40 qvadragesimus. 
50 qvinqvagesimus. 
GO sexagesimus. 

70 septuagesimus. 
80 octogesimus. 
90 nonagesimus. 

100 centesimus. 

101 centesimus primus. 
110 centesimus decimus. 

1 24 centesimus vicesimus qvar- 
tus, etc. 

200 ducentesimus. 

300 trecentesimus. 

400 qvadringentesimus. 

500 qvingentesimus. 

GOO sexcentesimus. 

700 septingentesimus. 

800 octingentesimus. 

900 nongentesimus. 
1,000 millesimus. 
2,000 bis millesimus, and so on 

With adverbs ; I 
10,000 decies millesimus. 
Oi'.s. 1. Deviations in the composition of the intermediate numlur- 
from 20 to 100 (e.g. primus vicesimus without et, or vicesimus et 


primus with et) are unfrequent. Unus in unusetvicesimus, &c, is 
declinable ; but we find also, in the feminine, the abbreviated form 
unetvicesima, with un invariable. Duo in duoetvicesimus, &c., is 

OB8. 2. To these numbers belongs the interrogative qvotus, 1 wliichin 
the scries") every third, every fourth, &c, are expressed by tertius qvis- 
qve, qvartus qvisqve, &c., with the pronoun qvisqve ; but every other 
(every second) is usually expressed by the adjective alternus, with the 
substantive in the plural; e.g. (abl.) alternis diebus, every other day. 
Qvotus qvisqve hoc facit properly signifies, which in the series every 
time does this? (e.g. is it every seventh person, every eighth? &c.). It 
also signifies, how many do it, pray? (always in a disparaging sense). 

Obs. 3. The number of years is expressed, in Latin, by annus, with 
an ordinal number : annus millesimus octingentesimus qvadragesi- 
mus octavus. 

§ 75. The distributive (repetitive) numerals are adjectives of 
three terminations, following the first and second declension in the 
plural. (In the gen. they often have urn instead of orum. See 
§ 37, Obs. 4.) They are as follows : — 

1 singuli, ae, a, one each, one 22 viceni bini, &c. 

each time. 30 triceni. 

2 bini, ae, a. 40 qvadrageni. 

3 terni (trini). 50 qvinqvageni. 

4 qvaterni. 60 sexageni. 

5 qvini. 70 septuageni. 

6 seni. 80 octogeni. 

7 septeni. 90 nonageni. 

8 octoni. 100 centeni. 

9 noveni. 200 duceni. 

10 denL 300 treceni. 

11 undeni. 400 qvadringeni. 

12 duodeni 500 qvingeni. 

13 terni deni. 600 sexceni. 

14 qvaterni deni, and so on. 700 septingeni. 

18 octoni deni or duodevi- 800 octingeni. 

ceni. 900 nongeni. 

19 noveni deni or undevi- 1,000 singula millia (or only 

ceni millia). 

20 viceni. 2,000 bina millia. 

21 viceni singuli. 10,000 dena millia. 

1 [Qvotus annus (Hor.)] 


Obs. To these numerals corresponds the interrogative qvotSni, hm 

many for each ? how many each time ? 

§ 76. The distributives are employed, — 

a. When it is denoted that a certain number (or something in B 
tain number) is repeated for each of the persons or things mentioned or 
thought of: e.g. Caesar et Ariovistus denos comites ad colloqvium 
adduxerunt, brought each ten attendants ; agri septena jugera plebi 
divisa sunt, seven acres to each citizen ; pueri senura septenumve de- 
num annorum, of sixteen or seventeen years (each of that age) ; turres 
in centenos vicenos pedes attollebantur ; ambulare bina millia 
passuum (every day, or each time). Tritici modius erat (was vrorth, 
stood at) sestertiis ternis (Cic. Ver. III. 81). Singuli homines, 
singuli cives, each several man (the men each for himself), each single 

Obs. If, in expressing a distribution, singuli, each, be added, the 
number may be either a distributive or a cardinal ; e.g. pro tritici mo- 
diis singulis ternos denarios exegit (Cic.) ; singulis denarii tre- 
centi imperabantur (Id.) . Instead of singula millia, the word millia 
is sometimes used alone; so also asses for singuli asses (an as 
each) ; and some other words, which denote a specific measure, 
weight, &c. 

6. When a multiplication is to be expressed ; e.g. bis bina, twice 
two, ter no venae virgines, decies centena millia. (But also decies 
centum millia, and particularly in the poets bis qvinqve viri, ter cen- 
tum, &c.) 

c. With those plural substantives (substantiva pluralia tantum) 
which denote a whole, which can be repeated and counted as such : e.g. 
castra, a camp ; bina castra, two camps ; litterae, a letter ; qvinae lit- 
terae, ^ye letters. (On the contrary, tres liberi, three children, because 
they are counted as individuals.) 

Obs. In such instances, uni is employed, not singuli (§ 71) : e.g. 
unae litterae, one letter ; una castra, one camp. We also usually meet 
with the form trini, for terni, 3. 

d. Sometimes with reference to objects, which are reckoned in pairs : 
e.g. bini scyphi, a pair of goblets (belonging together, Cic.) ; and not 
very rarely in the poets, with precisely the same meaning as the cardi- 
nals: e.g. bina hastilia, two spear-shafts (Virg.). 

Obs. The poets sometimes use the singular of the distributives to 
express a complex object: as, binum corpus, a double body (Luer.) ; 
septeno gurgite, with seven-fold flood (Lucan), of the Nile. 

§ 77. From some numbers are formed adjectives of one termination 
in plex (from plicare, to fold), to denote the multiplication defined by 
the numeral: viz., simplex, simple; duplex, double; triplex, triple; 


qvadruplex, qvincuplex, septemplex, decemplex, centuplex. They 
are called adjectiva multiplicativa, and regularly declined. 

Ons. 1, Some words in plus (simplus, duplus, triplus, qvadruplus 
[septuplus], octuplus), are commonly used only in the neuter, to de- 
note a magnitude, so many times greater than another magnitude. (Du- 
plum, the double of something else ; duplex, twice as great as something 
else, or twice as great as itself doubled.) 

Obs. 2. On the numeral adverbs, see the rules for the formation of 
words, § 199. 



§ 78. The Latin pronouns (properly so called) are distributed, 
according to the manner in which they denote an object, into six 
classes; viz., the personal, the demonstrative, the reflective, the 
relative, the interrogative, the indefinite. To these may be added 
some adjectives derived from pronouns, and termed pronominal 

Most pronouns have different terminations for the genders of the ob- 
jects signified, and may be combined with them like adjectives (hie vir, 
haec femina, hoc signum). 

§ 79. The Personal pronouns denote the speaker himself (in the 
plural the speaker and those in whose name he speaks), and the 
person or persons spoken to. They have no distinction of gender, 
and are not combined with a substantive, inasmuch as they contain 
in themselves all the definition required. They are declined in the 
following manner : — 



E"om. ego, I tu, thou (so also Yoc.) 

Ace. me, me te, thee 

Dat. mihi, to me tibi, to thee 

Abl. me te 


Nom. Ace. nos, we, us vos, you (so also Yoc.) 

Gen. (occasionally) nostrum vestrum 

Dat. Abl. nobis vobis 

§ 81 THE PRONOr 

Obs. 1. Instead of the genitive of these pronouns, the derivative :v\- 

jectives (possessive pronouns) meus and tuus, noster and vestei 
§ 92), are sometimes made use of, sometimes the genitive neater <•! 
adjectives, mei {of my being), tui, nostri, vestri ; nostrum and ves- 
trum are only used in certain combinations: on this, see 297. 

Obs. 2. To all cases of these pronouns, except tu, nostrum, and ves- 
trum, may be affixed the syllable met, which gives prominence to that 
person in comparison with others (/ myself) ; frequently, ipse is also 
added ; e.g. temetipsum. From tu, are formed tute" and tutemet, with 
the same signification. 

Ons. 3. For mini, the poets often use mi (contracted) ; tete is some- 
times found for te, in the most ancient style. Tu and vos are the only 
vocatives of pronouns. 

§ 80. The Demonstrative pronouns point to some definite object 
(or give it prominence). They are hie, this here, litis; iste, that 
there (with you); ille, yon, that there; is, that (which has been 
already mentioned, or is now defined by the addition of which), he 
{she, it) ; idem, the same ; ipse, self; to which may be also added, 
alius, another ; and alter, the other (when two are spoken of). 

Obs. Hie, iste, ille, may be called direct demonstratives ; is, an indi- 
rect demonstrative; idem and ipse, emphatic demonstratives. Alius 
and alter denote the opposite of something defined ; but alter has also 
an indefinite signification, the one (of two). 

§81. The demonstratives are declined as follows: — 
1. Hie. 















in all genders. 


huic in all genders (monosyllable). 


















Dat. Abl. 

his in 

all genders. 

Obs. Ce is sometimes appended to the cases in m and s, particu- 
larly the last : e.g. hujusce, hosce, horunce ; and this form is more 


emphatic. En those cases -which end in c, an e was sometimes heard 
after tat c in the older pronunciation; as, hunce, hice, huice. From 
this with the interrogative particle ue originated hicine, hoclne (less 
correctly hiccine), &C. (In the cases in c, the demonstrative particle ce 
coalesces with the stein of the pronoun. Hice, haece, for hi, hae, 
. uiijuated.) Huic, pronounced as a dissyllable, belongs to a later 

\ 2. Iste. 





iste ista 



is turn is tain 



istius in all genders. 


IStI »» -»i >> 


isto ista 


The plural (isti, istae, ista) is declined regularly after the second and 
first declension. 

3. In the same way is declined ille, ilia, illud. 

Obs. 1. From an old form ollus for ille, we find in Virg. a dat. sing, 
and nom. plur. olli. The gen. illi, illae, for illius, and the dat. illae 
(fern.) for illi, are obsolete. (Instead of istius and illius we also find in 
verse istius and illius : comp. § 37, Obs. 2.) For ellum, see under is. 

Obs. 2. For iste and ille we find also istic, fern, istaec, neut. istoc 
or istuc, and illic, illaec, illoc or illuc, which in the nom., ace, and 
abl., are declined like hie. Sometimes in the antiquated style, ce is 
appended to other cases of iste and ille ; e.g. illasce. 

4. Like iste is declined ipse, ipsa, ipsum, only with m (not d) 
in the neuter. 

Obs. Ipse (sometimes in the comic poets ipsus) is formed from is 
and the termination pse, as idem is formed from is and dem. The old 
forma ea-pse, eam-pse, and eo-pse, for ipsa, ipsam, and ipso, are found 
in Plautus, and eapse in the word reapse, which was in use also at a 
later period ( =re ipsa, in fact). 

§ 83. 5. Is. 














ejus in all genders. 


ei ,, ,, 











§85 Till ,k;J 

• Al . 

Nom. ii (ei) 

Ace. eos 

( i i \ . eorum 

DAT. AbL. iis (eis) in all genders. 
In the same way is declined Idem (for is-dem), compounded of is and 
the syllable dem; viz., idem, eadem, Idem, dem being added to the 
cases of is. (Ace. eu/tdem, ea/<dem, gen. plur. eoru/<d< 

OBS, 1. The orthography ei in the plural is rare (eidem 
ever used), eis Less common than iis. Ii and Us were probablj 
nounced as monosyllables, and in the poetl iidem and iisdem are always 
dissyllables (idem, isdem). 

Obs. 2. From the particles ecce and en (see there /), and tli 
ma>c and fern, of is and ille, there originated in familiar language the 
forma eccum, eccam, eccos, eccas, ellum, ellam, ellos, ellas, which 
occur in Plautus and Terence. (In eccillum, eccistam, there is only 
an elision of e.) 

§ 84. G. Alius. 


Nom. alius alia aliud 

Ace. alium aliam aliud 

Gen. alius in all genders. 

Dat. alii ,, ,, 

Abl. alio alia alio 

The plural is declined regularly after the second and first declension. 

Altera, altera, alterum, gen. alterius (sec § 47, Obs. 2), dat. alteri, 
otherwise regular. 

Obs. Alteri in the plural signifies one (of two plural ■ !' two 

parties, &c), and in the same way (viz. for one of two plural parties) 
the plural of the other pronouns in ter is employed ; namely, utri, ueu- 
tri, and the compounds of uter. 

§85. The Reflective pronoun se (himself, herself, itself, them- 
selves) refers back to the person or thing which is the subject of the 

proposition, without being itself united to a substantive. It has in 
the ace. and abl. of both numbers se or sese, in the dat sibi. The 
nom. is wanting, as also the gen.; and in place of the gen. ia used 
the derivative SUUS, or its ncut. gen. sui, as meus and mei in ego 
(§ 79, Obs. 1). 

Obs. Met is affixed to se and sibi, as to ego (§ 79, Obi. S 




'. The Relative pronoun qvi (who, which) refers to some- 
thing in another proposition, which the relative clause serves to 
define or describe (Cato, qvi; is, qvi). It is declined as fol- 
lows : — 













. cujus in all genders. 


cui „ „ 






Nov. qvi qvae. qvae 

Ace. qvos qvas qvae 

Gen. qvorum qvarum qvo rum 

Dat. Abl. qvibus (qvis) in all genders. 

Obs. 1. The more ancient way of writing the genitive and dative was 
qvo jus and qvoi. Cut. as a dissyllable, is found only in the later 

Obs. 2. The ablative qvis (qveis is only another way of writing it) 
is antiquated, but sometimes readopted by later writers. An old form 
qvi occurs as an abl. sing., but is only used by good writers in combina- 
tion with the preposition cum (qvicum = qvocum, masc. and neut., 
in the more antiquated style also = qvacum, fern.), and with verbs in 
some few expressions as a neuter after an indefinite pronoun understood ; 
habeo, qvi utar, I have (something) to use ; vix reliqvit, qvi efferre- 
tur, enough to bury him ; compare § 88, Obs. 2. 

§ 87. The Indefinite Relative pronouns qvicunqve, qvisqvis 
(every one who, whoever), uter, utercunqve {whichever of two), 
show that the assertion of the proposition in which they occur 
comprises several individuals, and that it is indifferent which is 
thought of. 

Qvicunqve, qvaecunqve, qvodcunqve, is declined like qvi (the 
affix cunqvo remains unaltered) ; uter, utra, utrum (usually an 
interrogative pronoun) is regularly declined (except in the gen. and 
dat. sing, utrius, utri ; see § 37, Obs. 2), and so also utercunqve. 

dvisqvis is usually found only in the nom. masc, and the nom. 
and ace. neut. (qvidqvid or qvicqvid, subst.), also in the abl. masc. 
and neut. (qvoqvo) : we rarely meet with qvemqvem, qvibusqvi- 

§88 Pitoxor- 85 

bus, and not till a late period wiih ihc :ii)l. fan. qvaqva. From tbe 
unused gen. has originated by an abbreviated pronunciation ii. 
presaion cuicuimodi, of whatever kind, 

Obs. 1. It is rarely (in the best writers only in the exprettioo 

qvacunqve ratione, in any way, qvocunqve modo, Sail.) that 
qvicunqve OCCUTS simply as an indefinite pronoun, with tl.. 
universality (everyone), without a relative signification. qvia- 

qvis in the expression qvoqvo modo, in any way. 1 

Obs. 2. Qvicunqve is sometimes resolved, and its parti 
by the interposition of an unaccented word ; eig. qvare cunqve pos- 
sum (even by two pronouns: qvo ea me cunqve ducet, Cic.). Tin- 
same division (tmesis) occurs in qvaliscunqve (§ 93) ; e.g. necesso 
est, aliqvid sit melius, qvale id cunqve est. It occur 
quently in qvantuscunqve and qvilibet (cujus rei libet simulator, 

§ 88. The Interrogative pronoun, which requires that an object 
in question should be specified, is qvis or qvi, fern, qvae, neut. 
qyid or qvod, who ? which ? with the more emphatic form qvisnam, 
qvinam, qvaenam, qvidnam, qvodnam, who then/ which thru/ 
and uter, utra, utrum, which of two? (see § 87). Qvis and qvis- 
nam, with the exception of the double nom. masc, and the nom. and 
ace. neut., are declined exactly like the relative pronoun qvi. In 
the neuter qvid and qvidnam are substantives, qvod and qvodnam 
adjectives (qvid feci? qvod facinus commisit? qvodnam consilium 
cepit ?). In the masculine, qvis is both a substantive and adjective, 
qvi for the most part an adjective (qvi cantus?). 

Obs. 1. Qvis (with the nominative ending s) occurs as an ad- 
jective in the older writers (Cic.) chiefly with substantives which 
denote a person (qvis senator? qvis rex? but qvi vir? in the signi- 
fication, what man = what sort of man)) but often, too, with others 
(qvis locus? qvis casus?). Qvi (qvinam), on the other hand, is ran 
as a substantive, and is found almost exclusively in dependent inter- 
rogative clauses ; as, non id solum spectatur, qvi debeat, sed etiam 
qvi possit ulcisci (Cic. Divin. in Caec. 1(5). In independent inter- 
rogative sentences (e.g. qvi primus Ameriam nuntiat?), it is limoet 

Obs. 2. The ablative form qvi (sec § 86, Obs. 2) is nsed only in the 
signification how? (qvi fit? qvi convenit? how is it suiiab 

1 Qvidqvid for qvidqve (§ 89) in certain combinations, aa ut qvidqvid 
qvidqve (Cic), is rare and antiquated. 


- \ The Indefinite pronouns are qvis, one, any one; aliqvis, 
qvispiam, one, any one ; qvisqvam, any one whatever ; ullus, any ; 
qvidam, some one, a certain one ; alteruter, one or the other {of 
tiro); with those which have a distributive signification ; qvisqve, 
each severally; unusqvisqve, each individual; uterqve, properly, 
each of two separately; then, both (uterqve frater, both brothers; 
uterqve eorum, both of them ; utriqve, both parties) ; and those 
which denote a universality without distinction (which may be 
named indefinita universalia) ; qvivis, qvilibet, any one you like 
(whoever it may be) ; utervis, uterlibet, any one you like (of two) ; 
to which may also be added the negative words nemo, no one 
(subst.) ; nihil, nothing (subst.) ; nullus, no, none ; neuter, neither. 

§90. 1. Qvis, qvi, fern. ; qvae and qva, neut. ; qvid and qvod, 
— is declined (except in the nom.) like the relative pronoun, with the 
exception, that the nom. and ace. neut. plural, as well as the nom. 
sing, fem., have both forms qvae and qva. Qvid is used as a 
substantive, qvod as an adjective ; qvis as both, and in all combina- 
tions (dicat qvis, si qvis, si qvis dux), qvi only after the conjunc- 
tions si, nisi, ne, num, both as a substantive and an adjective, but 
chiefly as an adjective (ne qvis and ne qvi, si qvis dux and si 
qvi dux). Qva is more common in the neut. plural than qvae. 1 

The following are formed from qvis, and declined like it : ecqvis, 
ecqvi, ecqva, ecqvae, ecqvid, ecqvod, does any one ? and the stronger 
form ecqvisnam (also numqvisnam) . 

2. Like qvis is declined aliqvis, except that it has only aliqva 
in the fem. sing, and neut. plur. Aliqvid is used as a substantive, 
aliqvod as an adjective ; aliqvis as both, aliqvi as an adjective. 

3. Qvisqvam, neut. qvidqvam (qvicqvam) without a fem., and 
without a plur., is declined like qvis (without qvi or qvod). 

Ons. Qvisqvam is used as a substantive, and also as an adjective 
with the appellations of persons (scriptor qvisqvam, qvisqvam 
Gallus) ; the corresponding ullus as an adjective, but sometimes (in the 
bet! writers only ullius and ullo', in some also the dat. ulli) it is used 
as a substantive. 

§ 91. 4. Qvidam, qvispiam, qvivis, qvilibet, and qvisqve, are 
declined like the relative pronoun, except that as substantives they 
have in the neuter the form qvid (qviddam, &c.), as adjectives 

i And, to judge by the poets, in the fem. 6ing. also. 

§92 n; g7 

qvod (qvoddam, &C.). 1 In unusqvisqve both > 

(unaqvaeqve, unumqvidqve ami unumqvodqve, unumqvemqve, 


In utervis (utravia, utrumvia), uterlibet (utrulibc hot), 

uterqve (utraqve, utruniqve), uter is declined ( uti I 
§ 87). In alteruter sometimes both irordi are declined (altei 
alterumutrum, gen. alteriusutriua, ftc.), sometime* «m.I\ t! 
(alterutra, alterutrum). The adjectives ullua (a. nm), aulhas 
nullua, neuter (neutra, neutrum), are regnkrrv decKned, except in 
the gen. (ullius, Ac., neutrius) and in the dati\«- ( ulli, &e. t new 

Nemo is a substantive of the masculine gender, and follow 

third declension (see §41 under the termination o, Inis>. The 
genitive is not used in common language, DOT 1 1 1 * - ablative in the 

best writers; in their stead nullius and nullo arc used.' 

Obs. Nemo is also used as an adjective with the aamea of 
e.g. nemo acriptor, nemo Gallua. (Also acriptor nullua, l> 
national names always nemo.) 

Nihil is nominative and accusative without any other i 
(The form nihilum with tlie genitive nihili and the ablative ni- 
hilo is used in some few combinations. See § 494, l>. Obi. 

§ 92. From the personal and reflective pronouns are deri v ed 

adjectives, which denote that an object belongs to the speaker, or 
the person addressed, or the subject previously named ; metis, tuus, 
suus, noster (nostra, nostrum), vester (vestra, vestrum), my, My, 
his (reflect.), their, our, your. They are called 1' pro- 

nouns, and are regularly declined after the second and first declen- 
sion, except that meus has mi in the voc. masc. 

Obs. 1. Pte is sometimes affixed to the abl. sing, of these ad : < 
(most frequently to that of auua), in order to express mora emphati- 
cally that a thing belongs to a person, as contrasted with what La not his 
own; as, meopte ingenio, auopte pondere. Met is also attached to 
auua (as to ego, ae), most frequently when followed by ipse 
auamet ipae fraude, by his own deceit, This appendage u but rarely 
found with mea (meamet facta, Sail. ; meamet culpa. Plant. ). 

Obs. 2. A possessive pronoun is also formed from the nlat'n 
interrogative pronoun, cujua, cuja, cujum, whoeef (he) l 
cujum pecua? ia, cuja rea eat; but it is only u>yd in the antiquated 

1 Instead of quidpiam, quidque ; nls<\ quippiam quicquo. 

2 Neminis occurs in Piautus, nemine in Xwita*, BmtM i ta, &•• Tin- dat. nulli U 
rarely used as a substanUve. 



and leg*] stylo, and there, besides the nom. and ace. sing., only in the 
abl. fem. sing, (cuja causa), and the nom. and ace. plur. l'em. 

Obs. ->. From noster, vester, and cujus (interrogative) come the 
adjectives of one termination, nostras, vestras, cujas (ace. nostratem, 
&C.), of our nation (belonging to our town, our nation), of your nation, 
of which nation? corresponding to the adjectives in as derived from the 
names of towns. 

§ 03. Besides the possessive pronouns, the Latins have other 
adjectives, which denote a person or thing pronominally (i.e. by 
referring to it) in respect to its quality, size, or number; as, talis, 
such. The adjectives, which, while they express one and the same 
idea, are variously formed to correspond with the different kinds of 
pronouns, are called correlative adjectives. 

These adjectives are, — 


(Indefin. and indef. unirers.) 
qvaliscun- qvalislibet, of 

talis, e, of such 
a quality. 



qvalis, e (of such a 
quality) as (rel.) ; 
of what quality? 

qvantus (so great) 
as (rel.) ; how 
great? (interrog.). 


of what 
quality so- 
qve, how 
great so- 

any quality 
you please. 

aliqvantus, of 
a certain, con- 
siderable size. 


of any size you 
tot (undecl.), qvot (so many) as qvotcunqve, aliqvot, some. 

80 many. ( re l-) i h° w many ? 

totidem (un- (interrog.). 
decl.), just 
so many. 

qvotus, which in the 

Obs. 1. Qvaliscunqve and qvantuscunqve are also used as simply 
indefinite (not relative) pronouns. Aliqvantus is commonly used only 
in the neuter gender (aliqvantum, aliqvanto), and as a substantive or 
adverb. From tantus, &c, are formed the diminutives tantulus, of 
such (small, insignificant) size, qvantulus, qvantuluscunqve, ali- 

how many 


qvantuium (a little). From tantma li formed tantundcm 

urni.),jiisl so much, gen. tantidem. 

Obs. 2. F'»r the pronominal adverbs, sec th . 

of Words, §201. 



§ 94. A Verb expresses the condition or agency of a person or 
thing (the subject) ; e.g. caleo, / am warm ; curro, amo, frango, 
/ run, I love, I break. 

The agency denoted by the verb either passes immediately ; 
object which is operated upon, and the name of which U added (in 
the accusative), and then the verb is called Transitive (properly, 
passing over, from transeo) : e.g. amo Deum, frango ramum, / love 
God, I break a branch; or it is complete in the subject alone, with- 
out passing immediately to an object, and then the verb is termed 
Intransitive {not passing over) or neuter: e.g. curro, I run. 

Obs. A verb which is usually transitive may also be sometimes used 
in such a sense, that no object is to be considered as acted on : e.g. 
amo, 1 am in love; bibo vinum, I drink wine (trans.) ; bibo, I drink 
(without specifying more particularly, intrans.). In the same way an 
intransitive verb may assume a signification in which it becomes transi- 
tive : e.g. excedo, I go out ; excedo modum, I exceed bounds. 

§ 95. From transitive verbs a new form is deduced, by which it 
is expressed of a thing, that it suffers the action, or is the object of 
it: e.g. amor, I am loved; ramus frangitur, a branch is b 
This form is called the Passive (the suffering form ; also, genus 
verbi passivum), in contradistinction to the original form, which is 
called the Active (form of activity ; genus activum). 

Obs. Intransitive verbs may be used in the third person of the pas- 
sive form without a definite subject (impersonally) : e.g. curritur, it is 
run (they run). See the Syntax, § 218, c. 

§ 96. Modi, Moods, Wats. The Latin verba have Poor □ 
or forms, to distinguish the way in which a thing is Btated. ! 
are, — 


(7. The Indicative mood, the declarative way, by which a thing is 
declared as actually taking place or existing; e.g. vir scribit, the man 

b. Tho Subjunctive mood, the suppositive way, by which a thing is 
simply declared as supposed : e.g. scribat aliqvis, some one may write ; 
ut scribat, that he may write : scribat, may he write! (denoting a wish). 

c. The Imperative mood, the commanding way, by which a thing is 
commanded or desired; e.g. scribe, write! 

</. The Infinitive mood, the indefinite way, by which the action or 
condition is denoted in a general and indefinite manner; e.g. scribere, 
to write, 

§ 97. In the different moods, the verbs have, also, distinct forms 
to express the time to which the act may belong. These forms are 
found most complete in the indicative active ; namely: — 

1. For the present time, the present tense; e.g. scribo, I write. 

2. For the past time, three forms of a praeterite tense : — 

a. The perfect, t. praet. perfectum (of a thing which is simply and 
absolutely declared as past) ; e.g. scripsi, / wrote, I have written. 

b. The imperfect, t. praet. imperfectum (of a thing, which was 
present at a certain given time) ; e.g. scribebam, I teas (then) writing. 

c. The pluperfect, t. praet. plusqvamperfectum (of a thing which 
had already taken place at a certain time) ; e.g. scripseram, / had 

3. For the future time, the future tense, two forms : — 

a. The simple future, t. fut. simplex, or t. futurum (of a thing 
which is denoted as simply and absolutely future) ; e.g. scribam, / shall 

b. The future perfect, t fut. exactum (of a thing which will be 
already past at a certain future time) ; e.g. scripsero, / shall (then) 
have written. 

The Present, the Perfect, and the simple Future are the three 
leading tenses. 

The Subjunctive has the same tenses as the Indicative, except 
the future passive, which has no form to express it. 

The Imperative has two tenses, the present and future. > 

The Infinitive has the three leading tenses. 

§ 08. Persons and Numbers. Verbs have distinct termina- 
tions in the Indicative and Subjunctive, according as their subject 
i- the speaker himself (first person), or the person addressed (sec- 
ond person), or is different from both (third person) ; they also 

§99 iMi.irnoN OP HERB 

receive different! endings, according u ti. n tho §i n . 

gular or the plural] Kg. scribo, / writo; scribis, 61 
(f/i>H write) ; scribit, he (she, it) writes ; scribinius, ,• scri- 

bitis, ye write ; scribunt, they write. 

()r»s. in the active, the termination of the fir t p 

or m, of the .second o (sti), <>! (he third t ; in the plural, thai of t 1 . 
nius, of the second tis, of the third nt. In the passive the termil 
are, in the singular, 1, r; g, ris and re; :>, tur ; in the plural, 1, mur ; 
2, mini; o, ntur. 

The imperative has only the second and third person, 0O< the 

since it always expresses an exhortation or command addressed to others. 

§ 99. Noun Forms. Besides the forms already given, 
have a substantive form in um and u (accusative and ablative), 
which are called the first and second Supines ; and, like the infinitive, 

denote the action in general, but arc used only in certain special 
combinations : e.g. SCriptum, in order to write ; SCriptu, to be irrit- 
ten (as, facilis scriptu, easy to be written)} 

Further, there are three Participles (participium, from parti- 
ceps, sharing), or adjective forms, to denote that the action is 
thought of as a property belonging to a person or thing. Two of 
these participles are active, the third passive. 

a. The present active participle ; e.g. scribens, icriting. 

b. The future active participle; e.g. scripturus (a, um), one tcho 
will write, is on the point of icriting. 

c. The perfect passive participle; e.g. scriptus (a, um), v. 
(from transitive verbs) . 

There is, moreover, a form in the neuter, which follows the 
second declension, but without a nominative, which is called the 
Gerund, 2 and is used to denote an action in general (like the infini- 
tive), but only in some of the cases ; e.g. scribendo, by wr\ 
ad scribendum, to writing. 

From the gerund there is formed in transitive verbs (by the ter- 
minations us, a, um) a participle or participial adjective in the 
passive, which is called the Gerundive, and denotes that the action 
is happening, or must happen, with reference to a person or thing: 
e.g. in epistola scribenda, in writing the letter ; epistola scri. 
benda est, the letter is to be written, mutt be writ 

1 The name Supine is borrowed from the adjective supinua, bent backward. 

* From gero, / perform. 

8 It is less correctly named the future participle pa- 

0fi LATIN GRAMMAR. §100 

m intransitive verbs the perfect participle and the gerundive are 
formed only in the neuter, and not used as adjectives, but only in com- 
bination with the verb esse, to be, to form an impersonal sentence: as, 
cursum est, it has been run (they have run) ; currendum est, it must 
be run (they must run). 

0B8. Or the declension and comparison of participles we have already- 
treated under the adjectives, Chap. X. 

§ 100. Conjugations. The way in which the endings, which 
express moods, tenses, persons, and numbers, are combined with 
the stem of the verb, differs ; and sometimes these endings them- 
selves differ more or less according to the last letter (the charac- 
teristic letter) of the stem, and hence arise four kinds of inflection, 
called conjugations, 1 to one of which every verb belongs. 

a. To the first conjugation belong those verbs the stem of which 
ends in a. This vowel is united, by contraction, with in the first 
person of the present indicative active : e.g. amo, I love ; but is 
seen in the second person amas, and in the other forms : e.g. in the 
present infinitive active in are ; as, amare, to love. 

Obs. The a may be preceded by another vowel : e.g. creo, I create, 
infinitive creare ; crucio, I torture, cruciare ; sinuo, I bend, sinuare. 

b. To the second conjugation belong the verbs with the charac- 
teristic letter e, which in the present infinitive active end in ere : 
e.g. inoneo (mone-o), I advise, remind, infinitive monere. 

c. To the third conjugation belong those verbs of which the 
characteristic letter is a consonant or the vowel u ; in the present 
infinitive they have ere: e.g. scribo, / write, scribere; minuo, / 
lessen, miimere. 

Obs. To the third conjugation belong some verbs in which an i has 
been inserted in the present indicative active after the proper character- 
istic letter; e.g. capio (cap-i-o), I take, infinitive capere. 

d. To the fourth conjugation belong the verbs with the charac- 
teristic letter i ; in the present infinitive they have ire : e.g. audio, 
I hear, audlre. 

Obs. Since the present indicative may have the same ending in verbs 
of different conjugations, the conjugation to which the verb belongs is 
best indicated by the present infinitive active. 

1 Conjugatio properly signifies a combination in one class, and denotes only the verbs 
which belong to the same class. But it is now used of the inflection itself, and Ave say, to con- 
jugate a verb, an expression not used by the Romans, who employed the term declinaro- 

§ 103 i\tu:< ii«.\ OF \ ERB :«;; 

§ 101. The first and second conjugation, baring tb i and* 

for their characteristic letters, and thus being pure 
other (as the firsl and second declension), Ti 
endings arc appended to the vowel of the stem; e g, una 
ama-nt, mone-nt. In the third conjugation (which coi 
third declension, and in which the verbs are impure) s conn* I 
is inserted between the consonants of the stem and of the < i 
leg-i-s, leg-u-nt. The verbs of the second conjugation (with 
exceptions, § 122) reject the e in the perfed and supine, and an 
inflected like impure verbs. The fourth conjugation is partly similar to 
the two first conjugations : e.g. in audi-a, audi-re, audi-vi ; partly 
to the third: e.g. in audi-uut, audi-ebam, audi-am (in the future). 

§102. Dkiuvation of the Particular Forma i\ u i 
and Moods. If the present indicative be known, the stem is found 
by taking away 0, the ending of the first person (and in the first con- 
jugation adding at the same time the a, which has been an 
mated with this ending ; see § 100, a) ; as, ama (lirst person amo), 
mone (moneo), scrib (scribo), audi (audio). From this stem is 
formed the present of the other moods, the imperfect of all the 
moods, the future indicative and imperative, the participle pn 
and the gerundive, by adding the particular ending of each form, 
as is shown by the examples of all four conjugations given below 
(§ 109). 

Obs. 1. The characteristics a, e, i, are always Long when they end a 
syllabic, and are not followed by a vowel. 

Obs. 2. Of those verbs of the third conjugation in which an i is 
inserted after the characteristic letter (§ 100, c, Obs.), it is to be ob- 
served, that this i is everywhere dropped before another i, and before 8 
■when followed by r (therefore capis, capere, but capiet), and also in 
the formation of the perfect and supine, and those forms which are 
regulated by them (§ 103-106). 

§ 103. The formation of the perfect indicative active is particu- 
larly to be noticed. 

a. In the first and fourth conjugation it is formed by adding vi to the 
stem: amavi, audivi ; in the second conjugation the characterise 

rejected and ui affixed: monui (mon-ui). 1 

Obs. The deviations from this rule are noticed below. ( hap. X \ II 

b. In the third conjugation, the perfect in Borne verbs end- only in i, 

» Ui and vi are originally the same tcruiiuutiou. 

04 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 105 

in Others in si, In Others in td. The most simple form is found in 
verbs with the characteristic letter u, where i is affixed to the stem: 
B.g, minno, / diminish (minu), perf. niinui ; and in many with the 
characteristic letters b, p, c (qv, h), g (gv), and d, where si is 
I, d being omitted before this ending (bsi is changed to psi, gsi 
and csi to xi; see § 10) : e.g. repsi, from repo, I creep (rep) ; scripsi, 
Groin scribo, / write ; dixi, from dico, I satj ; laesi, from laedo, / hurt. 
What ending is used with eaeh of the other verbs will be shown below 
(Chap. XIX.). 

Those verbs Which form their perfect with i only, and have a consonant 
for their Characteristic, lengthen the vowel in the syllable Avhich precedes 
the ending when it is short, and is not lengthened by position ; e.g. legi, 
from lego, to choose, read (collegi, from colligo). Some verbs with the 
perfect in i have the reduplication, i.e., the first consonant with its fol- 
lowing vowel, if this be o or u (6, ii), but otherwise, with e, is prefixed to 
the stem : e.g. curro, I run, perf. cucurri; in this case, the vowel of the 
radical syllable is not lengthened, but occasionally modified (weakened, 
§ 5, c) : e.g. cado, I fall, perf. cecidi. In compound .words, the redu- 
plication is dropped : e.g. incidi, from incldo (compounded of in and 
cado) ; except in some particular verbs (which are given below, in the 
list of the perfects and supines). 

Obs. The lengthening of the radical vowel takes place also in 
verbs of the other conjugations, which (varying from the general rule) 
have i only in the perfect. The following only have a short syllable 
before l : bibi, fidi, soldi, tuli, from bibo, findo, scindo, fero. In some 
verbs the reduplication is irregular: e.g. steti, from sto (1st conj,) ; 
stiti, from sisto ; spSpondi, from spondeo (2d conj.). 

§ 104. By the perfect indicative active is regulated the perfect 
of the other moods (the subjunctive and infinitive), together with 
the pluperfect and the future perfect (indicative and subjunctive) 
in the active, so that the particular endings of these tenses are 
added to the form of the perfect indicative, after the ending of the 
first person, i, has been removed ; e.g. amaveram (pluperf. indie, 
act.) from amav-i. 

§ 105. The supines in the first, third, and fourth conjugations, 
are formed by adding to the stem the endings turn (1st sup.) and tu 
(2<\ sup.), before which b is changed by the pronunciation to p, g 
(qv, h, gv) to c (§ 10) ; amatum, scriptum (minutum), audltum, 
amatu, scriptu (minutu), auditu. In the third conjugation the 
verbs with the characteristic d have the endings sum, SU, before 
which d is dropped ; e.g. laesum, laesu, from laedo, / hurt. 

§107 INKLIJ \ 

In the second conjugation, the e of the 
are affixed; aa, monltum, monita (I is* a conni 

for the -:ilvc of the pronunciation. ) 

Or.s. 1. With reaped to the im uhi, h an 

the addition of sum instead of turn in other 

already mentioned), and by changes in the \\ II 


Or.s. 2. Tne termination Xtom is everywhere the regular our, m 
the perfect has ul (also in the third conjugation, and th ,,i the 

first which van from tin- general rule) ; e.g. gemo, / groan, perf. ft 
sup. gemltum, except where u is the characteristl 
e.g. minuo, minutum. 

Obs. 8. I is always long in the supine, when the perfect has vi, i 
in itum, cituni, litum, qvitum, situm, from the verbs eo, cieo, lino, 
qveo, sino, with an irregular formation. The following onlj I i 
short a : datum, ratum, satum, from do, reor, sero, also formed u 
larly. Rutum, from ruo, is the only instance with ;i short u. 

§ 106. The participle perfect of the passive, and tin- participle 
future of the active, are formed, like the supine, by substituting 
their endings »s, a, urn, and unis, lira, urum, in the pla 
um ; amatus, monltus, scriptus, laesus, audltus, amaturus, moni- 
turus, scripturus, laesurus, auditurus. It is therefore only 
sary to name the first supine, to show the form of both Bupini 
well as these participles. 

Ons. 1. If the supine be not regularly formed from the pn 
participles vary in the same way. 

Obs. 2. In some few of those verbs, of which the supine and participle 
perfect vary from the regular formation, the participle future is. i 
theless, formed from the present, turus or Iturus being added to the 
stem ; juvaturus, secaturus, soiiaturus, pariturus, ruitunis, moritu- 
rus, nasciturus, oriturus ; see, under the irregular verbs, juvo, seco, 
Bono, of the 1st conj. ; pario and ruo, of the 3d ; and, under the 
deponents, morior, nascor (Sd), and orior (1th). 

§ 107. For some tenses no simple form is deduced Gram the 
but they are expressed periphrastically by the combination 

participle with a tense of the (auxiliary) verb sum, / um. In the 
active voice this occurs in the future subjunctive and infinitive, 
with the help of the future participle; and in the paflStre, with the 
help of the perfect participle, it occurs in the perf K>d in 

all those tenses which in the active voice derive their fom bom 
the perfect. 






§ 108. The verb sum, / am, is inflected quite differently from 
the other verbs, in the following manner: — 


lam. Present. I may be. 1 

sum, I am. siimus, we are. sim simus 

es, thou aH. estis, you are. sis sitis 

est, he (she, it) is. sunt, they are. sit sint 

I was. Imperfect. I might be. 1 

eram eramus essem essemus 

eras eratis esses essetis 

erat eraut esset essent 

I have been. Perfect. I may have been. 1 

fui fuimus fuerim fuerimus 

fuisti fuistis fueris fueiitis 

fuit fuerunt fuerit fuerint 

I had been. Pluperfect. I might have been. 

fueram fueramus fuissem fuissemus 

fueras fueratis fuisses fuissetis 

fuerat fuerant fuisset fuissent 


Future (simple), I shall be. 

erimus futurus sim futuri simus 

eritis futurus sis futuri sitis 

erunt futurus sit futuri sint 


Future Perfect, I shall have been. 

fuerimus fuerim fuerimus 

fueritis fueris fueritis 

fuerint fuerit fuerint 

1 This is only one of several forms by which the subjunctive mood may be represented in 
English. It may be translated with equal correctness into the indicative mood, or the impera- 
tive or infinitive, according to the nature of the sentence in which it occurs. This is true of 
the subjunctive of all verbs. (T.) 




Pres. 2. es, be thou! este, be ye! 

Fut. 2. esto, tkou shall be. 1 estote, you shall be. 

Fut. 3. esto, he shall be. sunto, they shall be. 


Present, esse, to be. Perfect, fuisse, to have been. 

Future, futurus (a, urn) esse, or (in the acous.) futu- 
rum (am) esse; plur., futuri (ae, a), futu- 
ros (as, a) esse, to be about to be. 

Future, futurus (a, um), that will be, future. 

Obs. 1. The supine and gerund are wanting. The participle present 
is not used as a verb ; as a substantive, it is found (rarely) in philosophi- 
cal language, — ens, the being. 

Obs. 2. Like sum are declined its compounds : absum, / am absent 
(abfui or afui) ; adsum, / am present (or assum, perf. affui or adfui, 
see § 173) ; desum, / am wanting (deest, deeram, &c, were pro- 
nounced dest, deram) ; insum, I am in ; intersum, i" am present ; 
obsum, / am in the way ; praesum, I am at the head; prosum, I profit; 
cubsum, I am amongst; supersum, / am remaining, of which absum 
and praesum alone form the participle present ; absens, absent ; prae- 
sens, present. Prosum inserts a d before the e of the verb ; e.g. 
prosum, prodes, prodest, prosumus, prodestis, prosunt. 

Obs. 3. For futurus esse (the fut. inf.) there is another form, fore; 
and for essem (imperf. subj.) a form, forem, fores, foret, forent 
(affore, afRSrem, profore, proforem, &c), on the use of which see 
§ 377, Obs. 2, and § 410. (In combination with a participle, fore must 
always be used; e.g. laudandum fore, not laudandum futurum esse.) 

Obs. 4. The forms siem, sies, siet, sient, in the pres. subj., are 
antiquated, and still more fuam, fuas, fuat, fuant ; the forms escit, 
escunt (esit, esunt). in the fut. indie, are quite obsolete. When est 
came after a vowel or m, the e was omitted in the earlier period, both in 
speaking and writing (nata st, natum st, oratio st) ; in the comic 
writers the termination us also coalesces with est (factust, opust, for 
factus est, opus est) ; and occasionally with es (Qvid mcritu' s ? 
Ter. Andr. III. 5, 15). 

1 In English the forms be thou, be ye, let him be, let them be, are also used for the future; 
that is, in commands which are to he obeyed either immediately, cr at any future time. (T.) 





Obs. 5. The forms of the verb sum arc properly derived from two 
roots es (whence esum, afterwards sum, and all the forms beginning 
with e) and fu (fuo). (In Greek, eifd and 0i>cj.) 

§ 109. The whole formation of the tenses, and the inflection 
according to persons and numbers in each tense in the four conju- 
gations, may be seen from the following verbs, which are given 
entire as examples ; amo (stem, ama) of the first, moneo of the 
second, scribo of the third, audio of the fourth conjugation. Under 
the third conjugation are given at the same time tenses of minuo, 
as an example of a verb with the characteristic letter u, and of 
capio, as an example of a verb with an i inserted after the charac- 
teristic letter. 

A. Indicative. 

I. CON J. 





amo, (I) love. 

moneo, (I) advise 

. scribo, (2) write. 

audio, (I) hear. 

amas, (thou) lovest. 




amat, (he, she, it) loves. 




amarnus, (toe) love. 




amatis, (you) love. 




amant, (they) love. 


scribunt 1 



(Ending, in the First and Second Conj., 

bam ; in the Third and Fourth, ebam.) 

amabam, I loved or 




was loving. 






















(Ending, in the First and Fourth Conj., vi , 

in the Second, ui (with the omission of the e) ; 

the Third, i, si, or ui. 

See § 103) 

amavi, I loved or have 

























(or amavere) 




1 In the same way also minuo, / lessen; capio, I take, capis, capit, capimus, 
capitis, capiunt. 




(Ending, gram, affixed to the perfect, after rejecting the i.) 

amaveram, / had monuSram 


am a ve ramus 














Future (Simple). 
(Ending, in the First and Second Conj , bo; in the Third and Fourth, am.) 

amabo, I shall love. monebo 

amabit is 







audi e a 




Future Perfect. 
(Ending, 8ro, "which is affixed to the perfect, after rejecting the i.) 

amavSro, I shall have monuero 


amaveria monueria 

amaverit monuerit 

amaverimus monuerimus 

amaveritia * monueritia 

amaverint monuerint 









B. Subjunctive. 


(Ending, am, which in the First Conj. coalesces with the a of the stem into em.) 

amem, I may love 



















1 The usual pronunciation in prose is amaverimus, amaverltis, &c 




(Ending in the First, Second, and Fourth Conj. rem ; in the Third, erem.) 

amarem, / might love. 

am ares 


















(Ending erim, affixed to the perf. indie, after rejecting the i.) 

am aver im, I may 

have loved. 

















(Ending issem, affixed to the perf. 

amaviss9m, I should monuissem 
have loved. 











indie, after rejecting the i.) 
scripsissem audivissem 


scripsisset is 





amaturus, | 
a, um ( 

sim moniturus, a, scripturus, 


amaturi,ae,( simus 
a < sitis 


um sim, &c. 

um sim, &c. 

minuturus, a 

um sim, &c. 

The Future Perfect is like the Perfect. 

auditurus, a, um 
sim, &c. 

C. Imperative. 

(In the First, Second, and Fourth Conj. the simple stem ; in the Third, the stem with'6.) 
Sing. 2 ama, love! mone scribe audi 

Plur. 2 amate 









(Ending in the First, Second, and Fourth Conj. to ; in the Third, Ito.) 

Sing. 2 and 3 am a to moneto scriblto audlto 

Tlur. U amatote monetoto scribitoto auditote 

3 ainanto monento scribunto audiunto 

minuito, caplto 

D. Infinitive. 


(Ending in the First, Second, and Fourth Conj. re ; in the Third, fire.) 

amaro, to love. moncro scribgre, min- audiro 

uere, capere 

(Ending isse, affixed to the pcrf. indie, after rejecting the i.) 

scrip sisse audivisse 


to have monuisse 



N. amaturus, a, moniturus, a, scripturus, a, auditurus, a, um, 

um, esse um, esse um, esse esse 

A. amaturum, am, monituxum, scripturum, auditurum, am, 

um, esse* am, um, esse am, um, esse um, esse 

N. amaturi, ae, monituri, ae, a, scripturi, ae, audituri, ae, a, 

a, esse esse a, esse esse 

A. amaturos, as, monituros, as, scripturos, as, audituros, as, a, 

minuturus esse, 

E. Supine. 

(Ending in the First, Third, and Fourth Conj. turn ; in the Second, Itum, after rejecting the e.) 
amatum, in order to monitum scriptum auditum 






F. Gerund. 

(Ending in the First and Second Conj. ndum ; in the Third and Fourth, endum.) 

amandum monendum scribendum audiendum 

(ace; gen. amandi ; minuendum, 

dat., abl., amando.) capiendum 

G. Participle. 
(Ending in the First and Second Conj. ns ; in the Third and Fourth, ens.) 
amans, loving. monens scribens audiens 





(Ending virus, affixed to the Supine, after rejecting um.) 
amaturus, a, um moniturus, a, scripturus, a, auditurus, a, um 
nrri um ; minutu- 

rus, a, um 


(All the simple tenses of the Indie, and Subj. are formed from those that correspond to 
them in the Active ; r being affixed to o, or substituted for m.) 

I. CON J. 

amor, lam loved. 

A. Indicative. 





amaris (rarely amare) moneris (rarely scriberis 1 




amabar, I was loved. 
amabaris or ama- 



minuor, capior, 
caperis, &c. 


monebaris, re 


scribebaris, re 








audiebaris, re 


a, um 

minutus sum 

sum, &c. 


a ( 

a, um 


sum, I have monitus, a, um, scriptus, a, um, auditus, a, um, 

been loved, sum, &c. sum, &c. o,-.™ a-« 

or was 
\ estis 



eram, I had monitus, a, um, scriptus, a, um, auditus, a, um, 
been loved. eram, &c. a-wa-m *■« <».»•»-• *•/. 

eram, &c. 
minutus eram 

eram, &c. 

ae, a 

( eramus 
> eratis 


1 See § 114, b. 






ama- moneberis, re scriberis, ro 

amabor, / shall be monebor 

amaberis or 




a, um 

ero, I shall 
have been 
loved. 1 



amati, ( erimus 

ae,a eritl * 
l erunt 



capiar, capi- 

eris, &c. 

Future Perfect. 

monitus, a, um, scriptus, a, um, 
ero, &c. ero, &c. 

minutus ero 


audieris, re 


auditus, a, 
ero, &c. 

B. Subjunctive. 

amer, I may be loved. 




ameris or amere 

monearis, re 

scribaris, re 

audiaris, TO 















capiar, &c. 



amarer, / might be 





amar eris or amarere 

monereris, re 

scribereris, re 

audireris, re 


















sim, I may 

monitus, a, um, 

scriptus, a, um, 

auditus, a, um 

a, um 

have been 


sim, &c. 

sim, &c. 
minutus sim 

sim, &c. 

amati, ( simus 
ae,a ~«f 

1 For amatus ero, eris, &c, amatus fuero, fueris, &c, is also used. 

104 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 109 


f essem, / monitus, a, um, scriptus, a, um, auditus, a, urn, 
might have essem, &c. essem, &c. essem, &c. 

amatus,^ b(en lovedm minutus essem. 

a, um i 

• J esses 

l esset 



Future wanting. 

C. Imperative. 

(Ending in the First, Second, and Fourth Conj. re ; in the Third, ere.) 
Sing. 2 amare, be loved ! monere scribere audire 

Tlur. 2 amamiui monemini scribimini audimini 

capere, &c. 

(Ending in the First, Second, and Fourth Conj. tor; in the Third, iter.) 
Sing. 2 and 3 amator, be monetor scribitor auditor 

Plur. 3 amantor monentor scribuntor audiuntor 

capitor, &c. 

D. Infinitive. 


(Ending in the First, Second, and Fourth Conj. ri ; in the Third, i.) 

amari, to be loved. moneri scribi audiri 

Trn'nui, capi 


N. amatus, a, um, monitus, a, um, scriptus, a, um, auditus, a, um, 
esse, to have been esse, &c. esse, &c. esse, &c. 

loved. minutus esse 

A. amatum, am, um, 


N. amati, ae, a, esse 
A. amatos, as, a, esse 

Future. 1 
amatum iri monitum iri scriptum iri auditum iri 

minutum iri 

1 This tense is compounded of the supine and the passive form of the infinitive of eo, 
to go. (Amatum ire, in the active, to be going to love ; hence, for the passive, amatum 

§ 110 DEPONENT VERBS. 105 

E. Participle. 

(Ending us, affixed to the supine, after rejecting um.) 

amatus, a, una, loved, monltus scriptus auditus 


Gerundive (Future). 
(Ending in the First and Second Conj. ndus ; in the Third and Fourth, endus.) 

amandus, a, um, that monendus scribeudus audiendus 

is to be loved. 


verbs with a passive form and active signification 
(deponent verbs). 

§ 110. Vatious verbs in Latin have a passive form with an active 
signification, in some cases transitive, in others intransitive : e.g. 
hortor, / exhort ; morior, / die. They are called Deponent verbs 
(literally, laying aside, from depono, because they lay aside the 
active form). 

Obs. 1. The form of the deponents is to be explained by the conside- 
ration, that the form, which is now passive, had not at first definitively and 
exclusively this signification. Some verbs, which are reckoned among 
the deponents, are, however, actual passives from active verbs in use, 
with a signification somewhat modified; e.g. pasci, to graze (intrans.), 
from pasco, to graze (trans., to lead to pasture), to fodder. Some 
verbs occur both as deponents and in the active form. See Chap. 

Obs. 2. The verbs audeo, I dare ; fido, / trust (confldo, diffido) ; 
gaudeo, / rejoice; soleo, / am accustomed, — have, in the participle 
perfect, an active signification, and form, with it, the perfect, and the 
tenses derived from it in a passive form, with an active signification ; 
ausus sum, fisus sum, gavisus sum, solitus sum; pluperf. indie, 
ausus eram; subj., essem, &c. They are, therefore, half deponents. 
(Concerning fio, see § 160. Placeo, too, and some impersonal verbs of 
the second conjugation, have, in the perfect, a passive as well as an active 
form. See § 128, a, Obs. 1, and § 166.) A few others — e.g. rever- 
tor, I turnback — have a deponent form in the present, but an active 
lorm, on the other hand, in the perfect, — reverti. See, under verto, 
§ 139 ; and perio, § 145. 

106 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 112 

Obs. 3. Some few active verbs, with an intransitive signification, have, 
notwithstanding, the perfect participle (but no other form) in the passsive, 
ami this participle has then an active signification : e.g. juratus, one who 
has sworn, from juro, I swear (injuratus, one that has not sworn ; con- 
juratus, a conspirator, from conjuro) ; coenatus, one that has dined, 
from coeno, / dine. The others are adultus, cretus, coalitus, exole- 
tus, inveteratus, nupta, obsoletus, potus, pransus, svetus, each of 
which is introduced, with its verb, in Chaps. XVII., XVIII., XIX. 
More rare are conspiratus, from conspiro, / combine, conspire ; defla- 
gratus, from deflagro, to burn down (intrans.) ; placitus, accepted, 
approved of, from placeo. In Sallust, pax conventa, from pax con- 
venit. 1 

§ 111. The deponents are referred, according to their character- 
istic letters, to the four conjugations, and inflected according to the 
ordinary passive form of each conjugation. The supine and per- 
fect participle are formed from the stem, as in active verbs. Besides 
the supine, they have also the present and future participles in the 
active form, so that a deponent has three participles with an active 
signification for the three leading tenses. The future subjunctive 
and infinitive are compounded from the future participle as in active 

The gerundive, unlike the other forms, retains a passive signifi- 
cation ; as, hortandus, that is to be exhorted. It is formed, there- 
fore, only from transitive deponents ; but the intransitives also have 
a gerund (with an active signification, § 97). 

Obs. The deponents pascor, vehor, versor, which are properly the 
passives of active verbs in use, have the participles, pascens, vehens, 
versans, not only in the signification belonging to them in the active, 
but also in that which they have as deponents. 

§ 112. The following are examples of deponents of all four con- 
jugations in all tenses and moods. 

1 Consideratus, considered; and (as an adjective), considerate, circumspect. 










hortor, I exhort. 

vereor, I fear. 

utor, I use. 

partior, I divide. 

hortaris (re), &c, 

vereris(e), &c. 

uteris, &c, like 

partiris, &c, like 

like amor 

like moneor 









hortatus, a, urn, 

veritus sum 

usus sum 

partitus sum 

sum, es, &c. 


hortatus eram 

veritus eram 

usus eram 

parti tus eram 






Fut. Pert hortatus ero 

veritus ero 

usus ero 

partitus ero 






hortatus sim 


hortatus essem 


hortaturus sim 


verear utar 

vererer uterer 

veritus sim usus sim 

veritus essem usus essem 

veriturus sim usurus sim 

partitus sim 
partitus essem 
partiturus sim 

Present, hortare 
Future, hortator 








vereri uti partiri 


hortatus ( a, um) 

veritus esse, usus esse, &c. partitus esse, 

esse; hortatum 

&C. &C. 

(a, um) esse, &c. 


hortaturus (a, 

veriturus esse, usurus esse, partiturus 

um) esse, &c. 

&c. &c. esse, &c. 







vereudum utendum 




hortans verens 




hortatus (a, um) veritus 




hortaturus (a, um) veriturus 




hortaudus (a, um) verendus 






§ 113. a. In the perfect and the tenses formed from it in the 
first conjugation, if r or S follows ve, or vi, the v may be omitted, 
and a with the e or i contracted into a ; e.g. amarunt, amarim, 
amasti, amasse, for amaverunt, amaverim, amavisti, amavisse. 
So, also, ve and vi may be dropped before r and s in perfects in evi 
(from irregular verbs of the second and third conj.), and in the 
tenses formed from them : e.g. flestis, nerunt, deleram, for flevis- 
tis, neverunt, deleveram, decresse for decrevisse (from decerno) ; 
and in the perfects novi from nosco, and movi from moveo, with 
their compounds : e.g. nolim, nosse, commosse. (But always no- 

b. In the perfects in ivi and the tenses formed from them, v may 
be left out before e : e.g. definieram, qvaesierat, for definiveram, 
qyaesiverat, from definio, qvaero (perf. irregular qvaesivi) ; also 
before i, when followed by s, in which case ii in prose is almost 
always contracted into i : e.g. audissem, petisse (poetically peti- 
isse), sisti, for audivissem, petivisse, sivisti. More rarely (in 
the poets) v is left out before it (lit for ivit) ; e.g. audiit for au- 

Obs. 1. The form iit occurs not unfrequently in petiit (peto), and is 
the only one used in desiit (desino), and in the compounds of eo ; e.g. 
rediit. In these compounds, the form ii is also always used in the first 
person ; e.g. praeterii, perii. See, under eo, § 158. Otherwise, this is 
quite unusual (only petii, for petivi). 

Obs. 2. In the later poets, we find but rarely, for redii and petiit, 
the contracted form also redi, petit, although not followed by s. 

Obs. 3. In the perfects in si (xi), and the tenses formed from them, a 
syncope is sometimes admitted in archaic forms and by the poets (even 
Horace and Virgil) , when an s follows si, the i being omitted, and either 
one s or two dropped, according to § 10: e.g. scripsti, for scripsisti; 
abscessem, for abscessissem; dixe, consumpset, accestis, for dix- 
isse, consumpsisset, accessistis. 

§ 114. a. In the third person plural of the perf. indie, act., ere 
(rarely in Cicero) is also used for erunt (amavere, monuere, dix- 
ere, audivere), in which case the v cannot be omitted. In erunt 
the poets sometimes use the e short ; e.g. steterunt (Virg.). 


b. In the second person singular in the passive (except in the 
present indicative), the termination re is very usual for ris (in 
Cicero it is the one most commonly used) ; in the pres. indie, (e.g. 
arbitrare, videre), it is rare, and confined almost entirely to depo- 
nent verbs. (In the third conjugation it is very seldom, and in the 
fourth never, used.) 

c. The verbs dico, / say ; duco, I lead ; facio, / do, make ; fero, I 
bring, — of the third conjugation, have, in the present imperative active, 
die, due, fac, fer, without e ; and, in like manner, the compounds of 
duco (educ), fero (affer, refer), and those of facio, in which the 
a remains unchanged (calefac, but confice ; sec, under facio, § 143). 

Obs. Face sometimes occurs in the poets, more rarely duce and dice. 
From scio (4th conj.), sci is unused, scite rare ; for these, we find the 
future scito, scitote. 

According to an older pronunciation, the gerundive, in the third and 
fourth conjugations, has also the termination undus, instead of endus; 
e.g. juri dicundo, potiundus. 

Jj 115. Obsolete Forms of Tenses, a. In the old language, and in 
the poets, the pres. inf. passive sometimes ends in ier, instead of i; e.g. 
amarier, scribier. 

b. The imperf. indie, active and passive, of the fourth conjugation, 
had sometimes, in the more ancient language, the terminations bam, bar, 
instead of ebam, ebar; e.g. scibam, largibar (from the deponent lar- 

c. The future indie, active and passive, of the fourth conjugation, 
had sometimes, in the older style, the endings ibo, ibor, instead of iam, 
iar ; e.g. servibo, opperibor (from the deponent opperior). 

d. In the present subj. active, we find an old termination, — im, 
is, it, — especially in the word edim, occasionally used for edam, from 
edo, / eat ; and in duim, from the verb do, with its compounds, 
particularly in prayers and execrations ; di duint, di te perduint 
(Cic). ^ 

Obs. This termination was. retained in sim, and in velim, nolim, 
malim (as in the subj. of the perf. and fut. perf.). 

e. The future imperative passive, in the second and third person singu- 
lar, was anciently formed also by affixing to the stem the ending mino 
(in the third conj. imino) ; e.g. praefamino, from the deponent prae- 
fari, progredimino, from progredior. 

f. In place of the usual future, another was formed, in the older lan- 
guage, in the first, second (rare), and third conjugation, by affixing to 
the stem the ending bo (in the first and second conjugation, sso) ; as, 
levasso (levo), prohibesso (prohibeo), axo (ago). In verbs of the 

110 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 116 

third conjugation in io, the i was dropped: capso, faxo,.from capio, 
facio; and the same modifications were introduced, for the sake of eu- 
phony, as in the formation of perfects in si: e.g. adempso, from adimo 
effexo, from efficio, like effectum, because it is a close syllable. Those 
verbs of the second conjugation, which follow the third in the perfect, do 
so also in this : e.g. jusso, from jubeo (perf. jussi). From this future, 
there was formed a subjunctive in im (levassim, prohibessim, faxim) ; 
e.g. ue nos curassis, don't trouble yourself about us. The language, in its 
more refined state, retained from facio the fut. indie, faxo (in the first 
person, in the poets, in threats and promises), and the fut. subj. faxini 
(in wishes, as a pres. subj. faxis, faxit, faximus, faxitis, faxint) j 
and, from audeo, the fut. subj. ausim (in doubtful assertions, / might 
venture, ausis, ausit, ausint). 

g. A participle is formed from some verbs, mostly intransitive 
(both active and deponent), by adding to the stem bundus (a, Tim), 
in the third conj. ibundus ; e.g. contionabundus, cunctabundus, 
deliberabundus (from contionor, cunctor, delibero), furibundus, 
moribundus (from furo, morior, 3d ; fremebundus, tremebundus, 
with e, from fremo, tremo ; pudibundus, from pudet, 2d). It has 
the signification of the present active. 

Obs. This participle is rarely found with an accusative ; e.g. vitabun- 
dus castra (Liv. XXV. 13). 

§ 116. By a combination of the participle future active and the 
participle perfect passive with the tenses of the verb sum, more 
expressions may be formed than those already given (which corre- 
spond to the several tenses of the indicative) to denote special rela- 
tions of time ; e.g. dicturus sum, I am he that will say=I am about 
to say ; dicturus eram, I was about to say; positus fui, I have been 
placed. For the use and force of these combinations, see the Syn- 
tax, §§ 341-344, 381, and 409. 

Similar combinations are formed from the gerundive and sum, which 
express something as fitting, in the different moods and tenses ; e.g. 
faciendum est, or erat, it is (was) to be done, it must be done, ought to 
have been done. See, on this subject, the Syntax, §§ 420, 421. 

All these combinations are comprised under the name periphras- 
tic conjugation. 




§ 117. Some verbs, though they have the perfect and supine 
(participle perfect) with the endings specified in § 103 and § 105, 
do not form them regularly from the stem, as found in the present, 
but after some change in the same ; e.g. fregi from frango (with 
the ending i, and lengthening of the vowel according to § 103, but 
with the omission of the n). To the stem so altered there is 
often affixed the ending of a conjugation different from that, to 
which the stem of the present belongs : e.g. juvo, i" help ; juvare 
(1st), perfect juvi, with i, as if from a stem of the third conju- 
gation (juv) ; peto, I beg ; petere (3d), perfect petivi, with vi, as 
if from a stem in i (4th), supine petltum; so likewise seco, / 
cut; secare (1st), supine sectum, as if from a stem of the third 
conjugation (sec). When the perfect and supine (part, perf.) of 
these verbs are known, the other tenses, which are determined by 
these (§§ 104 and 106), are formed regularly from them. 

Compound verbs are declined like the simple (uncompounded) 
verbs from which they are derived. Those simple verbs, there- 
fore, which are irregular in the perfect and supine, are specially 
noticed below for each conjugation. Some want either both per- 
fect and supine, or the supine alone, and consequently those tenses 
also which are derived from them. 

§ 118. The deviation of the perfect and supine from the present has, 
inmost cases, arisen from the fact that, through the influence of pronunci- 
ation, the stem in use in the present has been enlarged from the original 
more simple stem. This increase consists most frequently either in the 
addition of a vowel after the final consonant (characteristic letter) of 
the stem: e.g. sona (pres. indie, sono, I sound, infin. sonare, 1st), in- 
stead of son (perf. sonui, sup. sonltum) ; ride (rideo, / laugh, 2d), 
instead of rid (perf. risi, sup. risum) ; veni (venio, I come, 4th) , 
instead of ven (perf. veni, sup. ventum) ; or, in the insertion of the 
letter n, sometimes after a vowel: e.g. si-no, I permit (3d), perf. si-vi; 
sometimes before a consonant, in which case it may also be changed by 
the pronunciation to m (according to § 8) : e.g. frango, perf. fregi, 
rumpo, perf. rupi. 1 The stem of the present is reduplicated in gigno, 

1 The insertion takes a peculiar form in cerno, sperno, sterno ; perf. crevi, sprevi, 

112 LATIN GRAMMAR. §119 

(genui, genitum, from gen) and sisto. A peculiar increment of the 
stem is the terminal affix sco. See § 141. In consequence of this en- 
largement of the stem in the present, many verbs which there have the 
characteristics a, e, i (1st, 2d, 4th conj.), have a perfect and supine 
according to the form of the third conj. ; and some, of Avhich the charac- 
teristic letter is a consonant in the present, form their perfect and supine 
as if from a stem ending in a vowel. In uro, gero (us-si, ges-si, us- 
tum, ges-tum), and some others, the stem in the present has not been 
lengthened, but varied, with a view to euphony. (In the perfect and 
supine of fluo, struo, veho, traho, vivo, we meet with a consonant, 
which, in the present, has either been rejected altogether, or weakened, 
as h, or appears in another form as v.) Some apparent irregularities 
in the perfect and supine arise only from the concurrence of the charac- 
teristic letter and the ending si, in the pronunciation. 

The supine sometimes exhibits a remarkable irregularity, in having 
turn (without any connecting vowel, not, as usual, itum), where the per- 
fect has ui (§ 105, Obs. 2). 

Obs. It is to be remarked of the supine, that this form rarely occurs ; 
and the supines of many verbs are, consequently, not found in Latin 
authors ; but we have here considered them to be in use wherever the 
part. perf. passive, or the part. fut. active occurs, as these are moulded 
after the same form. 

§ 119. First Conjugation. In the first conjugation, the fol- 
lowing verbs (with their compounds) have, in the perfect and supine, 
ui, Itum. 

Obs. The compound verb annexed in each instance serves to familiar- 
ize the learner with the quantity of the radical syllable, when it is not 
long by position, and shows, at the same time, how the vowel is altered in 
the composition, if such a change takes place (according to § 5, c). 

Crepo (crepui, crepitum), to creak, make a noise. Discrepo. 

Ciibo, to lie. Acciibo. 1 

Obs. When the compounds of cubo insert an m before b, — e.g. 
incumbo, — they are inflected according to the third conjugation, and 
acquire the signification to lay one^s self (to pass over into the condition 
of lying) : e.g. accumbo, accumbere, accubui, accubitum ; accum- 
bit, he lays himself by ; acciibat, he lies by. 

Domo, to tame. Perdomo. 

Sono, to sound (part. fut. act. sonaturus, § 106, Obs. 2). Con- 

Tono, to thunder. Att8no (attonitus, as if struck by thunder, 
stunned). (Intono has, for its part., intonatus.) 

1 Incubavit for incubuit in Quinctilian. 


VSto, to forbid. 

Plico, to fold. It is found usually only in its compounds (applico, 
to apply ; complico, to fold together ; explico, to unfold ; impllco, to 
fold in, entangle ; replico, to unfold), —which have both ui, itum, and 
avi, atum. (Generally, the perfect has ui, the supine atum ; but ex- 
plico usually has explicavi, in the signification to explain ; and applico 
has applicavi. The simple plico is found only in the poets, without a 
perfect. The participle is plicatus.) 

§ 120. The following verbs have the terminations ui, turn : — 

Frlco, to rub, fricui, frictum (but also fricatum). Perfrico. 

Seco, to cut. (Part. fut. active, secaturus, § 106, Obs. 2.) Dis- 

Mico, to glitter, has micui, without a supine. Emico, emicui, emica- 
tum. Dimico, to fight, dimicavi, dimicatum. 

En§co, from neco, to kill (necavi, necatum), has both enecui, 
enectum, and enecavi. 

§ 121. The following should be separately noticed: — 

Do, to give, dedi (with the reduplication) , datum, dare. In this verb, 
the a of the stem is always short, except in da and das. So, also, the 
compounds, circumdo, to surround ; venundo, to sell (venum,/( 


pessundo, to throw down (pessum, downwards, to the ground) ; satisdo, 
to give security (satis, enough) ; e.g. circumdedi, circumdatum. The 
remaining compounds (with prepositions of one syllable) are declined 
after the third conjugation. See § 133. (Duim, § 115, d.) 

Jiivo, to help, juvi, jutum. (Part. fut. act. juvaturus, § 106, Obs. 2. 

Sto, to stand, steti, statum. The compounds change the e of the per- 
fect into i : e.g. praesto, to stand for (to give security), to perform, prae- 
stiti, praestatum ; persto, to persevere ; only those compounded with 
prepositions of two syllables (antesto, circumsto, intersto, supersto) 
retain e, — e.g. circumsteti, — but have no supine. Disto is without 
either perfect or supine. 

Lavo, to wash, bathe, without a perfect, which is borrowed from lavo, 
lavere, lavi, lautum (lotum), after the third conj.,the present of which 
is antiquated, and only used by the poets. (Lautus, lotus, washed, 
clean ; lautus, splendid.) In the compounds, it takes the form luo, — 
e.g. abluo, — after the third conjugation (§ 130). 

Poto, to drink, potavi, potatum, and more often potum (potus, one 
that has drunk; § 110, Obs. 3). Epoto. 


114 LATIN GRAMMAR. §124 



§ 122. The following verbs affix vi and turn to the stem in the 
perfect and supine (as in the first and fourth conjugation) : — 

Deleo, to blot out, destroy, delevi, deleram, deletum. (Delesti, 
deleram, delesse, &c. ; see § 113, a.) 

Fleo, to weep. 

Neo, to spin. 

Pleo, to Jill. Used only in its compounds ; as, compleo, expleo, 
impleo, &c. 

Aboleo, to abolish (from the unused oleo, to grow) , has abolevi, abo- 

Obs. These verbs are, throughout, verba pura, as (with the exception 
abolitum) they have, everywhere, the vowel e as a characteristic letter 
before the ending. See § 101. 

§ 1 23. The verbs in veo have i in the perfect (with the radical 
vowel lengthened), turn in the supine. 

Caveo, to beware, cavi, cautum. Praecaveo (praecaves). 
Faveo, to favor, favi, fautum. 
Foveo, to cherish, foster, fovi, fotum. 

Moveo, to move, movi, motum. Commoveo (commbves). Com- 
mosti, commosse. See § 113, a. 

V5veo, to vow, to wish, vovi, votum. Devoveo (dev5ves) . 

The following want the supine : — 

Conmveo, to close the eyes, to close one eye, connivi, or connLxi (both 
forms little used) . 

Ferveo, to glow, boil, fervi and (especially in the compounds) ferbuL 
(Anciently fervo, fervere, 3d.) 

Paveo, to be afraid, pavi. 

§ 124. The following have the terminations ui in the perfect, 
and turn in the supine : — 

Doceo, to teach, docui, doctum. Dedoceo (dedoces). 

Teneo, to hold, tenui (tentum) . The supine and forms derived from 
it are little used, except in the compounds, detineo, obtineo, and re- 
tineo. Contentus (contineo) is used only as an adjective. 


Misceo, to mix, miscui, mixtum and mistum. 
Torreo, to dry up, burn, torrui, tostum. 

The following has ui and sum : — 

Censeo, to think, estimate, censui, censum. Accenseo. Recenseo, 
has, in the supine, both recensum and recensitum. 

§ 125. The following have i in the perfect, and sum in the su- 
pine (as in the third conjugation) : — 

Prandeo, to breakfast, prandi, pransum. (Pransus, one that has 
breakfasted ; § 110, Obs. 3.) 

Sedeo, to sit, sedi, sessum. Assideo (assides). Compare sido, 
§ 133. (Circumsedeo and supersedeo, without a change of vow- 

Possideo, to possess, or take possession of, possedi, possessum. 

Video, to see, vidi, visum. Invldeo (to envy), invides; videor, 
to seem. 

Strideo, to hiss, whistle, stridi, without supine : also strido, stri- 
dere, 3d. 

So also, but with the reduplication, which is dropped in the com- 
pounds, — 

Mordeo, to bite, momordi, morsum. (Demordeo, demordi.) 

Pendeo, to hang, pependi, pensum. (Impendeo, to hang over, im- 
pend, impendi.) Compare pendo, 3d, to weigh, trans. 

Spondeo, promise, to become surety, spopondi, sponsum. (The 
compounds without reduplication, spondi; e.g. respondeo, to answer, 
respondi, responsum.) 

Tondeo, to shear, totondi, tonsum. Attondeo, to clip (attondi, 
attonsum) . 

§ 126. a. The following have si in the perfect, and turn in the 
supine : 1 — 

Augeo, to increase (trans.), auxi, auctum. 

Indulgeo, to be disposed to overlook, give one's self up (e.g. to a pas- 
sion), indulsi, indultum. 

Torqveo, to twist, torsi, tortum. 

b. The following have si in the perfect, and sum in the supine : — 
Ardeo, to burn (intrans.), arsi, arsum. 
Haereo, to adhere, hang fast, haesi, haesum. Adhaereo. 
Jubeo, to order, jussi, jussum. 

1 C, g, qv after r or 1, are dropped before s and t. 

116 LATIN GRAMMAR. §128 

Maneo, to remain, mansi, inansum. Fermaneo (permanes). 

Mulceo, to stroke, mulsi, mulsum. 

Mulgeo, to milk, mulsi, mulsum. (The substantives mulctra, mulc- 
trum, and mulctral, a milk-pail, as if from mulctum.) 

RIdeo, to laugh, risi, risum. Arrideo (arrides). 

Svadeo, to advise, svasi, svasum. Fersvadeo (persvades). 

Tergeo, to dry, to wipe, tersi, tersum. (Also tergo, tergere, 

c. The following have si in the perfect, without a supine : — 

Algeo, to freeze, alsi. 

Frigeo, to be cold, frixi. 

Fulgeo, to shine, glitter, fulsi (In the poets, fulgo, fulgere, 3d.) 

Luceo, to give light, shine, luxi. Eluceo (elucet). 

Liigeo, to mourn, luxi. (The substantive luctus, mourning.) 

Turgeo, to swell, tursi (very rare in the perfect) . 

Urgeo, to press, ursi. 

§ 127. The following must be separately noticed: — 

Cieo, to stir up, excite, civi, citum ; also, cio, cire, 4th, but always 

Obs. In the compounds, — e.g. concieo, or concio, — the forms that 
follow the second conjugation are scarcely used, except in the pres. indie. 
Accire, to fetch, has, in the participle accitus, excire, both excitus and 
excitus. (Concitus is rare.) 

Iiangveo, to be languid, sick, langui, without supine. 

Liqveo, to be fluid, to be clear, liqvi, or licui, without supine. 

Also the half deponents (§ 110, Obs. 2), — 
Audeo, to dare, ausus sum. (Old fut. subj. ausim, § 115,/*.) 
Gaudeo, to rejoice, gavisus sum. 

Soleo, to be accustomed, solitus sum. Assolet (impers.), it is the 

§ 128. a. Many of the remaining verbs of this conjugation 
(chiefly intransitive) have a regular perfect, but no supine : e.g. 
oleo, to smell, have a scent (redoleo, redoles) ; sorbeo, to sip. 
Those which have a supine, and are declined entirely like moneo, 
are the following : — 

Caleo, to be warm ; careo, to be without ; coerceo, to restrain ; and 
exerceo, to exercise (from arceo, arcui, to ward off) ; debeo, to owe, be 
obliged; doleo, to be in pain, grieve; habeo, to have (adhlbeo, ad- 
hlbes, &c.) ; jaceo, to lie (adjaceo, adjaces) ; liceo, to be on sale; 
mereo, to deserve (also mereor) ; noceo, to injure ; pareo, to 


(appareo, appares, to appear) ; placeo, to please (displlceo, displlces, 
to displease) ; praebeo, to afford ; taceo, to be silent (reticeo, retices, 
to be silent, to suppress) ; terreo, to frighten ; valeo, to be strong, to be 

Obs. 1. Placeo, however, has also, in the perfect (in the 3d person), 
placitus est. 

Obs. 2. In that portion of these verbs which is intransitive, the supine 
is known only from the fut. part. ; e.g. caliturus, cariturus. 

b. Some verbs (almost all intransitive) occur neither in the per- 
fect nor in the supine ; viz. : — 

Adoleo, to set fire to ; aveo, to covet, desire ; calveo, to be bald 
(calvus) ; caneo, to be gray-headed (canus) ; clueo, to be named; den- 
seo, to thicken, heap up (commonly densare, 1st) ; flaveo, to be yellow 
(flavus) ; foeteo, to be fetid ; hebeo, to be blunt (hebes) ; humeo, to be 
moist (humidus) ; lacteo, to suck (the breast) ; liveo, to be of a livid 
color (lividus) ; imnimeo, to bend over, threaten ; promineo, to jut out 
(emineo, eminui, to be prominent) ; moereo, to be sad; polleo, to be pow- 
erful ; renideo, to glitter, smile ; scateo, to gush out ; sqvaleo, to be 
dirty (sqvalidus) ; vegeo (rare), to stir up; vieo (rare), to plaits 
Others acquire a perfect when they assume the inchoative form (see 
§ 141) : e.g. areo, to be dry ; aresco, to become dry ; arui, I became 

Obs. On the impersonal verbs of the second conjugation, see Chap. 



§ 129. The verbs of the third conjugation have various forms in 
the perfect and supine (see § 103 and 105) ; and are consequently 
all enumerated here, arranged according to the characteristic letter, 
so as to show to which form every (simple) verb belongs. 

§ 130. a. Verbs in no have i in the perfect, and turn in the 
supine ; as, mhmo, to lessen, minui, minutum. 

(So acuo, to sharpen ; imbuo, to steep, to imbue ; induo, to clothe, put 
on ; exuo, to put off; spuo, to spit ; statuo, to set up, determine ; ster- 
nuo, to sneeze ; suo, to sew ; tribuo, to impart.) In like manner, also, 

118 LATIN GRAMMAR. §131 

solvo, to loose, pay, solvi, solutum ; and volvo, to roll, volvi, volu- 

b. The following want the supine : — 

Arguo, to accuse. (Argutus, adj., sharp, clever.) Coarguo. 

Batuo, to beat, fence. 

Luo, to expiate. 

Obs. Of the compounds which have the signification to wash, to 
rinse (see § 121), some have the participle perfect; viz., ablutus, 
dilutus, elutus, perlutus, prolutus. (Luiturus belongs to a late 

Nuo, to nod. Used only in composition ; e.g. renuo. But abnuo 
has abnuiturus. 

Congruo, to meet, to agree ; and ingruo, to invade, impend over. 

Metuo, to fear. 

Pluo (pluit, it rains) . (The perfect is also written pluvi.) 

Ruo, to fall, throw down, generally intransitive, has the supine rutum 
(part. perf. rutus), but the part. fut. act. ruiturus (§ 106, Obs. 2). 
The compounds are partly transitive: as, e.g., diruo, part, diriitusj 
obruo, part, obriitus, partly intransitive : as, corruo, irruo. 

c. The following are irregular : — 

Fluo, to flow, fluxi, without a supine. (Fluxus, loose, slack; fluctus, 
a wave.) 

Struo, to heap up, build, struxi, structum. 
Vivo, to live, vixi, victum. 

§ 131. a. The verbs in bo and po have regularly si (psi), turn 
(ptum) ; viz. : — 

Glubo, to peel, glupsi, gluptum. Deglubo. 

Nubo, to marry (of women) . (Part, nupta, married.) Obnubo, to 
cover with a veil. 

Scribo, to write. Describe 

Carpo, to pluck. Decerpo. 

Clepo, to steal. (Rare, and antiquated.) 

Repo, to creep. Obrepo. 

Scalpo, to scratch, scrape, cut (with a chisel) ; and sculpo, to form 
(with the chisel). Properly, the same word; the compounds always 
have u (compare § 5, c) ; e.g. insculpo. 

Serpo, to creep. 

b. The following deviate from this rule : — 

Cumbo. The compounds of cubo, with m inserted (see § 119) ; 
e.g. incumbo, incubui, incubitum. 


Rumpo, to break; rupi, ruptum. 

StrSpo, to make a noise, strepui, strepftum. Obatrgpo. 

BIbo, to drink, bibi. Imblbo. ) 

Lambo, to tick. Lambi. V without supine. 

Scabo, to scratch. ) 

§ 132. a. The verbs in CO (not sco), qvo, go, gvo, ho, have 
regularly si, turn (which with the characteristic letter becomes xi, 

Dico, to say, dixi, dictum. Praedico, to say beforehand. 

Duco, to lead, duxi, ductum. Adduce 

C5qvo, to cook, coxi, coctum. Concbqvo. 

Cingo, to surround, cinxi, cinctum. 

Fligo, to strike. Commonly used only in the compounds, affligo, to 
strike to the ground ; confligo, to fight ; infligo, to strike (against some- 
thing). (Profligare, 1st, to beat to flight, overthrow, bring nearly to an 

Frigo, to parch. (Supine also frixum.) 

Jungo, to join. 

Lingo, to lick. 

Emungo, to blow one's nose. 

Plango, to beat (plango and plangor, to beat one's self for sor- 
row) . 

Rego, to direct, manage. Arrigo, corrXgo, erigo, porrigo, subrfgo. 
But pergo, to go on (from per and rego), has perrexi, perrectum ; and 
surgo, to rise (from sub and rego), surrexi, surrectum. Adsurgo, 
adsurrexi, adsurrectum. 

Sugo, to suck. Exsugo. 

Tego, to cover. Contego. 

Tingo, tingvo, to dip. 

TJngo, ungvo, to anoint. 

(Stingvo), to extinguish, rare. Exstingvo, restingvo, to extinguish; 
distingvo, to distinguish. 

Traho, to draw, traxi, tractum. Contraho. 

Veho, to carry (trans.). (Vehor, as a deponent, to drive or ride 

(intrans.) ; invehor, to attack.) 

Ango, to vex, anxi (rare in the perfect) . ) . . 

■kt- / i jj. .j \ . u / . -^ r without supine. 

Nmgo (nmgit, it snows), ninxi (ninxit). ) r 

Clango, to resound, without perf. or sup. 
b. The following deviate from this rule : — 
Fingo, to form, invent, finxi, fictum. 

Mingo, minxi, mictum. (In the present, more frequently me jo, 

1-0 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 132 

Pingo, to paint, pinxi, pictum. 

Stringo, to graze, touch lightly, draw tight together, strinxi, 

Mergo, to immerse, mersi, niersum. (Emergo, to come to the sur- 
face (intrans.), but in the perf. part, emersus; comp. § 110, Obs. 3). 

Spargo, to scatter, sprinkle, sparsi, sparsum. Conspergo. 

Tergo, to wipe, tersi, tersuni. (Also tergeo, 2d.) 

Vergo, to incline, without perfect or supine. 

Ago, to drive, egi, actum. Adigo, adegi, adactum (abigo, exigo, 
subigo, transigo) ; but perago (peregi, peractum) and circumago. 
Ambigo, to doubt ; dego, to jiass (aetatem) ; satago, to be busy, without 
perfect and supine. (Degi belongs to a late period.) Prodigo (to drive 
forth), spend, without supine. Cogo, to drive together, force ; coegi, 

Obs. Age (pres. imp.) , come now ! addressed also to several ; age, con- 
siderate ; though we also find agite so used. 

Frango, to break in pieces, fregi, fractum. Confringo, confregi, con- 

Ico (icio?), to strike, conclude (foedus), Ici, ictum. (Of the 
pres. indie, icit, icitur, icimur, alone are found; the only forms in 
general use are ici, ictus, and icere; ferio is used instead of the 

Lego, to collect, choose, read, legi, lectum. Allego, to choose in addi- 
tion; perlego, to read through ; praelego, to read aloud; and relego, to 
read again (without a change of the vowel), allegi, allectum, &c. ; col- 
Hgo, to collect ; deligo, eligo, seligo, to choose out ; collegi, collectum, 
&c. ; but diligo, to love, has dilexi, dilectum ; and so also intelligo 
(intellego), to understand, and negligo (neglego), to neglect. 

Linqvo, to leave, liqvi, (lictum). Relinqvo, reliqvi, relictum, is 
more common. 

Vinco, to conquer, vici, victum. 

Figo, to fasten, fixi, fizum, AfEigo. 

Parco, to spare, peperci (parsi, rare), parsum. Comparco and com- 
perco, comparsi. 

Pungo, to prick, pupiigi, punctum. The compounds have punxi in 
the perfect; e.g. interpungo. 

Pango, to fasten, panxi, and pegi (panctum, pactum). In the sig- 
nification, to fix (in the way of agreement), it has, for its perfect, pepigi, 
sup. pactum ; but, in this sense, the deponent paciscor is always used 
in the present. Compingo, compegi, compactum, and impingo. 
Oppango, oppegi, oppactum. 

Tango, to touch, tetigi, t actum. Attingo, attigi, attactum ; con- 
tingo (contingit, contigit, impers., it falls to one's share). 



§ 133. «. The verbs in do have regularly si, sum, with the omis- 
sion of the d : — 

Claudo, to shut, clausi, clausum. Concludo. 

Divido, to divide, divisi, divisum. 

Laedo, to injure. Collido, to strike together, &c. 

Ludo, to play. Colludo. 

Plaudo, to rl/tj) the. hands. Applaudo. The remaining compounds 
have plodo ; as, explodo, to drive off the stage. 

Rado, to scrape. Corrado, to scrape together. 

Rodo, to gnaw. Ariodo. 

Trudo, to thrust. Extrudo. 

Vado, to go, step, without perfect or supine. But invado, invasi, in- 
vasuni, and so also evado, pervade 

b. The following are exceptions : — 

Cedo, to yield, cessi, cessum. Concede 

(Cando, unused.) Accendo, to set on fire, accendi, accensum. So 
also incendo, succendo. 

Cudo, to forge on the anvil, ciidi, cusum. Excudo. 

Defendo, to defend, ward off, defendi, defensum. So also ofifendo, 
to insult, strike against. 

Edo, to eat, edi, esum. Comedo. (On the peculiar irregularity in 
some forms of this verb, see § 156.) 

Fundo, to pour, fudi, fusum. Effundo. 

Mando, to chew, niandi (rare), mansum. 

Prehendo, to lay hold of, prehendi, preheusum. (Also prendo.) 

Scando, to climb, scandi, scansum. Ascendo, &c. 

Strido, to hiss, whistle, stridi, without supine. (Also strideo, 2d.) 

Rudo, to roar, bray, rudivi (rare), without supine. 

Findo, to cleave, split, fidi, fissum. Diffindo (difiidi). 

Frendo, to champ, gnash the teeth, without perfect, fressum and fre- 
sum. (Also frendeo, 2d.) 

Paiido, to spread out, pandi, passum (rarely pansum). Expaiido. 
(Dispando has only dispansum.) 

Scindo, to tear, scidi, scissum. Conscindo, conscidi, conscis- 
sum, &c. Abscindo and exscindo (excindo) are not used in the 
supine, — exscindo not even in the perfect. (In its stead, we find ab- 
scisus, excisus, from abscido, excido ; see caedo.) 

Sido, to seat one's self, sedi (rarely sidi), sessum. Assido (adsido), 
assedi, assessum, &c. (Compare sedeo, 2d.) 

Cado, to fall, cecidi, casum. Concido, concidi (without redupl. 
and without supine), &c. (Of the compounds, only occido and rc- 
cido have a supine, occasuni, recasum ; rarely incido.) 

122 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 1G>4 

Caedo, to fell, beat, cecidi, caesum. Concido, concidi, conci- 

8U111, &c 

Pendo, to weighj pependi, pensum. Appendo, appendi, appen- 
sum, &c. (Suspendo, to hang up.') (Compare pendeo, 2d.) 

Tendo, to stretch, tetendi, tensuni, and tentum. Contendo, con- 
tendi, conteutuin, &c. (The compounds generally have tentum; 
extendo, retendo, both tentuni and tensuni ; detendo, to slacken, take 
down (tabernacula) ; ostendo, to show, only tensum. Substant. 
ostentum ; ostentus = obtentus, stretched out before, spread out.) 

Tundo, to beat, pound, tutiidi, tusum and tunsura. Contundo, con- 
tiidi, contusum (rarely contunsum), &c. 

Credo, to believe, credidi, creditum. Accredo, accredidi, accre- 

Do. All the compounds of do, dare (1st conj., § 121), with prepo- 
sitions of one syllable, are inflected after the third conjugation ; as, addo, 
addere, addidi, additum (condo, trado, &c). 

Obs. The doubly compounded abscondo (abs and condo) has, in 
the perfect, abscondi (rarely abscondidi). From vendo, to sell, the 
passive participle venditus, and the gerundive vendendus are in use, 
but otherwise its passive is supplied in good writers by the verb veneo 
(see § 158). So, likewise, pereo (see eo, § 158) is generally used, 
instead of the passive of perdo, to destroy, to lose (except perditus, per- 
dendus, and the compound forms) . 

Fido, to trust, fisus sum (a half-deponent). Confido, confisus 
sum ; diffido. 

§ 134. a. The verbs in lo have ui, turn (Itum) : — 

Alo, to nourish, alui, altum (and alitum). 

Colo, to till, cherish, colui, cultum. Excolo. 

Consiilo, to consult, care for, consului, consultum. 

Occulo, to conceal, occului, occultum. 

Molo, to grind, molui, molitum. 

Excello, to excel, distinguish onds self, perf. excellui (rare), with- 
out supine ; antecello, praecello, without perfect or supine. (Also, 
excelleo, antecelleo.) 

b. The following are excepted : — 

Fallo, to deceive, fefelli, falsum. Refello, to refute, refelli, without 

Pello, to drive away, pepiili, pulsum. Expello, expiili, expul- 
sum, &c. 

Percello, to strike down, perculi, perculsum. 

Psallo, to play on a stringed instrument, psalli, without supine. 

Velio, to tear, velli (rarely vulsi), vulsum. Convello, to tear away, 


convelli, convulsum, &c. Only avello and evello have also (but 
rarely) avulsi, evulsi. 

Tollo, io raise up, fake away, lias sustiili, sublatum (with the prepo- 
sition sub; the supine from another stem; sec, under fero, § 155). 
Extollo, without perfect or supine. 

§ 135. Verbs in mo: — 

Como, io adorn, compsi, comptum. 

Demo, to take away, dempsi, demptum. 

Promo, to take out, prompsi, promptum. 

Sumo, to take, sumpsi, sump turn. 

Ons. The other way of writing these verbs, without p (sumsi, sum- 
turn) is not so correct. The p has been inserted with a view to 

Fremo, to roar, murmur, fremui, fremitum. Adfremo. 

Gemo, to sigh, gemui, gemitum. Congemo. 

Vomo, to vomit, vomui, vomitum. Evomo. 

Tremo, to tremble, tremui, without supine. 

Emo, to buy, enii, emptum (less correctly, emtum). Coemo, coemi, 
coemptum. The remaining compounds have i, instead of e, in the pres- 
ent ; as, adimo, to take away, ademi, ademptum (dirimo, to separate; 
eximo, interimo, perimo, redimo). 

Premo, to jiress, pressi, pressum. Comprimo, compressi, com- 
pressum, &c. 

§ 136. Verbs inno: — 

Cano, to sing, cecini. Of the compounds, concino, occlno (also 
occano), and praecino, have, for their perfects, concinui, occinui, 
praecinui; the others (accino, &c.) want this tense. (Substantive, 
cantus, song, concentus, &c. Canto, cantare.) 

Gigno, to beget, genui, genitum. 

Pono, to put, posui, positum. Compono. (Poetical contraction ; 
postus, compostus, for positus, compositus.) 

Lino, to smear, anoint, levi (Hvi), litum. Oblino, oblevi, obll- 
tum, &c. 

Obs. The later writers use the form linio regularly according to the 
fourth conjugation. (Circumlinio, Quinc.) 

Sino, to permit, sivi, situm (situs, situated) . Desino, to leave off, 
desivi (desisti, desiit, desieram, &c, without v; § 113, b, Obs. 1), 
desitum. (For desitus sum, see, under coepi, § 161.) 

Obs. In the perfect subjunctive of sino, i and e are contracted into I, 
sirim, siris, sirit, sirint. (Not in desierim.) 

Cerno, to sift, decide, crevi, cretum. Decerno, &c. In the signifi- 
cation to see, to look, cerno has neither perfect nor supine. 

124 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 138 

Sperno, to despise, sprevi, spretum. 

Stemo, to throw to the ground, strew, cover, stravi, stratum. Con- 
sterno, to cover, constravi, constratum, &c. 

Obs. In the perfect, and the tenses derived from it, the rejection of 
the v, and contraction, as in the first conjugation, occur but seldom ; e.g. 
prostrasse, strarat. 

Tenino, to despise, tempsi, temptum ; most usually contemno, con- 
tempsi, contemptum (less correctly, contemsi, contemtum). 

§ 137. Verbs inro: — 

Gero, to carry, perform, gessi, gestum. Congero. 

Uro, to burn (trans.), ussi, ustum. Aduro, adussi, adustum, &c. 
(amburo, exuro, inuro), but comburo, to burn up, combussi, com- 
bustum (from an older form of the stem) . 

Curro, to run, cucurri, cursum. The compounds sometimes retain 
the reduplication in the perfect (accucurri), but generally lose it (ac- 

Fero, to bear, carry, tiili, latum. See § 155. 

Fiiro, to rave, without perfect or supine. 

Qvaero, to seek, qvaesivi, qvaesitum. Conqviro, conqvisivi, con- 
qvisitum, &c. 

Obs. In the first person, singular and plural, of the present indicative, 
the old form, qvaeso, qvaesiimus, is used to give the style a coloring of 
antiquity, or as a parenthesis {pray !) . 

Sero, to plait, put in rows, serui, sertum. The perfect and supine 
of the simple verb are not in use (only the neuter plural of the part, per- 
fect passive serta, garlands of flowers, wreaths), but those of the com- 
pounds are so ; as, consero, conserui, consertum. (Insero, exsero, 
desero, to forsake; dissero, to develop.) 

Sero, to sow, sevi, satum. Consero, consevi, consitum, &c. (In- 
sero, to graft, intersero, to sow amongst.) l 

Tero, to rub, trivi, tritum. Contero, &c. 

Verro, to sweep, verri, versum. 

§ 138. Verbs in so (xo) : — 

Viso, to visit, visi, without supine. Inviso. (From video.) 
Depso, to knead, depsui, depstum. 

Pinso, to pound, pinsui and pinsi, pinsitum and pinsum. (Also, 
piso, pistum.) 

Texo, to weave, fcexui, textum. 

1 Conseruisset for conservisset in Livy is an error of the transcribers. 



Those in esso have ivi, Itum ; viz. : — 

Arcesso, or accerso, to send for, arcessivi, arcessitum (accersivi, 
accersitum). In the infill, pass., sometimes arcessiri. 

Capesso, to take in hand. (A lengthened form of capio, § 143.) 
Facesso, to make, cause, intrans., to retire. (From facio, § 143.) 
Lacesso, to provoke. (From the unused lacio, § 143.) 
Incesso, to attack, incessivi, without sup. (The perfect, in the ex- 
pressions timor, cura, &e., incessit homilies, animos, is from incedo, 
although the present of the latter verb is not used in that significa- 
tion.) Incepisso, to begin, without perf. and sup. (Archaic, from in- 

Petesso, to seek, without perf. and sup. (Archaic, from peto.) 

§ 139. Verbs into: — 

Meto, to mow, reap, messtii (rare), messum. Demeto. 

Mitto, to send, misi, missum. 

Peto, to beg, seek to obtain, petivi (petii, petiit; § 113, b, Obs. 1), 
petitum. Appeto. 

Sisto, to place, set up, stiti (rare) , statum (adj. status, fixed ) ; rarely 
in an intransitive signification, to remain standing, place one^s self, and 
then in the perfect steti (from sto, 1st, from which sisto has been formed 
by reduplication). Desisto, destiti, destitum, &c. (Consisto, ex- 
sisto, insisto, resisto, all invariably intransitive.) Circumsisto alone 
has circumsteti, from circumsto. 

Sterto, to snore, stertui, without supine. 

Verto, to turn, verti, versum. In like manner, the compounds 
(adverto, whence animadverto, averto, &c.) . The intransitives dever- 
tor, to put up ; and revertor, to return, — are deponents in the present, 
and the forms derived from it (reverto is very rare) ; in the perfect, on 
the contrary, they are active verbs, deverti, reverti (more rarely rever- 
sus sum and the participle reversus). Praeverto, to be beforehand 
xoith, surpass, has a deponent form in the intransitive signification, to 
attend to a thing (above every thing else), but otherwise very seldom. 

Flecto, to bend, flexi, flexum. 

Necto, to tie, nexi and nexui (both rare), nexum. 

Pecto, to comb, pexi and pexui (both rare), pexum. 

Plecto, to punish, without perfect or supine. In the signification 
to plait, we find only the part. perf. passive, plexus (compound im- 

§ 140. Verbs in SCO. They are partly those in which the sco 
belongs to the stem, and is retained in the inflection ; partly those 

126 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 141 

iii which SCO is a prolongation of the stem, and is dropped in the 
perfect and supine. 

Of the first kind are (all without supine), — 
Compesco, to confine, compescui. 
Dispesco, to separate, dispescui. 

Disco, to learn, didici. Addisco, addidici (with redupl.), &c. 
Posco, to demand, poposci. Deposco, depoposci (with the re- 
dupl.), &c. 

§ 141. Sco is a prolongation of the stem in the inchoative verbs, 
which are derived either from a verb (inchoativa verbalia), or 
from a noun (inchoativa nominalia), most frequently an adjective, 
to denote the commencement of a state (see § 196). The inchoa- 
tiva verbalia have the perfect of the verbs from which they are 
derived ; e.g. : — 

Incalesco, incalui, from caleo, calui ; ingemisco, ingemui, from 
gemo, gemui ; deliqvesco, delicui, from liqveo, liqvi, or licui. Some 
of those inchoativa nominalia, which are derived from adjectives of the 
second declension, have a perfect in ui (without a supine) : as, matu- 
resco, to ripen, maturui, from maturus ; obmutesco, to grow dumb, 
obmutui, from mutus; percrebresco, to grow frequent (creber), per- 
crebrui (by some written percrebesco, percrebui). (So, likewise, 
evilesco, to become worthless, evilui, from vilis.) Irraucesco, to grow 
hoarse (raucus), irrausi, is irregular. The others, derived from adjec- 
tives in is, with many of those from adjectives in us, have no perfect ; e.g. 
ingravesco. (Vesperascit, the evening comes on, and advesperascit, 
have vesperavit, advesperavit ; consenesco, to become old, con- 

Obs. Some few inchoatives have also the supine of their stems; 
viz. : — 

Coalesco (alesco, from alo, 3d) , to grow together, coalui, coalitum 
(in the part. perf. coalitus, grown, together) . 

Concupisco, to desire, concupivi, concupitum. (Cupio, 3d.) 

Convalesco, to become strong, healthy, convalui, convalitum. 
(Valeo, 2d.) 

Exardesco, to take fire, exarsi, exarsum. (Ardeo, 2d.) 

Inveterasco, to grow old, inveteravi, inveteratum (part. perf. in- 
veteratus, rooted). (From vetus ; also, invetero.) 

Obdormisco, to fall asleep, obdormivi, obdormltum. (Dormio, 

Revivisco, to come to life again, revixi, revictum. (Vivo, 3d.) 


§ 142. Some verbs are lengthened with $co, but have lost their 
inchoative signification, or are formed from stems which are no 
longer extant, so that they are considered as simple, underived 
verbs. These are the following : — 

Adolesco, to grow tip, adolevi. So also abolesco, to disappear, 
cease ; exolesco, to disappear, grow old; inolesco, obsolesco. (From 
the unused oleo, to grow.) From adolesco comes the adjective adul- 
tus, grown up, from exolesco, exoletus, from obsolesco, obsoletus, 
obsolete. (Compare, aboleo, § 122.) 

Cresco, to increase, crevi, cretum. Concresco, &c. (Part. perf. 
cretus, and particularly concretus.) 

Fatisco, to crack (grow languid), without perfect or supine. (Fes- 
sus, weary, adjective. Defetiscor, to grow weary, defessus sum, 

Glisco, to groio, spread, without perf. or sup. 

Hisco, to open the mouth, without perf. or sup. 

Nosco, to become acquainted with, inform one's self concerning, novi, 
no turn. The perfect signifies, I have made the acquaintance of, I know ; 
the pluperfect, I knew. Notus is only an adjective (known) , and the 
fut. part, is not in use. (On the contraction, nosti, norim, see § 113, a.) 

Of the compounds (from the old form gnosco), agnosco (adgnosco), 
to recognize; cognosco, to become acquainted with (recognosco), 
— have agnitum and cognitum in the supine; ignosco, to pardon, has 
ignotum. The remaining (dignosco, internosco) have no supine. 

Pasco, to feed (cattle), pavi, pastum. (Fascor, as a deponent, to 
graze.) Depasco. 

Qviesco, to rest, qvievi, qvietum. 

Svesco, to accustom one's self, svevi, svetum. (Part. perf. svetus, 
accustomed. Archaic present, svemus, from sveo. The compounds 
have sometimes a transitive signification: e.g. assvesco, to accustom 
one's self, and to accustom one ; generally, however, we*fmd assvefacio, 
in the transitive signification. Mansvetus, tame.) 

Scisco, to order, ratify (a law), scivi, scitum. (From scio.) 

§ 143. Verbs with an i inserted after the characteristic letter. 
(The perfect and supine are formed from the stem without i.) 

Capio, to take, cepi, captum. Concipio (concipis), concepi, con- 
ceptum, &c. 

Facio, to make, do, feci, factum. (Old fat. indie, faxo; subj., 
faxim ; § 115,/'.) Fio serves for a passive in the present, and the 
tenses formed from it ; see § 160 ; but the participles (factus, facien- 
dus) and the compound forms are from facio. So also the compounds 

128 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 143 

•with verbal stems : e.g. calefacio, to make warm, calefeci, calefactum, 
calefio ; patefacio, patefeci, patefactum, patefio ; l and with adverbs : 
e.g. satisfacio, to give satisfaction, satisfeci, satisf actum, satisfit. 
The compounds with prepositions alter the vowel, and are declined like 
perficio, perfeci, perfectum, in the passive (regularly) perficior. (But 
conficio sometimes has confieri in the passive as well as conficior. 
See § 160, Obs. 1.) 

Jacio, to throw, jeci, jactum. Abjicio (abjicis), abjeci, abjec- 
tum, &c. 

Obs. At an earlier period, the compounds were generally spoken and 
written with one i ; e.g. abicio, disicio. In the poets, eicit, reice, dis- 
syllables, and ejicit, rejiciunt. Porricio, archaic, to offer in sacrifice, 
has no perfect. 

Cupio, to wish, cupivi, cupitum. 

FQdio, to dig, fodi, fossum. Efiodio, effodis. 

Fugio,, fugi, fugitum. Aufugio, aufiigis. 

Lacio, to entice, whence lacto, lactare, to make sport of one. It 
is used only in compounds ; allicio, to entice, allexi, allectum ; so also 
illicio, pellicio ; but elicio, to draw out, has elicui, elicitum. (Proli- 
cio is not found in the perfect and supine.) 

Pario, to bring forth, peperi, partum. (Part. fut. act. pariturus ; 
§ 106, Obs. 2.) 

Qvatio, to shake (qvassi, unused), qvassum. Concutio, concussi, 
concussum; percutio, &c. 

Rapio, to snatch, take away by force, rapui, raptum. Arripio, ar- 
ripui, arreptum, &c. 

Sapio, to taste, have taste, understanding (sapivi), without sup. De- 
sipio, to be foolish, without perf. 

Obs. The inchoative resipisco, to become wise again, has resipivi and 

Specio, to look, whence specto, spectare. Used only in the com- 
pounds ; aspicio, to behold, aspexi, aspectum ; conspicio, &c. 

i Some of these, however, hare no other passive forms than those deduced from facio; 
e.g. tremefacio, tremefaetus. 




§ 144. The following verbs have si, turn (one has sum), as in 
the third conjugation : — 

Farcio, to stuff, farsi, fartum (farctum). Refercio, refersi, refer- 
tum, &c. 

Fulcio, to prop, fulsi, fultum. 

Haurio, to draw (water) , hausi, haustum. (Part. fut. hausturus 
and hausurus.) Exhaurio. 

Sancio, to ratify, sanxi, sancitum, and oftener sanctum. 

Sarcio, to patch, sarsi, sartum. Resarcio. 

Sentio, to feel, think, sensi, sensum. Consentio, &c. Assentio is 
oftener used as a deponent, — assentior, assensus sum, 

Saepio (sepio), to fence, saepsi, saeptum. Obsaepio. 

Vincio, to bind, fetter, vinxi, vinctum. 

§ 145. The following have other irregularities : — 

Amicio, to clothe, amictum. Not used in the perfect. 

Cio, civi, citum. See cieo, § 127. 

Eo, to go, ivi, ltum. See § 158. 

Ferio, to strike, without perfect or supine. 

(Perio ?) Apeno, to open, uncover, aperui, apertum; so also opSrio, 
to cover over, and cooperio. 

(Perio ?) Reperio, to find, repperi (reperi), repertum ; so also 
comperio, to learn, comperi, compertum. (Rarely, with a deponent 
form in the present, comperior.) 

Salio, to leap, salui (rarely, and not in the first person, salii). 
Desilio, desilui (rarely desilii), &c. (The substantives saltus, de- 

Sepelio, to bury, sepelivi, sepultum. 1 

Venio, to come, veni, ventum. (Convenio.) 

Some intransitive verbs derive'd from adjectives want the perfect and 
supine : e.g. superbio, to be proud ; caecutio, to be blind (see § 194, 
O65. 2; but saevio, and the transitives — as, mollio — are complete). 
These forms are also wanting in those verbs in iirio, which denote an 
inclination (verba desiderativa ; see § 197) ; e.g. dormitiirio, to be 
sleepy. (From esiirio, however, we have esuriturus in Terence.) 

Perf. first person sepeli (from sepelii ; § 113, b, Obs. 1 and 2) in Persius. 

130 LATIN GRAMMAR. & 148 



§ 146. In some deponents the supine or participle perfect (whence 
the perf. ind., &c, are formed by composition) varies from the pres- 
ent in the same way as in the active verbs. 

Obs. The supine itself occurs but seldom in the deponents. The perf. 
part with sum, (perf. indie.) is here named instead of it. 

In the first conjugation, to which by far the greater part of the 
deponents belongs, they are all inflected regularly. 

Obs. 1. In ferior, to keep holiday, be idle; and operor, to busy one's 
self with, — the perfect participle has a present signification; feriatus, 
idle, unoccupied ; operatus, busied. The same also generally holds good 
of arbitratus, and some others. 

Obs. 2. Concerning the derivation of the deponents which follow the 
first cenj., see § 193, b. 

§ 147. a. Of some deponents of the first conjugation, the active form 
is also occasionally, or even frequently, found in good writers ; e.g. popii- 
lor, to lay waste, and populo. The most important of these, including 
pdpulor, are : altercor, to dispute (alterco, Ter.) ; auguror, to foretell; 
comitor, to accompany (comito, poet.) ; conflictor, to struggle (con- 
flicto, Ter.) ; fabricor, to make ; feneror, to lend at interest; luctor, to 
wrestle (lucto, Ter.) ; ludificor, to make sport of, to banter ; muneror, 
to present : remuneror, to recompense ; oscitor, to yawn ; palpor, to 
stroke, flatter ; stabulor, to be in the stall, have one's station. ■ The 
active form of many others is here and there met with in the older 

b. On the other hand, some verbs of the first conjugation, which have 
most commonly the active form, are used, by some particular authors, as 
deponents; e.g. fluctuo, to fluctuate; also, fluctuor (Liv.). Further 
examples of such verbs are : bello, to make war (bellor, Virg.) : commu- 
nico, to communicate (communicor, Liv.) ; elucubro, to work out (elu- 
cubror, Cic.) ; frutico, to shoot out branches (fruticor, Cic.) ; luxurio, 
to be luxuriant; murmuro, to murmur (commurmuror, Cic.) ; opsono, 
to buy food (opsonor, Ter.) ; velifico, to set sail (velificor, Cic, to work 
for, to favor). 

§ 1 48. In the second conjugation the following deponents vary 
from the usual formation : — 



Fateor, to confess, fassus sum. Confiteor, confessus sum, &c. 
(Diffiteor, to deny, without part, perf.) 

Reor, to think, ratus sum, without part. pres. 

Medeor, to heal, without part. perf. 

Misereor, to have pity on, has, in most cases, the regular perfect mise- 
ritus sum, more rarely misertus sum. (Of* miseretur as an imper- 
sonal, see § 166, b.) 

Tueor, to protect (look at), (tultus sum). Part. fut. tuiturus. In- 
stead of the unused perfect, we find tutatus sum, from tutor. The per- 
fect of contueor, intueor, contuitus sum, intuitus sum, is rare. (An 
archaic form is tuor (3d) , whence the adjective tutus.) 

Obs. The regular deponents of the second conjugation are : liceor, to 
bid for ; mereor, to deserve (also in the active form mereo) ; l polli- 
ceor, to promise ; vereor, to fear. 

§ 149. To the third conjugation belong the following deponents, 
which may be arranged like the actives according to their char- 
acteristic letters : (fungor is declined like the passive of cingo, 
patior like that of qvatio, qveror, qvestus, like that of gero, 
gestum, &c.) 

Firuor, to enjoy, fruitus and fructus sum (both rare) ; part. fut. frui- 

Fungor, to perform, functus sum. 

Gradior, to step, go, gressus sum. AggrSdior, aggressus sum, 

Labor, to slide, fall, lapsus sum. Collabor, &c. 

Liqvor, to melt (intrans.), to flow away, without part. perf. 

L6qvor, to speak, locutus sum. Allbqvor. 

Mbrior, to die, mortuus sum. Part. fut. moriturus. Embrior. 

Nitor, to lean, exert one's self, nixus or nisus sum. Adnitor. (Em- 
tor, to bring forth young, enixa est.) 

Patior, to suffer, passus sum. Perpetior. 

(From plecto, to plait, to twist, § 139.) Amplector, complector, 
to embrace, amplexus sum, complexus sum. 

Qveror, to complain, qvestus sum. Conqveror. 

Ringor, to show one's teeth, without part. perf. 

Sgqvor, to follow, seciitus sum. Conseqvor. 

Utor, to use, usu3 sum. Abiitor. 

(Verto, revertor, &c.„ see § 139.) 

1 Mereo is chiefly used of what is gained by trading and of military service ; merere 
Stipendia, m. eqyo ; on the other hand, we generally have bene, male mereri ; in the 
perf., also in this signification, chiefly merui ; but in the participle meritus (bene meri- 



§ 150. Further, the following in scor (see § 141) : — 

Apiscor, to obtain, aptus sum. Adipiscor, adeptus sum, is more 
usual. (Indipiscor, indeptus sum.) 

Defetiscor, to grow weary, defessus sum. (From fatisco, § 142.) 

Expergiscor, to awake (intrans.), experrectus sum. Obsolete par- 
ticiple, expergitus. 

Irascor, to grow angry (from the subst. ira), without perf. Iratus 
(adj.), angry, iratus sum, 1 am angry. {I grew angry, is expressed by 
succensui or suscensui, from succenseo or suscenseo. ) 

Meniscor. Comminiscor, to devise, commentus sum. Remin- 
iscor, to remember, without part. perf. 

Nanciscor, to obtain, nanctus and nactus sum. 

Nascor, to be born, natus sum. Part. fut. nasciturus. Enascor. 
(The adjectives agnatus, cognatus, prognatus, from a form gnas- 

Obliviscor, to forget, oblitus sum. 

Paciscor, to make an agreement, pactus sum. Compaciscor or com- 
peciscor, compactus or compectus sum. Pepigi, from the stem 
pango (§ 132), is also used for the perfect. 

Proficiscor, to travel, profectus sum. 

Ulciscor, to revenge, ultus sum. 

Vescor, to eat, without part. perf. 

§ 151. In the fourth conjugation the following deponents vary 
from the regular form : — 

Assentior, to agree, assensus sum. See sentio, § 144. 

Experior, to try, experience, expertus sum. (Compare comperio, 
§ 145.) 

Metior, to measure, mensus sum. 

Ordior, to begin (trans.), orsus sum. 

Opperior, to wait for, oppertus (opperitus) sum. 

Orior, to rise, ortus sum. Part. fut. oriturus. (The gerundive ori- 
undus, with the signification, descended.) 

Obs. 1. In the present indicative, the form of the third conjugation is 
used, — oreris, oritur, orimur ; in the imperf . subj . , both orirer (4th) 
and orerer (3d). (From adorior, adoriris, adoritur, are in use.) 

Obs. 2. The regular deponents of the fourth conjugation are: blan- 
dior, to flatter ; largior, to present ; mentior, to lie ; molior, to move, 
undertake ; partior, to divide (rarely partio ; but dispertio, impertio 
(impartio), are more usual than dispertior, impertior) ; potior, to ob- 
tain ;*sortior, to take by lot; punior, to punish (in Cicero, elsewhere we 
usually find punio) . 


Obs. 3. From potior, the poets, and sonic prose-Writers, occasionally 
use, in the present indicative, potitur, potimur; and, in the imperil subj., 
poterer, &c, after the third conjugation. 

§ 152. Those deponents, of which the active form is in use, some- 
times receive a passive signification: as, comitor, 1 am accompanied; 
fabricantur, they are made ; populari, to be laid waste, — but particu- 
larly the part. perf. : e.g. comitatus (in all writers), elucubratus, fo 
bricatus, populatus, meritus. 

§ 153. A few rare instances are met with of other deponents in a pas- 
sive signification : e.g. in Cicero, adulor, aspernor, arbitror, dignor, 
criniinor ; in Sallust, ulciscor. Of some deponents, the participle per- 
fect only is used, by good writers, in a passive signification also ; 
abominatus, adeptus, auspicatus, amplexus, complexus, com- 
mentus, commentatus, confessus, despicatus, detestatus, eblan- 
ditus, ementitus, expertus (inexpertus), exsecratus, interpre- 
tatus, ludificatus, meditatus (praemeditatus), mensus (dimensus), 
metatus (dimetatus), moderatus, opinatus (necopinatus), pactue, 
partitus, perfunctus, periclitatus, stipulatus, testatus, ultus (inul- 
tus, unavenged), with some others in the poets, and second-rate 
writers. 1 



§ 154. Those verbs are termed irregular, which vary from the 
usual form, not only in the formation of the perfect and supine, 
but also in the endings of the tenses, and the mode in which they 
are combined with the stem. An example of one such verb, sum, 
has already been adduced. The others are now given. 

Possum, to be able, is inflected in the following manner : — 















1 In the fut. imperat. we sometimes meet with utlto, tuento, &c, for utltor, tuentor. 

134 LATIN GRAMMAR. §155 


pdtSram, as, at possem, es, et 

poteramus, atis, ant possemus, etis, ent 

p5tui, isti, it potuerim, is, it 

potuiinus, istis, erunt potuerimus, itis, int 


potueram, as, at potuissem, es, et 

potueramus, atis, ant potuissemus, etis, ent 


potSro, is, it -i^ ,. 

poterhnus, Itis, unt Wanting. 

Future Perfect. 
potuero, is, it potuerim, is, it 

potuerimus, itis, int potuerimus, itis, int 

Pres. posse Perf. potuisse. Fut. Wanting. 

The Imperative is wanting. The participle present potens is only 
used as an adjective, powerful* 

Obs. Possum is compounded of potis (or properly pot) and sum 
(possum from potsum) . Anciently and by the poets it was expressed 
by potis es, est, sunt (potis being invariable in gender and number) 
for potes, potest, possuut : in common language also simply pote for 
potest. For possim, possis, possit, there was also an obsolete form 
possiem, &c. (siem) ; potesse for posse. 

§ 155. Fero, to carry, after the third conjugation, borrows its 
perfect and supine, tuli, latum, from other stems. In some of the 
forms derived from the present, the connecting vowel between the 
stem and ending is omitted, in the manner following : — 

Active. Passive. 


fero, fers, fert feror, ferris, fertur 

ferimus, fertis, ferunt ferimur, ferimini, feruntur 



I.Ml'l i:i I 

ferrem, ferres, ferret ferrer, ferreris, ferretur 

ferremus, ferretia, ferrent ferrcinui, fei:cnnni, fenentur 

I'kimm. fer, ferte ferre, ferimini 

Future. 9, 8 ferto 2, :> fertor 

fertote, ferunto 3 feruutor 

Tim si at. ferre ferri 

The remainder i« regular (imp, ind. act. ferebam, pass, ferebar; plop. 
tuleram, tulissem; int. perf. tulero, from tuli, &c). In the same way 
are declined the compounds (in which the prepositions before fero, tuli, 
latum, arc modified according to § 173) : e.g. affgro, attiili, allatum; 
offSro, obtiili, oblatum. Aufero, from ab-fero, has abs-tuli, ablatum; 
refero, rettuli (retuli), relatum. Suffero, to carry, hear, has rarely 
Bustuli in the perfect : instead of this sustinui is employed ; and sustuli, 
sublatum, are used for the perfect and supine of tollo, to lift vp 
(§ 134). Differo, to put <>{)', apraul <»d, has distuli, dilatum; but in 
the intransitive signification, to differ, it has neither perfect nor supine. 

§ 150. The verb Sdo, to eat, edi, esum, of the third conjugation 
(§ 133), in addition to the regular inflection, has also shorter forms 
in the present indicative, imperfect subjunctive, the imperative, and 
present infinitive, agreeing exactly in form with those parts of the 
verb sum which begin with es ; viz.: — 


Pkksent. Imperfect. 

Sdo, edis, edit ederem, ederes, ederet 

eS( est essem, esses, esset 

edimus, editis, edunt ederemus, ederetis, ederent 

estis essemus, essetis, essent 


PBKSBXT. ede, edite 1'kes. edere 

es, este esse 

Future, edito, editote 
esto, estote 




In the passive, estur is found for editur, and essetur for ederetur. 1 
The same abridged forms are also used in the compounds ; e.g. conies, 
coinest, comesse, for comedis, comedit, comedere, from comedo. 

§ 157. Volo, I will; nolo, / will not (from ne volo) ; malo, / 
had rather (from mage, i.e. magis, volo), — are declined as fol- 
lows : — 






non vis 


vult (volt) 

non vult 





vultis (voltis) 

non vultis 









volebas, &c. 

nolebas, &c. 

malebas, &c. 

vomi, &c. 








(nolam, unused) 

(malam, unused) 

voles, &c. 

noles, &c. 
Future Perfect. 

males, &c. 























1 The shorter forms have been produced by the omission of the connecting vowel and a 
modification of the letters ; the e in these is pronounced as long by nature. 




velles, &c. 





nolles, &c. 



Future Perfect. 

malles, &c. 





"Wanting. Pres. Sing, noli ; Plur. nolite Wanting. 

Fut. Sing. 2, 3 nolito ; Plur. 2 nolitote 

3 nolunto 
Present, velle nolle malle 

Perfect, voluisse noluisse maluisse 

Present, volens nolens Wanting. 

Obs. The following are obsolete forms : nevis, nevult, nevelle, for 
non vis, non vult, nolle ; mavolo, mavelim, mavellem, for malo, 
malim, mallem. From si vis, si vultis, annexed to a command or 
request (pray, if you please), originated in familiar language, and the 
style intended to imitate it, the expressions sis, sultis : Vide, sis, ne 
qvo abeas (Ter.) Refer animum sis ad veritatem (Cic. pro Rose. 
Am. 16) . Facite, sultis, nitidae ut aedes meae sint (Plaut.) . 

§ 158. The verb eo, to go, Ivi, Itum, of the fourth conjugation, 
is thus inflected in the present and the forms derived from it : — 



eo, is, it earn, eas, eat 

imus, itis, eunt eamus, eatis, eant 

ibam, ibas, ibat irem, ires, iret 

ibamus, ibatis, ibant iremus, iretis, irent 

ibo, ibis, ibit iturus, a, um, sim, &c. 

ibimus, ibitis, ibunt 

lbb LATIN GRAMMAR. § 159 


Pres. Sing, i! Plur. Ite ! Pres. ire 

Fut. Sing. 2 and 3 Ito; Plur. 2 Itote 

3 eunto 

Present, iens, euntem, euntis, &c. 
Gerund, eundum. 

The rest is regularly formed from ivi (iveram or ieram, ivisse, 
isse, &c.) and ltum (iturus, iturus esse). Eo being an intransitive 
verb, the passive can only be formed in the third person (impersonally, 
§ 95, Obs.) ; viz., Itur, ibatur, ibitur, ltum est, &c., eatur, iretur. 

In like manner are inflected the compounds, which usually have ii, 
not ivi, in the perfect; e.g. abii, redii (§ 113, b, Obs. 1). Some of 
them (adeo, ineo, praetereo) take a transitive signification, and these 
form a complete passive, thus : Ind. pres. adeor, adiris, aditur, 
adimur, adimini, adeuntur ; imperf. adibar, &c. ; fut. adibor, 
adiberis, &c. : Subj. pres. adear, &c. ; imperf. adirer, &c. ; Imperat. 
pres. adire, fut. aditor, plur. adeuntor: Infin. pres. adiri; part. perf. 
aditus ; gerundive, adeundus, a, urn. 

From eo comes also veneo (venum eo), to be put up for sale, be 
sold, which is used as the passive of vendo (§ 133), and inflected like 
the other compounds. (In the imperf. indie, sometimes veniebam.) 

Ambio, to go about, is the only compound which is regularly in- 
flected according to the fourth conjugation ; e.g. participle present, 
ambiens, ambientem, ambientis. (The imperfect is sometimes anibl- 
bam. 1 ) 

§ 159. Qveo, to be able ; and neqveo, — to be unable, are inflected 
like eo, but without imperative, future participle, or gerund (queo, 
quis, &c. ; queunt, queam, &c. ; quibam, quirem, quivi, quive- 
rim; or, quierim, quivisse, or quisse, &c). 

Obs. 1. The part. pres. also scarcely occurs in ordinary language ; 
and qvibam, qviveram, qvibo, neqvibo, are obsolete and rare forms. 
Qvis and qvit, in the pres. indie, are used only with non (non qvis 
and non qvit for neqvis and neqvit) ; in general qveo is used only in 
negative propositions, and far more rarely than possum. 

Obs. 2. In the older style a passive form was sometimes used where 
an infinitive passive was subjoined : forma nosci non qvita est (Ter.) ; 
ulcisci (pass.) neqvitur (Sail.). Compare coeptus sum, § 161. 

1 The irregularity in eo consists in the radical vowel i being changed into e before a, o, 
and u, and in its having in the imperf. and fut. indie, the form in bam (for ebam) and bo 
(§ 115, b. c). 


§ 1G0. Fio, to become, be done, answers as a passive to the verb 
facio (§ 143), from which it borrows the perf. part., the gerundive, 
and the compound tenses. 

The remainder varies only slightly from the regular inflection : — % 


fio, fis, fit fiam, fias, fiat 

(fimus, fitis), Hunt fiamus, fiatis, fiant 

fiebam, fiebas, &c. figrem, fieres, &c. 

fiam, fies, &c. Wanting. 


Pres. Sing, fi ; Plur. fite Prks. fieri 

(Factus sum, eram, ero, sim, essem, factum esse, factum iri.) 

Obs. 1. For the compounds, see under facio. Confieri has only 
confit, confiat, confieret (3 pers.) ; defieri, to be wanting, only defit, 
defiunt, defiat. 

Obs. 2. In this verb (contrary to the general rule), the vowel i is long 
before another vowel, except in fieri, fierem. 

defective verbs. 

§ 161. Several verbs are not completely inflected in all the forms 
of which their signification would allow. Those which want the 
perfect or supine have been already specified. Some of the irregu- 
lar verbs are at the same time defective. This chapter contains 
those verbs especially which want the present, or are only used in a 
very few isolated forms. 

The verbs coepi, / began ; memini, / remember (commemini) ; 
and odi, I hate, — are not used in the present, and the tenses derived 
from it. The perfect of memini and odi has the signification of a 
present, the pluperfect that of an imperfect, and the future perfect 
that of a future. These verbs are thus inflected : — 





Perf. coepi, coepisti, &c. memini, &c. odi, &c. 

Plup. coeperam memineram oderam 

Fut. Perf. coepero meminero odero 

Perf. coeperim meminerini oderim 

Plup. coepissem raeininissem odissem 

Fut. Perf. (same as perf.) 

Wanting. Fut. Sixg. 2 memento Wanting. 

Plur. 2 mementote 

Perf. coepisse 



Perf. Pass, coeptus Wanting (osus, obsolete) 

Fut. Act. coepturus osurus. 

Obs. From osus, which has an active signification, we find the com- 
pounds, exosus, perosus, hating. 

Coepi is found also in the passive, coeptus sum, which is joined to 
a passive infinitive : e.g. urbs aedificari coepta est ; but we may also 
say aedificari coepit. (In the same way also desitus est is used, from 
desino, to cease (§ 136) : e.g. Veteres orationes legi sunt desitae, 
Cic. ; but also desii: e.g. bellum jam timeri desierat, Li v.) 

Obs. Incipio (incepi, inceptum, from capio) serves for a present 
of coepi, and more rarely occipio (occepi, occeptum). Incipio 
facere, coepi facere (less frequently incepi 1 ) . 

§ 162. a. Ajo, to say, say yes, is used in the following forms : — 



ajo, ais, ait — ajas, ajat 

— — ajunt — — ajant 

ajebam, ajebas, &c. 
(In Plautus and Terence, aibam.) 

1 Coepi with the accusative of a substantive is rare, incipio common (incipere oppug- 
nationem ; proelium incipitur, Sail. Jug 74) ; but we find in the passive ludi coepti 
sunt (Liv.), and the participle (opus coeptum) is not uncommon. 




Present, ajens (adj., affirmative) 
Obs. The Imperative ai is quite obsolete. 

b. Inqvam, I say, is used in the following forms : — 

Present. Imperfect. 

inqvam, inqvis, inqvit — — inqviebat 

inqvimus, inqvitis, inqviunt 

Perfect. Future. 

— inqvisti, inqvit inqvies, inqviet 

Pres. Sing, inqve Fut. Sing. 2 inqvito 

Obs. This verb is used only when a person is introduced, speaking in 
his own words, and is inserted after one or more words of the speech 
cited ; e.g. Turn ille, Nego, inqvit, verum esse, I deny, said he, that it 
is true. Potestne, inqvit Epicurus, qvicqvam esse melius ? In- 
qvam is also used, in narrations, as a perfect. 

c. Infit, he begins, is used only in the third person of the present 
indicative, either alone, signifying, begins to speak, or with an infinitive, 
usually one which implies speaking; e.g. laudare, percontari infit. 
(Archaic and poetical. Perhaps from fari.) 

§ 163. Fari, to speak (a deponent of the first conjugation), with 
its compounds (affari, effari, praefari, profari), is used in the fol- 
lowing forms (but those within brackets are found only in the 
compounds) : — 


— — fatur Wanting, 

(famur, famini) 



(farer, &c.) 

fatus sum, &c. fatus sim, &c. 

fatus eram, &c. fatus essem, &c. 

fabor (faberis), fabitur Wanting. 

142 LATIN GRAMMAR. §165 


Pres. Sing, fare Pres. fari fatu 

Present. fantem, fantis, &c, without nominative. 
Perfect. fatus, a, um. 
Gerund. fandi, fando. 

Gerundive, fandus, a, um (e.g. fanda atqve nefanda). 
Obs. The simple verb fari is antiquated, and used chiefly by the 

§ 1 64. Salveo, to be safe, uninjured, is used only in salutations ; 
in the imperative, salve, hail! plur. salvete (fut. sing, salveto) ; 
in the infinitive, in the construction salvere (te) jubeo, / bid you 
welcome; and in the fut. indie, salvebis (in written salutations). 
In the same signification we find the imperative ave (have), hail! 
good day ! plur. avete, fut. sing, aveto ; rarely avere jubeo. (Aveo 
means, 1 am inclined, have a desire ; § 128, b.) 

An old imperative is apage (artaye = abige), away with! apage te, 
pack yourself off! away with you ! (Also simply apage, away !) 

As an imperative, we find also the very unusual form, cedo, give me ! 
(cedo librum), out with it! tell me ! (cedo, qvid faciam). In the plu- 
ral (obsolete), cette. 

Obs. Besides the verbs here given, there are others, of which one 
or two forms are not found, because there was but seldom occasion for 
their use, — e.g. solebo and solens, from soleo, — and their sound 
was, perhaps, also disagreeable, as in dor, der, deris, from do. From 
the verb ovo, to rejoice (used especially of a victorious procession, less 
important than a triumph) , we commonly find only the participle ovans, 
— in the poets also ovat (ovet, ovaret). 



§ 165. Those verbs are called impersonal which are used only 
in the third person singular, and have usually no reference to a sub- 
ject in the nominative. 

Obs. Besides those verbs which are exclusively impersonal, some, 
which are otherwise personal, are used impersonally in certain signi- 
fications ; e.g. accidit, it happens, from accido. See the Syntax, 
3 218. 



§ 166. The following verbs are impersonal: — 

a. Those which indicate the weather : e.g. ningit, it snows ; pluit, it 
rains; grandinat, it hails; also, the two inchoatives, lucescit (illu- 
cescit), it grows light, the day dawns ; and vesperascit (advesperas- 
cit), the evening comes on. 

b. The following verbs of the second conjugation : — 

Libet, it pleases, libuit and libitum est (half-deponent). Col- 

Licet, it is permitted, licuit and licitum est. 
- Miseret (me), (1) pity, without perf. ; also, miseretur, miseritum 

Ous. Misereor is also used personally. Miseror, miserari, generally 
signifies, to compassionate (in words). 

Oportet, it is right, necessary ; oportuit. 

Piget, it vexes ; piguit and pigitum est. 

Poenitet (me), (1) repent; poenituit. 

Pudet, it causes shame (p. me, I am ashamed) ; puduit and pudi- 
tum est. 

Taedet, it is irJcsome, causes vexation (taedet me, / am weary of it) , 
without a perfect ; instead of which the compound, pertaesum est, is 
made use of. 

Obs. The verbs decet, it becomes, befits, decuit, and dedecet, it is 
unbecoming, are, properly speaking, not impersonal, because they may 
refer to a definite subject and occur in the plural (omnis eum color 
decet, parva parvum decent) ; but yet they are used only in the third 
person, inasmuch as they can be predicated neither of the speaker nor 
the person addressed. 

c. Refert, it is of importance; retulit (from fero; distinguished 
from refer o by the quantity). 

§ 167. The impersonal verbs (and those which are sometimes 
used impersonally) are inflected regularly in the several forms, in 
conformity with the present and perfect, but their signification does 
not allow them to have an imperative, a supine, or a participle 
(except that in some verbs the perf. part. pass, neuter is combined 
with est, &c). Oportet has therefore, in the indicative, oportet, 
oportebat, oportuit, oportuerat, oportebit, oportuerit ; in the sub- 
junctive, oporteat, oporteret, oportuerit, oportuisset, oportuerit ; 
in the infinitive, oportere, oportuisse. But libet, licet, poenitet, 
pudet, have participles somewhat varied in their meaning and 



Obs. Libens, willing, with pleasure ; licens (ad}.), free (unbridled) • 
licitus, allowed; licituruni est, liciturum esse (imperat. liceto). 
Pudens (adj.), modest (pudibundus, bashful) ; poenitens (rare), 
penitent ; poenitendus, to be repented of; pudendus, what must cause 
shame. Hence as a gerund (as from personal verbs), ad poenitendum, 

Concluding Observations on the Inflection of the Verbs. 

§ 168. In order to avoid mistakes, the beginner must take par- 
ticular notice that some verbs, the meaning and inflection of which 
are totally different, are alike in the first person of the present 
indicative ; as, — 

aggero, to heap up, 1st Conj. (in aggero, to bring to, 3 (from gero). 

prose usually, exaggero) ; 

appello, to name, 1 ; appello, to land, 3 (pello). 

compello, to address, call, 1 ; compello, to drive together, 3 (pello). 

colligo, to bind together, 1 (ligo) ; colligo, to collect, 3 (lego), 

consterno, to confuse, terrify, 1 ; consterno, to cover over, 3 (sterno). 

effero, to make wild, 1 ; efiero, to carry out, 3 (fero) . 

fundo, to found, 1 ; fundo, to pour, 3. 

mando, to give in charge, 1 ; mando, to chew, 3. 

obsero, to bolt up, 1 ; obsero, to sow, 3. 

salio, to dance, salui, saltum. 4 ; salio, to salt, salivi, salitum, 4. 

volo, to fly, 1; volo, to wish; irreg. 

Others are distinguished by a difference in the quantity of the 
radical vowel ; as, — 

colo, to till, to take care of, 3 ; colo, to strain, 1. 

dico, to dedicate, 1 : dico, to say, 3. 

indico, to inform of; praedico, indico, praedico. 
to declare; 
educo, to educate, 1 ; educo, to lead out, 3 (duco). 

lego, to read, collect, 3 ; lego, to send as a deputy, bequeath, 1. 

allego, to choose in addition; allego, to send a deputy, to cite as 

rele*go, to read again; relego, to banish. 

Some other verbs, of the second and third conjugations, have, as is 
seen in Chaps. XYILL and XIX., the same form in the perfect or supine 
and the tenses formed from them ; e.g. victurus, from vinco and from 
vivo. (Oblitus, smeared, from oblino; oblitus, one who has forgotten, 
from obliviscor.) 




§ 169. Adverbs have no inflection except comparison. Gener- 
ally speaking only those adverbs can be compared which are derived 
From adjectives and participles which are themselves compared, with 
the terminations e (o) or ter (see § 198). The comparative of the 
adverb is then the same with that of the adjective in the nom. neut., 
and the superlative of the adverb is formed like that of the adjec- 
tive, but with the ending e instead of us ; e.g. : — 

docte (doctus), doctius, doctissime; aegre (aeger), aegrius, 
aegerrime ; fortiter (fortis), fortius, fortissime ; acriter (acer), 
acrius, acerrime; audacter (audax), audacius, audacissime ; 
amanter (amans), am an this, amantissime ; facile (facilis), facilius, 

Obs. Tuto makes in the sup. tutissimo ; and merito, meritissimo, 
quite according to one's deserts. 

§ 170. If the comparison of the adjective be irregular or defec- 
tive, that of the adverb is so in the same way ; e.g. : — 

bene (bonus), melius, optime; male (malus), pejus, pessime; 
multum (the neuter of the adjective, used as an adverb), plus, 
plurimum (the same) ; parum, little, too little (parvus), minus, 
minime (minimum, in expressing a measurement ; minimum distat, 
minimum invidet, Hor.) ; deterius (deterior), deterrime ; ocius 
(ociorj, ocissime ; potius (potior), potissimum; prius (prior), 
primum and primo (properly the ace. and abl. neuter) ; nove (novus), 

The following should be particularly noticed : magis (compar. 
more), maxime, which has no positive, although magnus, from which it 
is derived, is compared throughout ; and uberius, uberrime, from uber. 
Valde, very strongly (for valide, from validus), has validius (rarely 
in the poets, valdius), validissime. 

Ons. The adverbs which denote a mutual relation of place, and 
from which adjectives are formed in the comparative and superlative 
(§ 66), have a corresponding comparison as adverbs: prope, propius, 
proxime ; intra, interius, intime ; ultra, extra, post, — ulterius, 
exterius, posterius, — ultimum or ultimo, &c. (particularly pos- 
tremum and postremo) ; supra, superius, summe (in the highest 
degree), summum (at the highest), supremum, at last, for the last 


140 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 172 

time (rare) ; citra and infra have only citerius, inferius, without a 

§ 171. Of other adverbs, only the following are compared: — 

Diu, long ; diutius, diutissime. 
Nuper, lately ; nuperrime, without a comparative. 
Saepe, often ; saepius, saepissime. 

SScus, otherwise, ill; secius (non, nihilo secius, no less, neverthe- 
less) . 

Temperi (tempori), betimes; temperius. 

§ 172. The Latin language has the following Prepositions, to 
denote the relation between substantives : — 

I. Those constructed with the Accusative. 

Ad, to, on (close by, ad manum), 

Adversus, adversum, against. (Rarely exadversus, opposite, 
also an adverb.) 

Ante, before. 

Apud, at or with. 

Circa, circum, round, round about. (Circum amicos, urbes, 
insulas, to the friends, in the towns, in the islands round about.) 

Circiter, towards, about (of time; circiter horam octavam). 

Contra, opposite, against (in a hostile sense) . 

Cis, citra, on this side of. 

Erga, towards (generally of a friendly way of feeling or acting). 

Extra, outside of. 

Infra, beneath, below. 

Inter, between, among. 

Intra, inside of, within. 

Juxta, near, by. 

Ob, before (ob oculos) , on account of. 

Penes, with, in the hands or power of any one. 

Per, through. 

Pone, behind. 

Post, after, behind. 

Praeter, beyond, except. (Praeter ceteros, before the others.) 

Prope, near by. 

Propter, near, on account of. 

Supra on the upper side of, above. 

Secundum, next to, according to. 

Trans, on the other side of. 

Ultra, on the other side of. beyond. 


II. Those which are constructed with the Ablative. 

Ab. a, from. (Ab is always used before vowels, and often before 
consonants, a only before consonants ; before te, abs is also used, abs 

Absqve, without (archaic ; absqve te si esset, if it were not for 
you) . 

Coram, before, in presence of. 

Cum, with. 

Obs. Cum is put after and joined to the personal, reflective, and 
relative pronouns ; mecum, nobiscum, secum, qvocum, qvacum, 
qvibuscum. It may, however, be prefixed to the relative and inter- 
rogative pronouns (especially in the poets) ; e.g. cum qvo, cum 
qvibus. (Mecum et cum P. Scipione.) 

De, of, from {down from), concerning. 

Ex, e, out of. (Ex, before vowels and consonants, c only before 

Prae, before, in comparison ivith, on account of. (Prae lacrimis, 
for tears; prae me beatus, in comparison with me.) 

Pro, before, for. 

Sine, without. 

Tenus, up to (is put after its case : pectore tenus) . 

Obs. Tenus sometimes takes the genitive ; e.g. cnirum tenus 

III. Those constructed with the Accusative or Ablative. 

In, in, on (abl.) ; but ace. in answer to the question whither. 
Sub, under ; abl. in answer to the question where. 
Subter, beneath, on the under side of, usually the ace. 
Super, concerning (abl.) ; above, on the upper side of (ace). 

On the construction of these four prepositions, further particulars 
will be given in the Syntax (§ 230). 

Obs. 1. For the particular ways of employing the remaining preposi- 
tions, and their application in certain idioms and phrases, the dictionary 
must be consulted. The idiom of the Latins, in consequence of a differ- 
ent way of conceiving the relations of things, is very often different 
from our own ; e.g. when it is said in Latin, initium facere ab aliqva 
re, and not cum. (Hence, also, we find, Unde initium faciam ?) 

Obs. 2. Some prepositions are also used as adverbs, the name of the 
person or thing referred to not being specified: viz., coram {personally, 

1 In the use of ab and ex before consonants writers vary from each other, and are not 
always even consistent with themselves. 

148 LATIN GRAMMAR. §173 

face to face) ; ante (before, previously, ante a) ; circa, circiter, contra, 
extra, infra, intra, juxta, pone, post (behind, afterwards, postea), 
prope {near), propter (in the neighborhood), supra, ultra, subter, 
super. (In antiquated style, i prae! go first! ire adversum, to go to 
meet.) (Ad is used as an adverb, with numerals, in the signification, 
about, without any Influence on the case ; e.g. ad duo milia et qvin- 
genti, Liv. IV. 59. Praeter is sometimes used In the signification, 
except, with the same oblique case which precedes ; e.g. Caeterae multi- 
tudini diem statuit praeter rerum capitalium damnatis, Sail. Cat. 
86.) Also, Nullae litterae praeter quae, except those which, Cic. = 
praeter eas quae. 

Obs. 3. On the other hand, some adverbs are occasionally used as prep- 
ositions ; viz., with the ablative, palam, publicly, in presence o/'(populo) ; 
procul, far from (procul mari, most generally procul a mari) ; simul, 
together with (simul his, poet, for simul cum his) ; with the accusa- 
tive, usqve (usqve pedes, but rarely, and only in late writers ; other- 
wise, usqve ad pedes) ; with the ablative or accusative, clam, without 
the knowledge of (clam patrem, clam vobis). 

Obs. 4. Prope is often combined with ab, prope ab urbe. Propius 
and proxime, from prope, are also used as prepositions with the accusa- 
tive; propius urbem, proxime urbem (also propius, proxime ab 
urbe). Very rarely a dative is put after propius and proxime. Ver- 
sus is subjoined to ad and in : e.g. ad Oceanum versus, toward the 
Ocean ; in Italiam versus, toward Italy. It is used in the same way 
with the ace. of names of cities, in signifying motion (§ 232) ; e.g. 
Romam versus ire, towards Rome. 

Obs. 5. Ergo, for the sake of, is used (in antiquated style) as a 
preposition with the genitive, and is put after its case ; as, victoriae 

§ 173. In composition with verbs, and with other words begin- 
ning with consonants, some prepositions undergo a modification in 
the final consonant, particularly by its assimilation with the conso- 
nant which follows (according to § 10). Cum (con) is also modi- 
fied before vowels. 

Ab. Abscedo, abscondo (cedo, condo) ; aufero, aufugio (fero, 
fugio, but afui, afore, or abfui) ; amoveo (moveo) ; asporto (porto) ; 
abstineo (teneo) ; avello. In the other compounds, ab remains un- 
changed ; as, abdo, abluo, abnego, abrado, absumo. 

Ad. D is changed into the following consonant : accedo, affero, 
aggero, allino, annoto, appareo, acqviro, arrogo, assumo, aspicio 
(not asspicio ; sec § 10), attingo ; but d generally stands before m 


(admiror), and always before j and v (adjaceo, adveho). Some, how- 
ever, wrote adcedo, adfero, &e., and particularly adspicio. 

Ex. Effero (feio, archaic, ecfero) ; existo (also written exsisto), 
exspecto and expecto as pronounced, see § 10). (Edo, egero, 
eluo, enioveo, enato, erigo, eveho ; but excedo, expedio, exqviro, 

In. Imbibo, immergo, importo, before b, m, p; illino, irrepo; 
before other consonants it remains unchanged. (But we find iubibo, 
&c.) (Indigeo, indipiscor, from an older form, indu.) 

Ob. Occurro, offero, oggero, opperior; before other consonants, 
unchanged. (Instances of irregularity are found in obs-olesco, os- 
tendo, o-mitto.) 

Sub. Succurro, sufficio, suggero, summitto, supprimo, surripio 
(but subrideo, to smile ; subrusticus, somewhat clownish) ; before other 
consonants, unchanged. (The following are formed irregularly : sus- 
cipio, sus-cito, sus-pendo, sus-tineo, sus-tuli, from subs, with su-spi- 
cio and sus-censeo or succenseo.) 

Trans. Usually, traduco, trajicio, trano, sometimes tramitto (al- 
ways trado and traduco, not in their literal signification) ; with these 
exceptions, it is unaltered. (Transcribe) 

Cum, in compounds, is changed, before consonants, to con, when the 
n is varied, as in in (comburo, committo, comprehendo, colligo, 
corripio). But some wrote also conburo, &c. Before vowels and h, it 
is changed to co ; coalesco, coemo, coire, coorior, cohaereo (coicio, 
archaic for conjicio). (But comedo. Cognosco, cognatus.) 

Obs. 1. Inter is changed in intelligo, per in pellicio (pelluceo and 
perluceo), ante in anticipo and antisto. 

Obs. 2. Of the preposition pro, it is to be observed, that it is short- 
ened in some few compounds ; namely, in profari, proficiscor (but pro- 
ficio), profiteor, profugio, profugus, profestus, pronepos; in procuro 
and propello, the pro is sometimes short. (Profundus, prbfanus.) 
With these exceptions, it is always long ; produco, promitto, &c. (In 
Greek words, the preposition pro is short, as in Greek, except in pro- 
logus, propino.) We may also notice prod-eo, prodesse, prodigo 
(ago), prodambulo; but proavus, prohibeo. (Otherwise, pro is not 
used before vowels.) 

Obs. 3. For circumeo, from circum and eo. we sometimes find cir- 
cueo, especially in the part. perf. circuitus, whence the substantive 

150 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 175 



§ 174 Roots (radices) is the name by which we distinguish 
the first original words or expressions of a language, which have 
neither received any augmentation nor are combined with any other 
word. By receiving inflectional endings, or being used in a certain 
defined way in speaking, the roots become primitive words or stems 
of a certain class ; as, duc-O, dux (duc-s). When a verb is imme- 
diately formed from the root (as duco), it is usual to consider and 
speak of it as the root. 

Obs. 1. Besides those roots which express the definite idea of an ob- 
ject, there are also roots which serve only to give some indication or 
reference, and from these the pronominal words have taken their rise; 
e.g. is, ibi, ita. Of those roots which denote ideas, most express an 
action or condition, and by means of inflectional endings are immedi- 
ately converted into verbs, so that the root is at the same time the stem, 
to which the endings are attached (§ 26). But various substantives are, 
likewise, formed immediately from the root by the simple addition of the 
case-endings ; e.g. dux. In many cases, the root is not found as a 
verb, but only as a substantive or adjective ; e.g. sol, frons, laus, pro- 
bus, levis (from which again are derived frondere, laudare, probare, 

Obs. 2. Sometimes a root, in becoming a verb, is changed, and aug- 
mented in the pronunciation, so that the root and the stem of the verb 
(in the present) are not entirely alike : e.g. frango (stem of the pres- 
ent, frang; root, frag, whence the perfect fregi). See § 118. 

Obs. 3. In the primitive verbs of the second conjugation, the e does 
not properly belong to the root, except in those which have evi in the 
perfect. (Hence, mon-ui, mon-i-tum, without e.) But to avoid pro- 
lixity and confusion, it is most convenient to speak here of the e as if it 
belonged to the root. 

§ 175. a. To the root, as it is contained in the primitive words 
formed from it, are attached derivative endings (suffixes, from suf- 
figo, to attach at the end), by which derivative words are formed. 
From a derived word others may be again derived, so that one and 


the same word may be both a derivative itself, and a primitive in 
relation to others. From the root in amo (ama) comes amabilis, 
and from that amabilitas ; from the root in probus comes the verb 
probo, from that probabilis, and from this probabilitas. 

Obs. Properly speaking, the derivative ending forms only the stem 
of the new word, which does not become an actual word till it receives 
the inflectional ending by which the derivative ending is itself occasion- 
ally varied. From prob in probus is first formed proba (the stem of 
the verb), which, with the ending of the first person present, becomes 
probo. From probabil is formed probabilitat, which, with the nomi- 
native ending, becomes probabilitas. For the sake of convenience, the 
derivative endings are here named with the first inflectional ending (espe- 
cially since a particular derivation requires at the same time a particular 
Way of declension) : in substantives, therefore, the nominative ; in ad- 
jectives, the nominative masculine ; in verbs, the first person of the 
present indicative. 

b. Derivative endings serve to distribute and classify the different 
conceptions (e.g. an action, a person, a quality) which contain the 
signification of the primitive, so that the words formed with one 
and the same derivative ending belong to the same class, and denote 
ideas which are conceived in the same way ; e.g. words in tas are 
substantives, which denote a property. The most important of 
these kinds of derivation are here adduced according to the parts 
of speech to which the derivatives belong. 

Obs. 1. There are many derived Latin words, the root or primitive of 
which cannot be found ; others are derived according to forms which are 
unusual, or can no longer be recognized ; some derivative endings (espe- 
cially of substantives) are used only in a very few words, or chiefly in those 
the primitive of which is unknown, so that the meaning of the endings can- 
not be ascertained. In the case also of those endings, the force of which 
is" more evident, the signification is sometimes very comprehensive, and 
rather undefined. 

Obs. 2. There are, sometimes, several endings which have the same 
meaning and application : e.g. tas and tudo denote properties ; in 
these cases, one ending is employed in some words, the other in others. 
Some derivative endings arc rarely found in the older writers, but be- 
came common at a later period. 

Obs. 3. The examining and ascertaining of the origin of words from 
their roots and primitives is called Etymology (trvfioloyta) ; l the primi- 
tive word is also called etymum (ervfiov, the real) . 

1 It will be seen that the term is here employed in a more restricted sense than when applied 
to the first pirt of Grammar. 

152 LATIN GRAMMAR. §177 

§ 17G. a. The derivative endings are attached to the stem of the 
primitive, divested of the inflectional endings; e.g. from the sub- 
stantive miles, gen. milit-is, arc formed the verb milit-are, the 
substantive Biilit-ia, the adjective milit-aris. In substantives of 
the first and second (often also of the fourth declension), both a and 
U are dropped. When primitive verbs are varied in the stem of 
the present (§ 174, Obs. 2), the derivation is formed from the unal- 
tered root (which is shown in the inflection of the verb) ; e.g. from 
frango (frag) are derived the substantive fragor, and the adjective 

Obs. If the last syllable of the stem has a different sound in the inflec- 
tion, according as it is open or close (e.g. semen, but semin-is; colo, 
but cultus), this is also shown in the derivation (seminarium, colonia, 
but sementis, cultura). 

b. In verbs of the first and second conjugations, a and e are 
dropped before those derivative endings which begin with a vowel 
(am-or, pall-or, opin-io). E is also dropped before consonants 
(except in those verbs which have evi in the perfect). 

0ns. In stems ending in u, u is changed into uv, before a vowel ; 
e.g. pluviae, colluvies (but niina). 

c. "When the stem ends in a consonant, and the derivative ending 
begins with a consonant, a short connecting vowel (commonly L, 
more rarely u) is frequently interposed. Sometimes no vowel is 
interposed, but a consonant rejected (e.g. fulmen from fillg-eo). 
This often takes place when the stem ends in v, in which case the 
preceding vowel is lengthened ; e.g. motus, mobilis, from moveo, 
adjumentum from adjuvo. 

d. The final vowel of the verb-stems (a, e, i, u) is always long 
before the derivative ending (velamen, complementnm ; mollmen, 

e. Sometimes the derivation is made not immediately from the 
stem of the verb, but from the supine, so that a new ending is 
affixed to its t or s (with the omission of urn) ; e.g. ama-t-or. 

Ons. The supine and participle are, themselves, formed like substan- 
tives and adjectives by derivation from the verb. 

§ 177. Substantives are derived from verbs (substantiva ver- 
balia) and from other substantives, or from adjectives (subst. 


Ons. From the proper derivative ending! of the substantives, by which 
they arc formed from known stems with a definite modification of their 
meaning, we must distinguish the final vowels a and u before the inflec- 
tional endings, by which the substantives acquire the open form of declen- 
sion (first and second). These endings belong to a great number of 
substantives of which the roots are unknown ; but it is only in a few in- 
stances that substantives from known roots are formed by these alone (as 
the personal names scriba, advena, perfuga, from scribo, advenio, per- 
fugio, a being, at other times, a feminine ending ; coqvus, from coqvo) ; 
but they are found in combination with other derivative endings (ia, ium, 
&e.) Some few personal names are formed by simply adding the declen- 
sion-endings (nom. s) to known roots or verb-stems (dux, rex, pellex, 
praeses, from duco, rego, pellicio, praesideo), as also some other sub- 
stantives (lex, lux, uex, vox, obices, from lego, luceo, neco, voco, 

Of the endings with which substantives are formed from verbs, 
the following are to be noticed : — 

1. or, affixed to the stem of intransitive verbs (mostly of the first or 
second, never of the fourth conjugation), forms substantives, which de- 
note the action or condition ; amor, error, clamor, favor, pallor, furor 
(amare, errare, clamare, favere, pallere, fure're). 

Obs. Various substantives in or are not derived from any known verb ; 
■while, on the other hand, verbs are formed from them : e.g. honor, labor 
(honos, labos) , — honorare, laborare. 

2. or, affixed to the stem of the supine (tor or sor), denotes the 
(male) agent ; amator, adjutor, monitor, fautor, victor, cursor, peti- 
tor, auditor, largitor. 

From many such substantives in tor, there are formed feminines in 
trix: e.g. venatrix, victrix, fautrix, adjutrix; more rarely in strix 
from those in sor : e.g. tons trix, from tonsor. (Expultrix, from ex- 
pulsor, rejecting the o.) 

Obs. 1. Sometimes, personal names in tor (ator or Itor) are formed 
also from substantives of the first or second declension ; e.g. viator, gla- 
diator, funditor, from via, gladius, funda (janitor, from janua; vinl- 
tor, from vinea). 

Ons. 2. Masculine names of persons, in o, onis, derived from verbs, 
are of less frequent occurrence : e.g. erro, from errare ; and heluo, from 

§ 178. Further: — 

3. io (ion-is), affixed to the stem of the supine (tio, sio), denotes the 
action of the verb from which it is derived; e.g. administratio, tracta- 

154 LATIN GRAMMAR. §179 

tio, cautio, actio, accessio, divisio, largitio. (Mentio, from the unused 

Ob8. More rarely, io is affixed immediately to the stem of the 
verb : e.g. opinio (opinor), obsidio (ob3ideo), contagio (tango, tag), 
oblivio (from the original stem in obliviscor). Consortio, communio, 
are formed, in the same way, from adjectives. 

4. us (gen. us), affixed to the stem of the supine, also denotes the 
action of the verb; e.g. visus, usus, auditus. 

Ons. 1. From some verbs, substantives are formed, both in io and in 
U3 ; e.g. contemptio and contemptus, concursio and concursus. 
In some words, some writers prefer the one, others the other form (later 
authors more usually adopt the form in us), without any difference in the 
signification ; in other words, there is some difference in the usage : e.g. 
auditio, the act of hearing ; auditus, the sense of hearing. To signify 
on, in consequence of, by (this or that action), the second supine of many 
verbs (abl. in u) is made use of, without a perfect substantive being 
formed; e.g. jussu, mandatu, rogatu (compare § 55, 4). 

Obs. 2. In some of these words in io and us, the signification of an 
action is lost : e.g. coenatio, a supper-room ; regio, a district (rego, to 
govern) ; legio, a legion (lego, to choose) ; victus, a way of life, suste- 

5. Of the same signification as io and us, but somewhat rarer, is ura, 
affixed to the stem of the supine ; e.g. conjectura, cultura, mercatura, 
sepultura, natura (from uascor, different from natio) ; still more rare, 
is ela, affixed to the stem of the verb : e.g. qverela (qveror) ; or to that 
of the supine : e.g. corruptela (corrumpo). Ium. affixed to the 
stem of the verb, has nearly the same signification ; e.g. judicium, 
gaudium, odium, perfugium (place of refuge), vaticinium (vatici- 

Obs. From some few verbs, there are formed substantives in igo, which 
denote an action or a condition arising out of the action ; e.g. origo 
(orior), vertigo (turning, dizziness), tentigo (tendo), prurigo (pru- 
rio). Cupido, formido, libido, from cupio, formido, libet.) Ies 
denotes rather a result produced ; e.g. congeries, effigies (from fingo, 
without n), species (from the unused specio), acies from acuo. 

§ 179. Further: — 

G. The termination men (min-is) denotes a thing in which an action 
and activity appear ; e.g. vimen (vieo), flumen (fluo), lumen (luceo, 
the c rejected), specimen (specio, spexi), examen (for exagmen, 
from ago). Sometimes, the result, the means, the action itself: e.g. volu- 
men, what is rolled together, a roll; acumen, what is sharpened, a point; 
levamen, nomen (novi), certamen. The poets and later prose- 



writers use many words in men, some to express an action, others the 
means and instrument, which do not occur in the earlier prose-writers, 
who use instead words in io, us (gen. us, § 178, 4), or in mentum (see 
infra. 7) ; e.g. conamen, hortamen, molimen (conatus, hortatio, mo- 
litio), regimen, tegmen (also tegimen, tegumen), velamentum, tegu- 

7. The termination mentum denotes a mean, an instrument, a thing 
which serves for some end ; ornamentum, complementum, instru- 
mentum, allmentum (alo), condimentum (condio), monumen- 
tum, documentum (moneo, doceo, with the connecting vowel u), 
adjumentum (adjuvo, adjuv-i, v being rejected), momentum (mo- 
veo), tormentum (torqveo). (Compare § 176, c.) 

Obs. Sometimes, such words in mentum are formed from substantives 
or adjectives of the first or second declension, as if they came from verbs 
of the first conjugation (amentum) ; e.g. atramentum (means of black- 
ening, black paint, ink) , ferramentum. 

8. culum (in earlier times written and pronounced clum) and 
bulum denote the means or instrument (sometimes the place) of an 
action: gubernaculum ; coenaculum, a garret (properly, a dining- 
room) ; ferculum (fero), operculum (operio, oper-ui), vehlculum, 
vocabulum, pabulum (pasco, pa-vi), stabulum (a stall, standing- 
place), latibulum (lateo), infundibulum (infundo). If the stem 
ends in c or g, only ulum is added; vinculum (vinc-io), cingulum, 

Obs. 1. Crum is used instead of clum (culum) when there is an 1 
in the preceding syllable, or the one before it ; sepulcrum (sepelio), 
fulcrum (fulcio), simulacrum, lavacrum. Brum is used instead of 
bulum when there is an 1 in the preceding syllable ; flabrum, ventila- 
brum (also cribrum, from cerho, and some feminines in bra; e.g. dola- 
bra, latSbra, vertSbra, as fabula, from fari). 

Obs. 2. The same meaning is expressed by trum, before which d is 
changed to s; aratrum, claustrum (claudo), rostrum (rodo). 

Obs. 3. Some few such words are formed from other substantives : e.g. 
turibulum, a censer, from tus; candelabrum (see Obs. 1), from 

§ 180. Substantives derived from other substantives have the 
following terminations : — 

1. ium, affixed to personal names, denotes a condition and rela- 
tion, sometimes an action or employment; e.g. collegium, convivium, 
sacerdotium, ministerium, testimonium, from collega, convivia, 
sacerdos, minister, testis. Affixed to personal names in tor, it denotes 
the place of the action ; e_.g. auditorium, from auditor. 


2. atus, affixed to personal names, denotes a relation and office ; con- 
sulates, tribunatus, triumviratus. (Censura, dictatura, praetura, 
praefectura, qvaestura.) 

3. alius denotes a person who engages in something as a trade ; e.g. 
statuarius, argentarius, sicarius ; arium, a place for collecting or pre- 
serving any thing: granarium, seminarium, armamentarium, viva- 
rium (place for preserving living animals), from granum, semen, 
armanienta, vivus ; avia, sometimes the place where labor is applied 
to something. (Compare the adjective termination arius, § 187, 10.) 

-A. ina, affixed to personal names, denotes an employment and a place 
for carrying on a thing; medicina, sutrina (sutor), doctrina, disci- 
plina, tonstrina (tonsor). (Officina, from officium; piscina, from 
piscic ; ruina, from ruo ; rapina, from rapio ; in the neuter, textri- 
num, pistrinum.) (In regina, gallina, it denotes only the feminine 

o. al, ar (the last formed is used when an 1 occurs in the preceding 
syllable, or the one before it (compare § 179, 8, Obs. 1), denotes a 
material object, which stands in relation to a thing, or belongs to 
it; e.g. puteal, animal, calcar, pulvinar, from puteus, animus, calx, 

Obs. Properly the neuter of the adjective ending alis (aris), without 
the e, which is retained in a few words ; e.g. facale, neck-cloth. 

6. etum, affixed to the names of plants, denotes the place where they 
grow together in a quantity, and also the plants themselves collectively ; 
e.g. olivetum, myrtetum, fruticetum, arundinetum, qvercetum, from 
oliva, myrtus, frutex, arundo, qvercus. 

Obs. The following are formed irregularly : salictum, carectum 
(salix, carex), arbustum (arbos), virgultum (virgula). 

He, affixed to the names of animals, denotes a stall ; bublle, ovile 
(bos, ovis). (Affixed to verbs, it also signifies a place ; cubile, a place 
to lie down, a couch ; sedile.) 

Obs. Examples of derivative endings of rare occurrence, or with a 
less obvious signification in substantives derived from substantives, are o 
or io (in some personal names ; e.g. praedo, from praeda ; centurio, 
mulio, from centuria, mulus; but in many other words, from some 
unknown stem), ica (e.g. lectica, from lectus, and in words from an 
unknown stem) , ica (fabrica, from faber), ia (e.g. militia, from miles), 
ugo (e.g. aerugo, from aes), uria (e.g. centuria, luxuria, from centum, 

§ 181. From some names of male persons and animals in US and 
er, corresponding feminine nouns are formed by affixing a to the 
stem, us being dropped ; e.g. eqva, cerva, capra, from eqvns, cer- 
vus, caper (see § 30), dea, filia, serva, magistra, from deus, filius, 


servus, magister ; also in trix, from personal names in tor (§ 177, 
2). Those substantives which have a corresponding feminine form 
are called subst. mobilia. 

Obs. It is only in a few solitary instances, that a is found attached 
in this way to stems of the third declension ; antistita, clienta, hos- 
pita, tibicina, from antistes, cliens, hospes, tibicen. A rarer forma- 
tion still is that of regina, gallina, leaena, from rex, gallus, leo ; avia, 
neptis, socrus, from avus, nepos, socer. 

§ 182. The following terminations should also be noticed : — 

1. By means of lus, la, or lum, and cuius, cula, or culum, are formed 
diminutives, which are often used by way of endearment, commisera- 
tion, or to ridicule something insignificant: e.g. hortulus, a little gar- 
den; matercula, a {poor) mother; ingeniolum, a little bit of talent. 
The diminutives have the same gender as their primitives, and end, 
accordingly, in us, a, or urn, Both sets of endings are combined in dif- 
ferent ways with the different stems, and hence occasionally assume an 
irregular form. 

With respect to this it is to be observed : — 

a. lus (a, um) is used with primitive words of the first and second 
declension, and with some few of the third, but always when the charac- 
teristic letter is c or g. It is affixed to the stem (after rejecting a or us), 
with the connecting vowel u (therefore, ulus, ula, ulum) ; e.g. arcula, 
litterula, lunula, servulus, oppidulum, aetatula, adolescentulus, 
facula, regulus, from area, littera, luna, servus, oppidum, aetas, ado- 
lescens, fax, rex. If a vowel precedes us, a, um, in the primitive, then 
the diminutive ends in olus (a, um) ; e.g. filiolus, lineola, ingenio- 
lum, from filius, linea, ingenium. 

b. To stems of the first and second declension in ul, r with a conso- 
nant preceding, and in in, with some others in er and n, lus (a, um) is 
affixed without a connecting vowel ; r and n are assimilated with the 
following 1 ; u and i are changed into e, and e inserted before r after a 
consonant (ellus, ella, ellum) : e.g. tabella, ocellus (tabula, oculus) ; 
libella, agellus, libellus, labellum (from libra, ager (agri), liber, 
labrum) ; lamella, asellus (from lamina, asinus) ; catella, corolla, 
opella, puella (from catena, corona, opera, and the unused puera, from 

Obs. 1. Diminutives of this class are sometimes formed from other 
diminutives ; cista, cistula, cistella, and (by again adding ula) cistel- 

Obs. 2. Some few words have the termination illus (a, um), instead 
of ellus ; as, bacillum, pugillus, sigillum, pul villus, from baculum, 

158 LATIN GRAMMAR. §183 

pugnus, signum, pulvmus. Codicillus, lapillus, cwgvilla, from co- 
dex, lapis, augvis, are formed in the same way, from primitives of the 
third declension. 

c. cuius (a, urn) is used with primitives of the third, fourth, and fifth 
declension. In primitives of the third declension in 1, r, and s, if this last 
is not merely the nominative ending (consequently, when it is changed 
to r in the genitive) , the diminutive ending is affixed immediately to the 
nominative ; auimalculum, fraterculus, matercula, uxorcula, corcu- 
lum, flosculus, osculum, opusculum, pulvisculus, from animal, fra- 
ter, mater, uxor, cor, flos, os (oris), opus, pulvis. (Vasculum, from 
vas, vasis.) 

Obs. From rumor is formed rumusculus ; and from arbor, arbus- 
cula (and, in the same way, grandiusculus, &c, from the comparative 
grandior) ; ventriculus, from venter (acriculus, from the adj. acer). 
From os, ossis, is formed ossiculum. 

d. From primitives in o (on-is, or in-is) is deduced the form un- 
culus ; e.g. sermunculus, ratiuncula, homunculus (sermo, ratio, 
homo.) (Caruncula, from caro ; pectunculus, from pecten.) 

Obs. The following are formed irregularly, with the same ending: 
avunculus, domuncula, furunculus, from avus, domus, fur (ranun- 
culus, from rana, with a change of gender) . 

e. In primitives in es, gen. is or ei, and is, gen. is, the ending is 
affixed to the stem, after dropping the nominative ending s : nubecula, 
diecula, pisciculus, from nubes, dies, piscis (aedicula, from the form 
aedis) ; in the words in e, the e is changed into i: e.g. reticulum, from 

f. In those words in which the nominative ending s is affixed to a 
consonant, and in words of the fourth declension, the ending is affixed 
to the stem with the connecting vowel i (the u being first rejected in the 
fourth declension) ; e.g. ponticulus, particula, coticula, versiculus, 
corniculum (from pons, pars, cos, versus, cornu). 

Obs. 1. If the stem ends in c or g, the ending lus is made use of. 
See a. 

Obs. 2. The following are irregular forms : homuncio (homullus), 
from homo, eculeus, from eqvus; aculeus, a point or sting, masc. from 
the fem. acus. 

Obs. 3. The diminutive form illus (a,um) occurs in some words with 
the characteristic x, which appear to be immediately derived from verbs, 
but have shorter substantives corresponding to them, formed by reject- 
ing the x, and contraction ; e.g. vexillum (veho, vex-i) and velum 
paxillus (pango) and palus, maxilla and mala. (Tela from texo.) 

§ 183. The Greek patronymics, which designate sons, daughters, 
or descendants of a man, and end in Ides, ides, or ades, of the first 


declension, or end in is, idos, or ias, iados, of the feminine gender, 
are used by the Latin poets, - — and in prose, also, when well-known 
Greek families are spoken of: Priamldes, Pelldes (Peleus), Aene- 
ades, Alcmaeonidae ; Tantalis, Nereis (Nereus), Thestias (Thes- 

§ 184. Substantives which denote a quality are formed from 
adjectives, by the following endings : — 

1. ta3, with the connecting vowel i (Itas) affixed to the stem of the 
adjective ; e.g. bonitas, crudelitas, atrocitas. From adjectives in ius 
is formed ietas: e.g. pietas; from those in stus is formed stas : e.g. 

Obs. The following are without a connecting vowel : libertas, pau- 
pertas, pubertas, ubertas, facultas, difficultas. Some few substan- 
tives of this form are derived from substantives, as auctoritas; or from 
verbs, as potestas. To this is allied the ending tus ; e.g. virtus, 
from vir. 

2. ia, mostly from adjectives and participles of one termination ; e.g. 
audacia, concordia, inertia, dementia, abundantia, magnificentia 
(from magnificus, like magnificentior) , (but also miseria, perfidia, &c, 
and from those in cundus: facundia, iracundia, verecundia; but. 

. 3. tia (itia), from a few adjeetives of three terminations ; e.g. 
malitia, justitia, laetitia, avaritia, pigritia. tristitia. 

Obs. Some of these have also a form in ies ; as, mollitia and molli- 
ties, usually planities (planus). From pauper, we find pauperies 
(commonly paupertas). 

4. tudo, affixed to the stem (of adjectives of three or two termina- 
tions), with an i; e.g. altitude aegritudo, similitudo. 

Obs. 1. To some adjective stems in t, udo alone is affixed ; e.g. con- 
svetudo, sollicitudo. 

Obs. 2. From some adjectives, there are formed substantives, 
both in tas and tudo; e.g. claritas and claritudo, firmitas and 
firmitudo. In such cases, the substantive in tudo is generally the least 

Obs. 3. From dulcis is formed dulcedo (usually in derived signi- 
fication, attraction, or charm), (dulcitudo, sweetness, is rare), and from 
gravis (subst. gravitas, weight), gravedo, signifying heaviness of the 
head, cold. (Torpedo, from torpeo.) Later writers form some addi- 
tional substantives in this way; pingvedo (for pingvitudo), pu- 
tredo, &c. 

Obs. 4. A more rare and peculiar termination is monia ; e.g. sancti- 
monia, castimonia, acrimonia. (Parsimonia, frugality, for parcimo- 
nia, qverimonia, a complaint, from the verb qveror.) 

160 LATIN GRAMMAR § 185 


§ 185. Adjectives are derived partly from verbs, partly from 
substautives, and a few from adverbs. From verbs are" formed 
adjectives with the following endings (besides the participles, which 
— both those in ordinary use, and those in bundus, § 115, g — 
may also be included in this class) : — 

1. ldus (dus Avith the connecting vowel i), affixed chiefly to the stem 
of intransitive verbs in eo, denotes the condition and property which are 
expressed by the verb ; e.g. calidus, frigidus, tepidus, humidus, ari- 
dus, madidus, timidus, from caleo, &c. Some few are formed from 
other verbs or from substantives, or have no known primitive ; e.g. 
rapidus, turbidus, lepidus, trepidus, whence trepidare (gravidus, 
from gravis) . 

2. a. ilis (lis with a connecting vowel), affixed to the stems ending 
in a consonant, denotes passively the capacity of being the object of an 
action: e.g. fragilis, brittle; facilis, what may be done, easy; utilis, 
docilis, habilis (doc-eo, hab-eo). 

b. This is still oftener expressed by bills (with the connecting vowel, 
ibilis) ; e.g. amabilis, probabilis, flebilis (flea, flevi) voliibilis 
(volv-o), credibilis, vendibilis (mobilis, nobilis, from mov-eo, novi, 
the v being dropped). 

Obs. 1. Some such adjectives have an active signification ; e.g. prae- 
stabilis, terribilis, causing fright. (Penetrabilis, penetrating, and 

Obs. 2. Some adjectives in ilis are formed from the supine, partly 
with the signification of a possibility : e.g. fissilis, what may be cleft ; 
versatilis, what may be turned ; partly (and chiefly) with the mere sig- 
nification of the passive verb {produced by, like the perf. part.) : e.g. 
fictilis, coctilis, altilis. (Some in bilis also are formed from the su- 
pine : comprehensibilis, comprehensible ; flexibilis, pliant ; plausi- 
bilis, commendable.} 

3. ax, affixed to the stem, denotes a desire, inclination, most fre- 
quently one that is too violent or vicious : e.g. pugnax, audax, edax, 
loqvax, rapax (rap-io) ; sometimes, only the action itself (like the part, 
pres.) : e.g. minax, threatening ; fallax, deceiving. (Capax, that which 
can contain.} 

4. Less usual are the endings cundus (capacity, inclination, approach 
to an action) : e.g. iracundus(ira-scor), facundus (fari), verecundus, 


rublcundus (ruddy, rubeo 1 ) ; ulus (lus with u), denoting either a 
simple action, or an inclination to it : e.g. patulus, qverulus, credulus 
(garrulus, from garrio) ; uus, with a passive signification from trans- 
itives : e.g. conspicuus, perspicuus, individuus; sometimes (poeti- 
cally) with an active sense, from intransitives : e.g. cougruus ; aneus : 
e.g. consentaneus, nearly = consentiens. 

§ 186. Adjectives are formed from substantives chiefly with the 
following endings, of which some closely resemble each other in 
meaning, and cannot in all cases be clearly distinguished. 

1. ens denotes the material of which a thing consists; e.g. aureus, 
ligneus, cinereus (cinis, ciner-is), igneus, vimineus. It more rarely 
denotes something which a thing resembles in its nature ; e.g. virgineus 
(poet.), maidenlike, roseus (poet.) 

Obs. To denote the kind of wood of which a thing is made, the 
ending neus or nus is commonly employed; e.g. iligneus, or ilignus, 
qverneus, qvernus, populneus (rarely populnus, also populeus), 
fagfnus (connecting vowel i), cedrmus. In the same way we find 
eburneus, eburnus, coccinus, coccineus, and adamantmus, chrys- 
tallinus. The ending nus also signifies what belongs to a thing or 
comes from it; as, paternus, fraternus, maternus, vernus (of spring) . 

2. icius (cius with i) denotes the material of which a thing is made, 
or that to which a person or thing belongs : e.g. latericius, caement- 
icius, tribunicius, aedilicius, gentilicius (relating to the gentiles, 
the members of the same gens) . 

Obs. Sometimes adjectives in icius are derived from the part. perf. 
pass, or from the supine, and denote the way in which a thing originates, 
and consequently its kind : commenticius, feigned ; collaticius, 
effected by contributions ; adventicius. (Novicius, from novus.) 

3. aceus denotes material or resemblance, or that to which a thing 
belongs; e.g. argillaceus, ampullaceus (formed like a bottle), gallin- 

§ 187. Further: — 

4. icus (cus with i) denotes to what a thing belongs or relates ; e.g. 
bellicus, civicus, hosticus. 

Obs. 1. Instead of civicus, hosticus, prose-writers rather use civilis, 
hostilis (5), except only in the combinations, corona civica, ager 

Obs. 2. From these must be carefully distinguished the following 
words derived from verbs or prepositions : amicus, inimicus, pudicus, 
anticus, posticus (apricus, from an uncertain root) . 

1 Jucundus (juvo), fecundus. 

162 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 187 

Obs. 3. The belonging to a thing is also expressed by tlcus ; e.g. 
aqvaticus, rusticus, domesticus. 

5. ilis denotes what is agreeable to the nature of a thing and resem- 
bles it, also what belongs to it; civilis, puerilis, anilis (anus), scur- 
rilis, gentilis. (Subtilis of uncertain derivation, but humilis, parilis.) 

6. alis has the same signification as Ilis, but is far more common ; 
e.g. naturalis, fatalis, decemviralis, judicialis, mortalis, regalis, 
virginalis (liberalis, from the adjective liber). If the ending be pre- 
ceded by an 1, or if the last syllable but one before the ending begins or 
ends with 1, aris is used instead of alis (compare § 179, 8, Obs. 1) ; 
e.g. popularis, militaris, palmaris (but pluvialis, fluvialis). 

Obs. atilis, what belongs to a thing, is at home in a thing, is suited 
to a thing ; aqvatilis, fluviatilis, umbratilis. 

7. ius denotes a conformity, or belonging to something; e.g. patrius, 
regius. It is usually formed from personal names in or; praetorius, 
imperatorius, uxorius. 

8. iuus denotes what belongs to a thing or proceeds from it : e.g. 
divinus, marinus, libertinus ; particularly from the names of animals : 
e.g. ferinus, eqvinus, agninus (e.g. of meat, agnina 1 ). 

Obs. From this termination we must carefully distinguish inus (nus 
with a connecting vowel), of the material, especially with the names of 
trees and plants (§ 186, 1, Obs.). 

9. anus denotes a resemblance, a belonging to a thing : montanus, 
urbanus, rusticamis, meridianus (humanus, from homo) ; espe- 
cially from ordinal numbers, in order to show what belongs to a partic- 
ular number : miles primanus, a soldier of the first legion ; febris 
qvartana, a quartan ague. 

10. arius, what concerns or belongs to a thing ; agrarius, gregarius, 
ordinarius, tumultuarius. (In the masc. it is often used as a sub- 
stantive, of a person who occupies himself with any thing. See § 180, 3.) 
From the distributive numerals are formed adjectives in arius, in order 
to denote that a thing bears a particular relation to a certain number : 
e.g. Qummus denarius, a coin which contains ten asses ; senex 
septuagenarius, an old man of seventy, &c. ; numerus ternarius, the 
number three. (The following are formed from adverbs : adversarius, 
contrarius, temerarius ; necessarius, from necesse.) 

11. ivus, what belongs or is adapted to a thing; festivus, furtivus 
(furtum), aestivus (irregularly from aestas) . Affixed to participles, 
it denotes (like icius) the way in which a thing has originated ; e.g. 
nativus, sativus, captivus. 

1 Bubulus, ovillus, suillus. 


§ 188. Further: — 

12. osus denotes the property of being full of a thing ; ingeniosus, 
calamitosus, libidinosus, lapidosus, damnosus, periculosus (ambi- 
tiosus, superstitiosus, from ambition-is, superstition-is, omitting the 
n; laboriosus). From substantives of the fourth declension there is 
formed uosus; e.g. saltuosus. 

13. iilentus (lentus with a connecting vowel ; after n and i, olentus), 
full of a thing, connected with a thing ; e.g. fraudulentus, turbulentus, 
sangvinolentus, violentus. 

14. The ending atus (formed like a participle of the first conjugation) 
denotes what a thing has, or is provided with, and forms a great number 
of adjectives : e.g. barbatus, calceatus; falcatus, set with sickles, 
sometimes, formed like a sickle; virgatus, striped; auratus, gilt; 

Obs. 1. From substantives in is, gen. is, is derived the form itus: 
e.g. auritus, crinitus (all poetical or of more recent date ; also mel- 
litus from mel, galeritus from galerus) ; from words of the fourth 
declension are formed a few in utus : as, cornutus, astutus (nasutus, 
from nasus, 2), but arcuatus (arqvatus). 

Obs. 2. With tus are also formed onustus, robustus, venustus, 
funestus, scelestus, honestus, modestus, molestus. 

15. Less important endings are timus (legitimus), ensis (belonging 
to a particular place; castrensis, forensis), ester (campester, 
eqvester) . 

Obs. 1. From some substantives in or, which are derived from verbs 
(§ 177, 1), the poets form adjectives in orus: canorus, odorus (odor, 
from oleo) ; decorus (decet) is used in prose. 

Obs. 2. From some adjectives are formed diminutives according to 
the rules given above (§ 182) for the substantives ; parvulus, aureolus, 
pulcheUus, misellus, pauperculus, leviculus (parvus, aureus, 
pulcher, miser, pauper, levis). Bellus (bonus), novellus (novus), 
and paullum (parvus) are formed irregularly. 

Obs. 3. From adverbs of time and place are formed adjectives which 
express the property of belonging to a certain time or place, — some of 
them with peculiar derivative endings, and with a number of irregulari- 
ties in the several words : as, in inus (peregrinus, from peregre ; 
repentinus, matutinus, intestinus ; clandestinus, from clam) ; tmus 
(diutinus, pristinus) ; rnus (hodiernus, diurnus, nocturnus, from 
diu, in its earlier meaning, by day, and noctu) ; ternus (sempiternus, 
hesternus from heri) ; icus (posticus). 

§ 189. Adjectives are formed from proper names according to 
special rules. Of adjectives derived from the names of men and 
families it is to be observed : — 

164 LATIN GRAMMAR. §190 

1. The names of Roman families (gentes) in ius are properly adjec- 
tives (Fabius, gens Fabia) , and are used, as such, of a man's works or 
undertakings, so far as they pertain to the community or state; e.g. lex 
Cornelia, Julia, via Appia, circus Flaminius. Any thing else that 
relates to a member of a gens, and is named after him, is expressed by 
adjectives in anus derived from the name ; e.g. bellum Marianum, 
classis Fompejana. 

2. From Roman surnames are formed adjectives in ianus, to indicate 
-what relates to a man, or is named after him : e.g. Ciceronianus, 
Caesarianus ; more rarely in anus from some in a : e.g. Sullanus ; 
and from some few in us : e.g. Gracchanus (more usual forms are 
Lepidianus, Lucullianus, &c.) ; also rarely in inus : e.g. Verrinus, 

Obs. Some few adjectives, which have become surnames, are partly 
used as adjectives applying to the family and the individual (domus 
Augusta, portus Trajanus), partly have new adjectives derived from 
them, as Augustanus. By the poets and later writers, adjectives in 
eus were formed from Roman names ; as, Caesareus, Romuleus (even 
gens Romula). 

3. From Greek proper names, the two Greek forms in eus (ius, 
Eiog) and icus arc made use of, of some both forms, but of others one 
only, or at least chiefly; e.g. Aristotelius, Epicureus, Flatonicus, 

§ 1 90. From the names of towns, adjectives are formed in Latin 
with the endings anus, inus, as, ensis, which express what belongs 
to the town, and are at the same time used as substantives to denote 
the inhabitants (nomina gentilicia). These Latin adjectives are 
formed also from many Greek towns (or towns known to the 
Romans through the Greeks), but not from all. 

1. anus is used with names ending in a, ae, urn, i: e.g. Romanus, 
Formianus (Formiae), Tusculanus (Tusculum), Fundanus 
(Fundi) ; also with some Greek names in a and ae : e.g. Trojanus, 
Syracusanus, Thebanus, and some others, which have also in Greek an 
adjective in anus: e.g. Trallianus (Tralles). 

Obs. From the names of towns, which form a Greek word in ites 
(iitjb) to express the name of the inhabitants, adjectives are formed in 
Latin in itanus ; e.g. Tyndaritanus (Tyndaris), Fanormitanus 
(Panormus), Neapolitanus (and so from all in polis). (Gaditanus, 
from Gades.) 

2. inus, with names ending in ia and ium : e.g. Amerinus (Ame- 
ria), Lanuvinus (Lanuvium), (Praenestinus, Reatinus, from Frae- 


neste, Reate) ; and with various Greek names, whieh have inus also in 
the Greek : e.g, Centuripinus, Tarentinus, Agrigentinus. 

3. as (gen. atis), with some in a, ae, and urn (mostly na, nae, and 
num); e.g. Capenas (Capena), Fidenas (Fidenae), Arpinas, 
Urbinas, Antias. (Never with Greek towns.) 

4. ensis, with names in o, and some in a, ae, urn: e.g. Sulmonensis, 
Tarraconensis, Bononiensis (Bononia), Cannensis (Cannae), 
Ariminensis (Ariminum), (Carthaginiensis, Crotoniensis) ; and with 
Greek names of towns, from whieh the names of the inhabitants are 
formed in evg (isvg, iensis) : e.g. Fatrensis, Chalcidensis, Laodi- 
censis, Nicomedensis, Thespiensis, with some others ( Atheniensis) . 

Obs. 1. In some rare instances, eus is retained from Evg : e.g. Cittieus, 
for Cittiensis ; Halicarnasseus, for Halicarnassensis. 

Obs. 2. The following adjectives, derived from the names of towns, 
are irregular in their form : Tiburs, Camers, Caeres, Vejens. 

5. The Greek adjectives in ius (iog), formed from the names of 
towns and islands (in us, um, and on, with some others), are retained 
in Latin: e.g. Coriiithius, Rhodius, Byzantius, Lacedaemonius, 
Clazomenius (Clazomenae), (Aegyptius, from the name of the coun- 
try, Aegyptus) ; so also those in enus : e.g. Cyzicenus ; sometimes 
also those in aeus : e.g. Smyrnaeus, Erythraeus (Cumanus in prose, 
Cumaeus in poetry, and so with several others) . 

Obs. The Latin writers also occasionally retain the Greek names 
of the inhabitants in tes (ates*, ites, otes) ; e.g. Abderites, Spartia- 
tes (adj. Spartanus), Tegeates (adj. Tegeaeus), Heracleotes. 

§ 191. The names of nations are often themselves adjectives, 
formed with the endings given in the preceding paragraphs ; 
e.g.: — 

Romanus, Latinus (from Latium), Sabinus (without a primitive) , 
and in sous or cus (Oscus, Volscus, Etruscus, Graecus) ; in this case, 
they are used as genuine adjectives to express whatever concerns and be- 
longs to the people (bellum Latinum, &c.) . From other national names, 
which are pure substantives, are formed adjectives in icus, and from the 
Greek (or such as were adopted from the Greeks) also in ius; e.g. Itali- 
cus, Galkcus, Marsicus, Arabicus, Syrius, Thracius, Cilicius (Italus, 
Gallus, Marsus, Arabs, Syrus, Thrax, Cilix). Of individuals, how- 
ever, such expressions are used as miles Gallus, &c, not Gallicus; 
and the poets use and even decline as adjectives national names in us, 
which are otherwise substantives : e.g. orae Italae (Virg.) ; aper Mar- 
sus, flumen Medum (Hor. for Medicum), Colcha venena. 

Obs. 1. In the same way, we read, in the poets, flumen Rhenum, 
for flumen Rhenus. (Mare Oceanum, Caes.) 

166 LATIN GRAMMAR. §193 

Obs. 2. Concerning the use of the Greek feminine national names and 
adjectives in is and as, in the Latin poets, see, under Rules for Inflec- 
tion, § 60, Obs. 5. They also employ the Greek leminines of some 
national names ending in ssa (Cilissa, Cressa, Libyssa, Phoenissa, 
Threissa, or Thressa) both as substantives and adjectives; e.g. Cressa 
pharetra (Virg.). 

§ 192. From the names of countries (which are regularly formed 
from the national names by the ending ia ; Italia, Gallia, Graecia, 
Cilicia, Phrygia), adjectives are sometimes again formed to denote 
what is in the country (not the people) or comes out of it ; e.g. 
pecunia Siciliensis, exercitus Hispaniensis, the Roman army in 
Spain. (Africanus, Asiaticus.) 

Obs. 1. We must notice some names of countries in ium (like names 
of towns) : e.g. Latium, Samnium; with some of Greek origin in us 
(Aegyptus, Epirus). 

Obs. 2. There are several names of nations, from which no names of 
countries are formed, but the same word is used to designate both : e.g. 
in Aeqvis, Sabinis, Bruttiis habitare, hiemare; in Bruttios ire; ex 
Seqvanis exercitum educere. 



§ 193. Verbs are derived from substantives, from adjectives, and 
from other verbs. 

a. Many transitive verbs are derived from substantives by sim- 
ply affixing to the stem the endings of the first conjugation. These 
verbs signify to exercise and employ on something that which is 
denoted by the substantive ; e.g. fraudare, honorare, laudare, nu- 
merare, turbare, onerare, vulnerare. 

Obs. 1. In the formation of such verbs, a preposition is sometimes 
prefixed; e.g. exaggerare, to heap up (agger; aggerare is rare and 
poet.) ; exstirpare, to root out (stirps). See Rules for the Composi- 
tion of Words, § 206, b, 2. 

Obs. 2. In a few instances, intransitive verbs are formed by this mode 
of derivation ; e.g. laborare, militare, from labor, miles. 

Obs. 3. Some few such verbs are formed after the fourth conjugation : 
e.g. finire, vestire, custodire, punire (finis, vestis, custos, poena) ; 


the intransitive servire ; a few intransitives after the second : e.g. floreo, 
frondeo (flos, frons). 

b. In the same way are formed from substantives (and adjectives) 
a great number of deponents of the first conjugation, mostly with 
an intransitive signification (to be something, behave like something, 
occupy one's self with something, &c.) ■, e.g. : — 

Philosophor, to be a philosopher, philosophize (philosophus) ; grae- 
cor, to act or live like a Greek (Graecus) ; aqvor, to fetch water (aqva) ; 
piscor, to fish (piscis) ; negotior, to traffic (negotia) ; laetor, to be joy- 
ful (laetus) ; far less frequently with a transitive signification : e.g. in- 
terpreter, to interpret, explain (interpres, an interpreter) ; osculor, to 
kiss (osculum, a kiss) ; furor, to steal (fur, a thief), &c. (Partior, 
sortior, from pars, sors.) 

Obs. The following have peculiar derivative endings : navigo (litigo, 
mitigo), and latrocinor (patrocinor, vaticinor). 

§ 194. Transitive verbs are formed from adjectives (mostly from 
those of the first and second declension) by adding the endings of 
the first conjugation; first, with the signification, to make a thing 
what the adjective denotes ; and, secondly, with a signification often 
modified in various ways : — 

Maturare, to make ripe, to hasten ; levare, to make smooth (levis) ; 
ditare, to enrich (dives) ; honestare, to honor ; probare, to approve. 
Such verbs have rarely an intransitive signification : e.g. nigrare, to be 
black ; concordare, to be agreed ; propinqvare, to draw near ; durare 
(trans.) to harden, (intrans.) to endure. 

Obs. 1. A preposition sometimes enters into the composition of such 
transitive verbs : e.g. dealbare, to whiten (albus) ; exhilarare, to cheer 
(hilarus). (Compare § 206, b, 2.) (Memoro, propinquo, are com- 
monly commemoro, appropinquo, in the best prose.) 

Obs. 2. Some few such verbs are formed after the fourth conjugation : 
e.g. lenire, mollire, stabilire (lenis, mollis, stabilis) ; and some intran- 
sitives : e.g. superbire, ferocire (superbus, ferox ; the deponent blan- 
dior, from blandus) ; some few intransitives, after the second : e.g. 
albeo, to be white ; caneo, to be gray. 

§ 195. From verbs are derived new verbs with a signification 
somewhat varied in the following ways : — 

1. By the ending lto (itare, 1st) are derived verbs which denote a 
frequent repetition of an action, frequentative verbs. The ending is 
affixed to the stem of verbs of the first conjugation, and to the stem of 
the supine of verbs of the third, and those of which the supine is simi- 

1(38 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 197 

larly formed; e.g. clamito, rogito, minitor (minor), dictito, cursito, 
haesito (haereo), visito (video), ventito (venio). 

Obs. From ago, qvaero, nosco (od), are formed agito, qvaerito, 
noscito, as from verbs of the first conjugation. Latito, pavito, pol- 
licitor, from lateo, paveo, polliceor (2d) . 

2. The repetition of an action is also expressed by simply affixing the 
ending of the first conjugation to the stem of supines formed according 
to the third; e.g. curso (cursare), merso, adjuto (adjutum), tutor 
(tutus, from tueor), amplexor (amplexus, from amplector), lto 
(Ituni). Most of these verbs, however, denote, not a simple repetition, 
but a new idea of an action, in which a repetition of the original action 
is implied : e.g. dicto, dictare, to dictate (dico, to say) ; pulso, to 
beat (pello, to thrust) ; qvasso, to break to pieces (qvatio, to shake) ; 
tracto, to handle (traho, to draw) ; salto, to dance (salio, to leap, 
skip) ; capto, to snatch at (capio, to lay hold of) . (Canto, to sing, 
from cano, to sing and play ; gesto, to carry, from gero, to carry, 

Obs. Habito, licitor, from habeo, liceor, 2d. 

§ 196. 3. The ending sco (scere, 3d) is affixed to the stem (in 
the second conjugation retaining the e, in the third with the con- 
necting vowel i) to form inchoative verbs, Avhich denote the begin- 
ning of an action or condition. By far the greater number of 
inchoatives are formed from verbs of the second conjugation, and 
often have a preposition prefixed at the same time : e.g. labasco, 
to begin to stagger (labare) ; calesco, to grow warm ; and inca- 
lesco (caleo), exardesco, effloresce* (ardeo, floreo, not exardeo or 
effloreo), ingemisco, to sigh over (gemo) ; obdormisco, to fall 
asleep (dormio). 

Besides the inchoatives derived from verbs, many are formed in esco 
from adjectives (inchoativa nominalia) ; e.g. maturesco, nigresco, 
mitesco (maturus, niger, mitis). See the Rules for Inflection, § 141. 
A few are formed from substantives : e.g. puerasco, from puer ; ignes- 
cere, from ignis, to take fire. 

Obs. Concerning verbs in sco (scor), which have an inchoative mean- 
ing, see § 140 and 142. 

§ 197. 4. The ending urio (urire, 4th), added to the stem of the 
supine, forms desideratives, which express an inclination to a thing: 
e.g. esurio, to have a desire to eat, to be hungry ; empturio, to wish 
to buy ; parturio, to be in labor. There are, however, only a few 
such verbs ; and they are little used, except esurio and parturio. 

Obs. Ligurio, scaturio, &c, are not desideratives. 


5. The termination illo (illare, 1st), added to the stem, forms some 
few diminutive verbs ; e.g. cantillo, to quaver, from cano. 

6. From some intransitive verbs there are formed, by a change of the 
conjugation, — sometimes, also, by a change in the quantity of the radical 
syllable, — transitive verbs, which signify the causing of that which is 
denoted by the intransitive. From fugio, to fly ; jaceo, to lie ; pendeo, 
to hang, weigh (intrans.) ; liqveo, to be clear, fluid, — come fugo (1st), 
to cause to Jig ; jacio, to throw ; pendo, to weigh (by hanging up) ; liqvo 
(1st), to clarify. From cado, to fall; sedeo, to sit, — come caedo, to 

fell; sedo (1st), to pacify. 

Obs. The signification is otherwise altered in sido, to sink ; assido, to 
seat one's self; sedeo, to sit; assideo, to sit by. See also under cubo, 
§ 119. 



§ 198. Adverbs are derived from adjectives (numerals), substan- 
tives (pronouns), and the noun forms of verbs (participles and 
supines), rarely from other adverbs or prepositions. 

Adverbs, which express a way or manner, are derived from adjec- 
tives, by the endings e (o), and ter. 

a. The ending e is affixed to the stem of adjectives and partici- 
ples used adjectively (perf.) of the first and second declension; e.g. 
probe, modes te, libere, aegre (aeger, aegri), docte, ornate. 

Ons. 1. From bonus is formed bene (of the e, see § 19, 2) ; from vali- 
dus, valde. 

Obs. 2. From some adjectives and participles of the second declen- 
sion, there are formed adverbs in 5 (abl.) ; as, tuto, crebro, neces- 
sario, consulto. From certus are formed both certo and certe, which 
are generally used alike : certe scio and certo comperi {for certain) ; 
certe eveniet, it will certainly happen ; and nihil ita exspectare qvasi 
certo futurum. But, in the signification, at least, we always find 
certe. 1 

b. The ending ter is affixed to the stem of adjectives and participles 
of the third declension (with the connecting vowel i) : e.g. graviter, acri- 

1 The others in o which are used in good writers are arcano, cito, continuo, falso, 
fortuito, gratuito, liqvido, manifesto, perpetuo, precario, raro (rare, t/iinly, 
far apart), secreto, sedulo, serio, sero, auspicato, directo, festinato, necopi- 
nato, improviso, merito {according to one's deserts) ; and immerito, optato, sor- 
tito (according to lot); further, primo, secundo, &c. See § 199, Obs. 2. 

170 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 199 

ter (acer, acris), feliciter (audacter is preferred to audaciter) ; but 
if the stem ends in t, one t is omitted : e.g. sapienter (instead of sapient- 
ter\ amanter, solerter. 

OB8. 1. From hilarus and liilaris are formed hilare and hilariter; 
from opulens and opulentus opulenter. 

0B8. 2. From some adjectives in us, there is formed, besides the adverb 
in e, another in ter : e.g. humane and humaniter, firme and firmiter ; 
especially from those in lentus: e.g. luculente and luculenter. (Al- 
ways violenter, usually gnaviter.) 

Ons. 3. From difficilis, alius, and neqvam, are formed difficulter, 
aliter, neqviter. From brevis is formed breviter, briefly ; and brevi. 
shortly, in a short time ; from proclivis proclivi (proclive), down- 

c. From some adjectives, no proper adverb is formed, but the neuter 
(accus.) serves as an adverb. This is the case with facile (but difficul- 
ter, recens (lately), sublime (on high), multum, plurimum, paullum, 
nimium (but oftener nimis), tantum, qvautum, ceterum, plerumqve, 

Obs. (Commodum, in the nick of time ; commode, suitably.) On 
the use of neuter adjectives for adverbs by the poets, see Syntax, § 302. 

§ 199. From the cardinal numbers are formed adverbs, which, 
with the exception of the four first, end in ies ; e, 0, em, im, inta, 
um and i being dropped before the ending. These are the follow- 
ing : — 

semel, once (not allied to unus) septies decies 

bis, twice (from duo, by a change duodevicies, or octies decies 

in the pronunciation) undevicies, or novies decies 

ter vicies 

qvater semel et vicies or vicies semel 
qvinqvies (older form, qvin- (not semel vicies) (vicies et 

qviens) semel) 

sexies (sexiens, &c.) bis et vicies or vicies bis (vicies 
septies et bis, &c.) 

octies tricies 

novied qvadragies, &c. 

decies centies 

undecies centies tricies, or centies et tri- 
duodecies cies, &e. 

terdecies, or tredecies ducenties 

qvaterdecies, or qvattuordecies millies (bis millies, decies mil- 
qvinqviesdecies, or qvindecies lies, centies millies, &c.) 
sexies decies, or sedecies 


Obs. 1. To tlieso adverbs correspond the proaoosinal adverbs toties 
so often ; qvoties, how often :■' (See g 201, 1. 1 

Obs. 2. From the ordinals are formed adverbs in am and o, which arc 
employed to signify, /or isAteA tons: e.g. tertium consul, consul for the 

third time; qvartum consul (eo anno lectistemium, qvinto post 
conditam urbem, habitum est, Liv. VIII. 25) ; or, in enumera 
primum, in the first place; tertium, thirdly. For the first time, first, is 
generally expressed by primum; primo usually signifies, in the begin* 
ning,from the beginning. For the second time, is expressed by iterum 
(secundum is not used); instead of secundo, secondly, the Latins 
more frequently say deinde, turn. For the remaining numbers, the forms 
in urn are the most usual, particularly in the signification of a certain 
number of times. For the last time, is expressed by ultimum (postre- 
mum, extremum) ; now for the last time, hoc ultimum ; then for the 
last lime, illud ultimum. 

§ 200. a. Some adverbs are formed from substantives by means 
of the ending Itus, to denote a proceeding from something: e.g. 
funditus, from the foundation; radicitus. The following are 
formed in the same way from adjectives : antiqvitus, from times 
of yore ; divinitus, by divine ordering ; humanitus, after the man- 
ner of men. 

b. By atim (as if from supines of the first conjugation) adverbs are 
formed from substantives and adjectives, denoting in this or that way ; 
e.g. catervatim, gregatim, gradatim; vicatim, by streets, from street 
to street ; singulatim, severally ; privatim, as an individual. 

Obs. The following are formed without a : tributim, by tribes ; viri- 
tim, man by man ; furtim (fur), ubertim (uber). 

c. By the termination im, adverbs are formed from the supine, to 
denote the way and manner: e.g. caesim, punctim, by striking, by 
stabbing ; carptim, by snatches ; separatim, separately ; passim, here and 
there (scattered, and without order, pando). (Mordicus, with the teeth, 
from mordeo, is formed quite irregularly). 

§ 201. From the pronouns are formed adverbs, which denote 
place, time, degree, number, manner, and cause, and have the same 
power of expressing the relation of things which the pronouns have. 
For each idea (of place, time, &c.) there are formed correlative 
adverbs corresponding to the different classes of pronouns, — de- 
monstrative, relative, and interrogative, indefinite relative, and 
indefinite. The relative adverbs connect the sentence to which they 
belong with another, and are conjunctions: the adverbs oi' place 

172 LATIN GRAMMAR. §201 

differ according as they signify remaining in a place, or motion to a 
place, from a place, or on a certain road. 

1. Adverbs of place : — 

a. (in a place) demonstr. ibi, there; hie, here ; istic, there, there by 
you ; illic, there ; ibidem, in that same place ; alibi, elsewhere : relative 
and interrogative, ubi, where; where? indefinite relative, ubicunqve, 
ubiubi, ichcrever : indefinite, alicubi, uspiam, usqvam, anywhere (nus- 
qvam, nowhere ; utrobiqve, in both places) : indefinite universal, ubi- 
vis, ubiqve, ubilibet, in any place you will, everywhere. 

b. (to a place) demonstr. eo, thither (hue, istuc, and isto, illuc and 
illo, eodem, alio) ; relative and interrogative, qvo (utro, of two) ; 
indefinite relative, quocunqve, qvoqvo; indefinite, aliqvo, usqvam 
(nusqvam, utroqve) ; indefinite universal, qvovis, qvolibet. 

c. (from a place) demonstr. inde, thence (nine, istinc, illinc, indi- 
dem, aliunde) ; relative and interrog., unde ; indef. relative, undecun- 
qve (rarely undeunde) ; indefinite, alicunde (utrinqve) ; indefinite 
universal, undiqve, undelibet. 

d. (on the road) demonstr., ea, on that road (hac, istac, ilia, and 
iliac, eadem, alia) ; relative and interrogative, qva ; indefinite relative, 
qvacunqve (qvaqva) ; indefinite, aliqva ; indefinite universal, qvavis, 

2. Adverbs of time: demonstr., turn, then (tunc); interrogative, 
qvando, when? (ecqvando, whether ever?) ; relative, qvum, when, as ; 
indefinite relative, qvandocunqve, qvandoqve, whenever ; indefinite, 
aliqvando, once (qvandoqve, rarely qvandocunqve), unqvam, ever 
(nunqvam, never). 

Obs. 1. In place of the indefinite pronominal adverbs derived from 
aliqvis (alicubi, &c), shorter forms, derived from qvis, are used after 
the conjunctions ne, num, si, and nisi, which are the same as the longer 
forms with the removal of ali : e.g. necubi, that nowhere ; neqvo, ne- 
cunde, ne qva, ne qvando. 

Obs. 2. Ubicunqve, qvocunqve, undecunqve (undeunde), rarely 
occur without a relative signification, as indefinite words expressing uni- 

3. Adverbs of degree : demonstr., tam, so {so very) ; relative and 
interrogative, qvam, as, how ? indefinite relative, qvamvis, qvamlibet, 
how much soever. 

4. Adverbs of number: demonstr., toties, so often; relative 
and interrogative, qvoties (so often) as, hoio often ? indefinite 
relative, qvotiescunqve, how often soever ; indefinite, aliqvoties, some- 

5. Adverbs which express way and manner: demonstr., ita, sic, so, in 
this way (corresponding to is and hie) ; relative and interrogative, ut, 


uti, as, how ? (qvi, how ?) ; indcf. relative, utcunqve (utut). (In later 
•writers, qvaliter, rarely taliter.) 

6. Adverbs of the eause : demonstr., eo, therefore ; relative, qvod 
qvia, because ; interrogative, cur, where/ore ? 

From these adverbs, others are again formed by composition ; e.g. 
eatenus, qvatenus, &e. (See § 202, Obs.) 

§ 202. Some adverbs are yet to be noticed, which denote rela- 
tions of place. 

a. In o (as in eo, qvo, &c), from prepositions (or adverbs), to 
express motion to a place ; citro, uPcro (to that side ; then, of one's 
own accord, into the bargain), intro, porro (forivards, further, from 
pro), retro (re). 

b. In or sum, orsus, oversum, o versus (from versus), to denote 
a direction to one side, from pronouns and prepositions ; horsum, 
qvorsum, aliorsum, aliqvoversum, qvoqvoversus, prorsum, for- 
wards (prorsus, completely, throughout), retrorsum (rursum, rursus, 
again), introrsum, sursum (from sub), deorsum, seorsum. (Dex- 
trorsum, sinistrorsum.) (Extrinsecus, from without, intrinsecus, 
from within, are opposites.) 

c. fariam, in — places, in — parts, from numerals ; bifariam, quadri- 
fariam, (multifariam) . 

Obs. Some of the remaining derivative adverbs are substantives in 
a certain case (sometimes in an obsolete form), used with a special 
meaning: e.g. partim (old accusative from pars), forte (fors), 
temperi, vesperi, noctu (nox ; interdiu, by day) , mane, foris (esse, 
out of the house, from home), foras (ire, out of doors). Others are 
compounds of a case and a governing word; e.g. hactenus, qvemad- 
modum (interea, praeterea, propterea, antea, postea, with an unusual 
construction). In nudiustertius, the day before yesterday, nudius- 
qvartus, nudiusqvintus, &c, words grammatically connected are 
fused into one by the pronunciation (nunc dies tertius, qvartus, &c, 
viz. est). 



§ 203. By composition two words are formed into a new com- 
pound word (verbum compositum, as opposed to verbum simplex), 
the meaning of which is made up of the meaning of the two com- 
pounded words. 

17-i LATIN GRAMMAR. § 204 

If two words are used in a fixed order to denote a single idea, 
but are yet syntactically combined as separate words, each with its 
proper grammatical form, the composition is termed spurious. Such 
compounds are formed from a substantive and adjective, which are 
both decliued: e.g. respublica, the state; jusjurandum, an oath 
(§ 53) ; or, from a genitive and a governing word : e.g. senatus- 
consultum, verisimilis. The words thus connected may occasion- 
ally be separated, especially by qve and ve; resqve publica, 
senatusve consulta (res vero publica). 

Obs. Even in genuine compounds of a verb (or participle) with a 
preposition or the negative in, the older poets occasionally separate 
the particle from the verb by qve : e.g. inqve ligatus, for illigatus- 
que, bound up (Virg.) ; inqve salutatus, for insalutatusqve, un- 
greeted (Virg.) ; so also hactenus, eatenus, qvadamtenus, by a word 
interposed: e.g. qvadam prodire tenus (Hor.). In prose, this 
separation (tmesis) 1 is sometimes used with the intensive per: e.g. per 
mini minim visum est; pergratum perqve jucundum, with an 
unaccented word in the middle. (On qvicunqve, qvilibet, see § 87, 
Obs. 2.) 

§ 204. The first part of the compound may be a noun (substan- 
tive, adjective, or numeral), an adverb, a preposition, or one of 
those particles which occur only in composition as prefixes. These 
are the following : — 

Amb, round (round about) , dis, on different sides (from each other, 
in two), re (red), bach (again), se, aside, which denote the local 
relations of the action, and are commonly named inseparable preposi- 
tions (e.g. ambSdere, to eat round about ; discerpere, to tear in pieces ; 
recedere, to retreat ; secedere, to go aside) ; and the negative particle in 
(in-, un-). Some verbs, mostly intransitive, are found as the first 
member of a compound, with facere; e.g. calefacio. 

Obs. 1. Amb is altered into am in amplector, axnputo; into an 
before c (q) : e.g. anceps, anqviro. (Anfractus, anhelo.) 

Dis remains unaltered before c (q), p, t (discedo, disqviro, dis- 
puto, distraho), and before s with a vowel following (dissolvo) ; 
before f the s is assimilated (differo, diffringo) ; before the other con- 
sonants it is changed to di (dido, digero, dimitto, dinumero, diripio, 
discindo, disto, divello ; but disjicio, properly disicio ; drjungo, and 
sometimes disjungo) ; this di is long, but in dirimo, from disemo, the 
preposition is short. (Otherwise dis is not used before vowels.) 

1 Tmesis, a cutting, from TEfivu, to cut. 


Re before vowels becomes red (redargue redeo, redigo, redoleo, 
redundo, redhibeo). (So also seditio, from se and eo ; in no other 
instance is se used before a vowel.) Re is short, but (in verse) is 
lengthened in recido, religio, reliqviae (rarely in reduco). In the 
perfect of reperio, repello, refero, and retundo, the first consonant 
of the verb was pronounced (and in older times also written) double ; 
repperi, reppuli, rettuli, rettudi (from the reduplicated pepuli, &c). 

Obs. 2. The negative in is only compounded with adjectives and 
adverbs, and with some few participles, which have assumed altogether 
the character of adjectives : e.g. incultus, uncultivated ; indoctus, 
unlearned ; and with substantives, in order to form negative adjectives 
or substantives: e.g. informis, shapeless , ugly, from forma; infamis 
(fama) ; injuria, injury, from jus. It is varied before consonants like 
the preposition in. (Some compounds of participles with the negative 
in must be carefully distinguished from the participles which resemble 
them, from verbs compounded with the preposition in: e.g. infectus, 
undone (in and factus) ; and infectus, dyed (inficio) ; indictus, not 
said; and indictus, ordered, imposed (indico). In good style, how- 
ever, the negative compound of the participle is rarely used when the 
verb is found compounded with in; so that, e.g. immixtus signifies 
only mixed (immisceo) ; infractus, broken (infringo) ; but unmixed, 
unbroken, are expressed by non mixtus, non fractus.) 

Obs. 3. Ve (of rare occurrence) has also a negative signification in 
vecors, vegrandis, vesanus. In some compounds ne (nee) is made 
use of; e.g. ngqveo, nefas (nScopinatus, negotium). 1 

Obs. 4. It is only in composition that we find sesqvi, one and a half; 
e.g. sesqvipes (whence sesqvipedalis) . Semi, from semis (gen. 
semissis) , is used in compounds to denote half. 

§ 205. a. If the first member be a noun, the second is affixed to 
its stem (omitting the inflectional endings, and a and U in the first, 
second, and fourth declensions). If the second member begins with 
a consonant, the connecting vowel i is often inserted ; e.g. causidi- 
cus, magnanimus, corniger, aedifico, lucifuga. (Naufragus with 
a diphthong from navis, frango.) 

Obs. 1. In some words, however, the connecting vowel is not em- 
ployed; e.g. puerpera (puer, pario), muscipula (mus, capio). 
Hence the final consonant of the first member has been dropped in the 
pronunciation of some words ; e.g. lapicida (lapis, lapid-is, and 
caedo), homicida (homin-is). (Opifex, from opus, facio). 

1 He is short in neqveo and nefas, and the words allied to it (nefarius, nefandus, 
nefastus), long in other words (neqvam, neqvitia, neqvaqvam, neqvicqvam, 
nedum). Nee is short. 

176 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 206 

Obs. 2. The connecting vowel o (u) is rare : ahenobarbus, brazen- 
beard ; Trojugena. 

Obs. 3. For the adverbs formed from adjectives, the stem of the ad- 
jectives is used, except bene and male (svaviloqvus, but beneficus). 

b. In the radical syllable of the second member of a compound word, 
the' vowels a and ae are more frequently, but not always, changed 
according to § 5, c; and the same is true of e in the open radical syllable 
of some verb-stems (see the examples in Chaps. XVII., XVIII., XIX., 
XX.); inimicus (amicus), iuermus (anna). (A is altered to u 
before 1; e.g. calco, inculco.) 

Obs. Exceptions, like permaneo, contraho, perfremo, inhaereo, 
may be seen elsewhere ; concavus. 

c. The compound word generally retains the grammatical form of the 
last member, if it belongs to the same class of words ; e.g. inter-rex, 
dis-similis, per-ficio. Yet substantives and verbs sometimes vary. 
See e. 

d. If the compound word belongs to a different class of words from 
the last member, a suitable grammatical form is given to the stem of the 
latter: e.g. maledicus, from male and dico; opifex, from opus and 
facio (fac), with the nominative ending s. 

Obs. Sometimes, however, the ending of a substantive is suitable to 
the adjective compounded from it : as, crassipes, from crassus and pes; 
discolor, from dis and color. 

e. Sometimes a particular derivative ending is affixed, corresponding 
to the signification of the new word, so that it is formed at once by 
composition and derivation : e.g. exardesco, from ex and ardeo, with 
the inchoative form; latifundium, from latus and fundus; Trans- 
alpinus, from trans Alpes. 

§ 206. The compound words may be referred to various classes 
according to the various ways in which the compound signification 
is deduced from the meaning of the simple words. These are : — 

a. Composita determinativa, in which the first word defines the 
meaning of the last more exactly after the manner of an adjective 
or adverb. In this way prepositions, prefixes, and adjectives are set 
before substantives : as, cognomen, interrex, dedecus, injuria, nefas, 
viviradix ; more frequently prepositions, prefixes, and adverbs are put 
before adjectives or verb-stems, in order to form adjectives : e.g. sub- 
rusticus, somewhat clownish ; consimilis, tercentum, beneficus, 
altisbnus. (Exinde, desuper.) A great class of verbs especially is 
thus compounded with prepositions (also with amb, dis, re, se), (see 
Chaps. XVII., XVIII., XIX., XX.) ; rarely with adverbs (maledico, 


satisfacio). (Subirasccr, subvereor, to become a little angry, to be a 
little afraid.) 

Obs. 1. The composition of a verb already compounded with a new 
preposition (by which a vocab. decompositum is formed) is not com- 
mon in Latin, except with super; e.g. superimpendo. (Recondo, 
abscondo, assurgo, consurgo, deperdo, dispereo, recognosco, since 
condo, surgo, perdo, pereo, and cognosco arc considered as simple 
verbs; repercutio, repromitto, subinvideo, to envy a little. A few 
others are found in inferior writers.) 

Obs. 2. Some substantives of this class take the ending ium, and 
denote a collection, a portion ; e.g. latifundium (lati fundi), cavae- 
dium, triennium (biduum, triduum, qvatriduum, from dies) . From 
sexviri (seviri), the sixmen (as a board) , and similar words, comes the 
singular sexvir, &c, of a member of such a fraternity. (Duumvir, 
triumvir, plur. duoviri, tresviri, and duumviri, triumviri.) 

6. Composita constructa, in which one member is considered as 
grammatically governed by the other : they are divided again into two 

lx> The first member is a substantive, or a word put for a substantive, 
which may generally be conceived of as an accusative (object), sometimes 
as an ablative, governed by the second member, which is a verb. In 
this way are formed especially substantives, mostly personal names 
(without an ending affixed, or with the nominative ending s, or in a, us) : 
e.g. signifer (signum fero), agricola, opifex, causidicus, tublcen 
(tuba cano), tibicen (for tibiicen), funambulus (in fune anibulo); 
also neuters in ium, naufragium, and some adjectives : e.g. magnificus; 
with others in ficus, letifer, and verbs : e.g. belligero, animadverto, 
tergiversor (with a frequentative form, and as a deponent) , amplifico, 
aedifico, gratificor, from facio. 

Obs. 1. In stillicidium, gallicinium, the first member is to be con- 
sidered as a genitive governed by the verb (stillarum casus). 

Obs. 2. Compounds are formed in a similar way from an intransitive 
verb-stem and facio : e.g. calefacio, to cause to be warm (caleo, to 
warm) ; tremefacio, expergefacio, to awake (trans.) ; assvefacio, to 
accustom to a thing. 1 (Condocefacio, commonefacio, perterrefacio, 
from transitive verbs, only express the agency more emphatically.) 

2. The first member is a preposition, the second a substantive or a 
word put for a substantive, which is to be conceived of as governed by the 
preposition. Thus are formed, — 1. adjectives: e.g. intercus (aqva), 
particularly by adding the endings anus, inus, aneus (e.g. ante- 
signanus, Transpadanus, suburbanus, Transtiberinus, circum- 

1 For the sake of the versification, the poets sometimes have tepefacio, liqveflt, &c, 
instead of tepgfacio, liqvSfit, &c. 



foraneus) ; 2. verbs of the first, more rarely of the fourth, conjugation, 
which denote to bring into a given relation : e.g. segregare (to bring 
aicay from the grex), insinuare (in sinum), irretire (in rete), 
erudire (to bring out of rudeness). The verbs, however, which are so 
formed with ex, often denote only to make into something : e.g. effemi- 
nare, explanare, efferare (§ 193, Obs. 1, § 194, Obs. 1). 

c. Composita possessiva, which are adjectives compounded of an 
adjective (numeral, participle), a substantive, or a preposition, for their 
first member, and a substantive for their second, and denote in what way 
some subject has that which is expressed by the last member of the 
compound word : e.g. crassipes (one that has thick feet, thickfoot, thick- 
footed), qvadripes, alipes (wingfooted) , trimestris (three-monthly, 
what has three months), concolor (of a like color), concors, affinis 
(that which has its boundary on something) ; decolor (that which has no 
color, colorless), exsors (for which there is no lot), expers, enervis, 
informis (which is without form, shapeless, ugly), inermus, unarmed. 

Obs. 1. If the substantive belongs to the third declension, adjectives 
of one ending are formed (concors, excors, &c, with a nominative 
ending ; bimaris, of two endings) ; from substantives of the first and 
second declensions are formed adjectives in us, as bifurcus ; but fre- 
quently also in is, if the preceding syllable be long by position : elin- 
gvis, enervis (bicornis) . In some the ending is variable. See § 59, 
Obs. 3. 

Obs. 2. In the numerals in decim the two members are added. 



§ 207. Syntax teaches how words are combined to make 
connected discourse. The inflections of words are employed, 
partly to show how the words in a proposition are mutually 
related and connected (First part of the Syntax), partly to 
define the relations of the whole proposition ; viz., the mode 
of the assertion, and the time of the fact asserted (Second 
part). Besides the inflections, the succession and order of 
the words and propositions also serve to give precision to 
discourse (Third part). 

Obs. In Latin, as in other languages, the regular order of the words 
is sometimes changed, because attention is paid rather to the sense than 
to the words and their grammatical form. This is called constructio 
ad sententiam, synesim. Sometimes, too, a convenient rather than a 
strictly accurate form of expression is aimed at. The irregularities 
hence arising, which, in some cases, have become established by use, 
may generally be reduced to three kinds, either to an abbreviated form 
of expression (ellipsis), where something is omitted which the mind 
must supply, or to a superfluous expression (pleonasmus) 2 or to attrac- 
tion (attractio), where the form of one word is determined by another, 
though not standing in exactly the same relation. Such peculiarities of 
expression are sometimes termed figures of speech, or figures of syntax, 
to distinguish them from rhetorical figures of speech, which do not affect 
the grammatical form. 

i The Greek word ovvratjic denotes a joining or arranging together. 
2 *E/U,eti//if, deficiency; nfaovaofios, redundancy. 





§ 208. a. Discourse consists of propositions. A propo- 
sition is a combination of words, which asserts (or re- 
quires) something (an action, condition, or quality) of 
another. A complete proposition consists of two principal 
parts : the subject , or that of which something is asserted ; 
and the predicate, or that which is asserted of the subject. 1 
It is in some cases unnecessary to designate the subject 
by a separate word, since the ending of the verb often 
indicates it; e.g. eo, I go. 

Obs. 1. An action maybe said to take place without being referred to 
a definite subject (impersonally). See § 218. 

Obs. 2. Sometimes a proposition is not fully stated, because the words 
which are not expressed may easily be understood from the context, as, 
for example, in answers. 

b. The subject of a proposition is expressed by a substantive (or 
several substantives combined), or another word used as a substan- 
tive ; viz., either a pronoun : e.g. ego ; or an adjective, which names 
persons or things according to some particular quality : e.g. boni, 
the good; bona, good things, what is good; or by an infinitive : e.g. 
vinci tirrpe est ; or by any word used only to denote its own sound 
and form : e.g. v i d e s habet duas syllabas, (the word) vides has 
two syllables. 

1 Subjectum (subjicio), properly what is laid underneath, the foundation (the subject 
of the discourse) ; praedicatum f from praedicare, to assert. 


Obs. 1. Something may also be asserted of the content! of B whole 
proposition, and it may therefore stand for the subject, haying its 
predicate in the neuter gender; e.g. qvod domum emisti, gratum 
mini est. 

Obs. 2. If the subject be a personal pronoun, it is usually omitted, 
being known from the ending of the verb: e.g. curro, curris; in the 
same way, is, lie, as the subject, is ofien omitted. (See §§ 321, 482, and 
484, a.) 

Obs. 3. In the imperative proposition in the second person, the predi- 
cate is not combined with the subject, but is addressed to the subject, the 
name of which may be added in the vocative. 

§ 209. a. The predicate consists either of a verb (whether active 
or passive), which by itself denotes a definite action, condition, or 
character : e.g. arbor crescit, arbor viret, arbor caeditur (simple 
predicate) ; or of a verb which does not in itself denote a definite 
action, condition, or character, and an adjective (participle) or sub- 
stantive with it as a predicate noun, by which the subject is defined 
anol described : e.g. urbs est splendida ; deus est auctor mundi 
(resolved predicate). 

Obs. 1. A substantive or adjective, used as a predicate noun, may 
sometimes be represented in the predicate by a neuter demonstrative or 
relative pronoun ; e.g. Nee tamen ille erat sapiens, qvis enim hoc 
fuit ? (Cic. Fin. IV. 24.) Qvod ego fui ad Trasimenum, id tu hodie 
es (Liv. XXX. 30) . The adverbs satis, abunde, nimis, parum, may be 
used as predicate nouns. 

Obs. 2. On the supplying of the verb from the context, and its omis- 
sion by ellipsis, see §§ 478, 479. 

b. Besides sum, those verbs are also used as incomplete in them- 
selves, and are therefore combined with a predicate noun, which 
denote to become, and to remain (fio, evado, maneo) ; as well as 
the passives of many others, signifying to name, to make, to hold, 
or consider, &c, which are completed by the simple addition of the 
words which denote what a thing is named, what it is made, and 
for what it is held ; eg.: — 

Caesar creatus est consul; Aristides habitus est justissimus. 
(See § 221, and, on the active of these verbs, § 227.) 

Obs. 1. It is not quite correct to call sum the copula, and the sub- 
joined word alone the predicate. 

Obs. 2. Instead of being joined to a predicate noun in the nominative, 
esse may be combined with some other expression, which serves to de- 

182 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 211 

scribe or define, as, for instance, with a genitive; esse alicujus, esse 
niagni pretii, of great value, pluris ; or with a preposition and its case, or 
with an adverb of place, to denote the place or relation in which a thing 
is : esse in Gallia, in magno timore, prope esse, praesto esse. {Esse 
pro hoste, to be accounted an enemy.) Sometimes, also, in familiar lan- 
guage, sum is used with an adverb which denotes way and manner (ita, 
sic, ut), instead of an adjective ; e.g. Ita sum, sic est vita hominum 
(= talis). So also we find the expressions, recte sunt omnia (all is 
well) ; more rarely, inceptum frustra fuit, impune fuit. The follow- 
ing are used impersonally : ita est, sic est, so it is ; contra est ; bene 
est, it is well ; melius est alicui, some one is better off. Esse is used as a 
verb of complete and independent meaning, signifying to exist; est 
Deus. The other verbs above cited may also be used with a complete 
and independent meaning ; e.g. Verres ab omnibus nominatur. 

Ohs. 3. Some verbs express only a relation to an action or suffering, 
which action is then given by the addition of another verb in the infinitive, 
the predicate thus becoming more complex: e.g. cogito proficisci; 
cupio haberi bonus ; videor esse magnus (often, videor magnus). 

§ 210. a. The predicate may be more definitely limited by ad- 
verbs, and by substantives or words used substantively, which give 
the object and circumstances of the action ; e.g. Caesar Pompejum 
magno praelio vicit. 1 

b. A substantive may be connected in a certain relation with 
another substantive in order to define it more accurately ; e.g. pater 
patriae. To every substantive also there may be added other sub- 
stantives descriptive of the same person or thing, to define or char- 
acterize it more closely ; e.g. Tarqvinius, rex Romanorum. The 
subjoining of these is called apposition, and that which is subjoined 
is said to be in apposition. 

c. To every substantive may be added adjectives (participles), 
which may be again defined by a substantive in a certain case ; e.g. 
vir utilis civitati svae, a man useful to his state. 

Obs. An adjective, Which is immediately connected with the substan- 
tive, is called attributive (vir bonus), to distinguish it from that which is 
used as a predicate with the verb sum ; vir est bonus. 

§ 211. a. The verb of the predicate agrees in number and per- 
son with the subject : pater aegrotat ; ego valeo ; nos dolemus ; 
vos gaudetis. 

1 Objectum from objicio, that which is placed over against the action and exposed 
to it. 


Obs. 1. We must here remark of the first person, that, in Latin, a 
man sometimes speaks of himself in the first person plural (see § 483 ; 
and of the second, that, in certain kinds of propositions, the second per- 
son singular of the verb in the subjunctive is used of a hypothetic*] Nlb- 
ject in the same way as you is often employed in English. See § 370, 
and § 494, Obs. 5. (On the phrase, uterqve nostrum veniet, see 
§ 284, Obs. 3.) 

Obs. 2. The third person plural is sometimes used without a definite 
subject to denote a common saying (ajunt, dicunt, ferunt, narrant, &c.), 
or the general use of a term (appellant, vocant), or a general opinion 
(putant, credunt), and also, when the verb vulgo is introduced, to 
express what persons in general do ; Vulgo ex oppidis gratulabantur 
Pompejo (Cic. Tusc. I. 35). Saturnum mazime vulgo colunt ad 
occidentem (Id. N. D. III. 17). 

b. The predicate adjective or participle agrees with the subject 
in number, gender, and case; in the same way every adjective 
(partic.) is regulated by the substantive with which it is con- 
nected : — 

Feminae timidae sunt. Hujus hominis actiones malae sunt, 
consilia pejora. 

A personal or reflective pronoun used as a subject has the gender 
which belongs to the name of the person or thing for which it 
stands ; Vos (you women) laetae estis. 

Obs. 1. A neuter predicate adjective may be joined to a subject of 
the masculine or feminine gender, to denote a being of a certain class in 
general (substantively) ; e.g. varium et mutabile semper femina 
(Virg. JEn. IV. 569), woman is always a changeable and inconsistent 
being; varia et mutabilis s. fern., a woman is alioays changeable and in- 
consistent. Turpitudo pejus est {something worse) qvam dolor (Cic. 
Tusc. II. 13). 

Obs. 2. If the subject has for its predicate a personal name, which has a 
distinct form for the masculine and feminine gender, that form is preferred 
which corresponds to the gender of the subject : Stilus est optimus 
dicendi magister ; philosophia est magistra vitae. The same rule 
applies to apposition; e.g. moderator cupiditatis pudor (Cic). Ef- 
fectrix beatae vitae sapientia (Cic). (But Qvid dicam de the- 
sauro omnium rerum memoria? Cicero de Or. I. 5.) 

§ 212. If two or more subjects of different persons are spoken of 
at the same time, the verb is in the first person plural, if one of the 
subjects is of this person ; and with the second, if one of the subjects 
is of this and none of the first person : — 

184 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 213 

Ego et uxor anibulavimus ; tu et uxor tua ambulavistis. Haec 
neqve ego neqve tu fecimus. (Tor. Ad. I. 2, 23.) 

Ons. 1. If two subjects have the same verb, and this is predicated of 
each of them separately, and with the addition of different circumstances, 
the predicate is put in the plural where it is intended to give promi- 
nence to what is common and similar in the two transactions : Ego te 
poetis ( = apud poetas), Messala antiqvariis criminabimur (Dial, 
de Orat. 42) . But where a contrast is to be forcibly expressed, the predi- 
cate is usually regulated by the nearest subject : e.g. Ego sententiam, 
tu verba defendis. So, also, sometimes, with et — et: e.g. et ego et 
Cicero meus flagitabit (Cicero ad Att. IV. 17) ; and always so, when, 
to a single defined individual, there is added a general designation of 
others, who are in no way related to him : Et tu et omnes homines 
sciunt (Cicero ad Fam. XIII. 8) . 

Ons. 2. When the predicate is placed with the first subject, and the 
others folio w, the first only is regarded ; e.g. Et ego hoc video et voa 
et illi. 

§ 213. a. Two or more connected subjects of the third person 
singular take the predicate (1) in the plural, if importance be at- 
tached to the number as well as to the connection, which is gener- 
ally the case with living beings : — 

Castor et Pollux ex eqvis pugnare visi sunt (Cic. N. D. II. 2) ; 
pater et avus mortui sunt (both of them) . 

Also, when persons and things are connected ; Syphax regnumqve 
ejus in potestate Romanorum erant (Liv. XXVIII. 18). 

2. In the singular, when the subjects are considered collectively 
as a whole ; e.g. : — 

Senatus populusqve Romanus intelligit (Cic. ad Fam. V. 8). This 
is often the case with things and impersonal ideas, one idea being ex- 
pressed by several words, or several ideas, which are connected, being 
considered as one : e.g. Tempus necessitasqve postulat (Cic. Off. I. 
23). Religio et fides anteponatur amicitiae (Id. Off. III. 11). 
Divitias gloria, imperium, potentia seqvebatur (Sail. Cat. 12) . 

But when the things and ideas are expressed as distinct and opposed, 
the verb stands in the plural : e.g. Jus et injuria natura dijudicantur 
(Cic. Legg. I. 16). Mare magnum et ignara ( = ignota) lingva 
commercia prohibebant (Sail. Jug. 18). 

Obs. 1. Sometimes, when the subjects are personal appellations, the 
verb is used in the singular, because each individual is thought of sepa- 
rately, and the verb drawn to the nearest subject : e.g. Et proavus L. 


Murenae et avus praetor fuit (Cic pro Mur. 7).' Orgetorigis filia 
et umis e filiis captus est (C»s. 15. (i. I. 26). This occurs especially 
when the verb precedes : Dixit hoc apud vos Zosippua et Ismenias 
(Cic. Verr. IV. 42) ; otherwise, very rarely. 

b. When subjects of the singular and plural (in the third person) 
are connected, and the predicate stands nearest that in the singular, 
the verb may also be put in the singular, provided that this subject 
is made more particularly prominent or considered separately ; 
otherwise, the verb is in the plural ; e.g. : — 

Ad corporum sanationem multum ipsa corpora et natura valet 
(Cic. Tusc. III. 3) . Hoc mini et Peripatetici et vetus Academia 
concedit (Cic. Acad. II. 35). Consulem prodigia atqve eorum 
procuratio Romae tenuerunt (Liv. XXXII. 9). 

Ons. 1. If the subjects are connected by the disjunctive particle aut, 
the predicate is sometimes regulated (both in gender and number) by 
the nearest subject ; sometimes, it is put in the plural : Probarem hoc, 
si Socrates aut Antisthenes diceret (Cic. Tusc. V. 9). Non, si 
qvid Socrates aut Aristippus contra consvetudinem civilem 
fecerunt, idem ceteris licet (Id. Off. I. 41). But with aut — aut 
vel — vel, neqve — neqve, the predicate is almost always regulated by 
the nearest subject : e.g. In hominibus juvandis aut mores spectari 
aut fortuna solet (Cic. Off. II. 20) . Nihil mihi novi neqve M. 
Crassus neqve Cn. Pompejus ad dicendum reliqvit (Cic. pro 
Balbo, 7). The plural occurs very seldom: Nee justitia nee amicitia 
esse omnino poterunt nisi ipsae per se expetantur (Cic. Fin. III. 
21) ; except when the subjects are of different persons ; for then the 
plural is generally employed (according to § 212) : Haec neqve ego 
neqve tu fecimus (Ter.). 

Obs. 2. If the subjects are not connected by conjunctions, but the 
sentence is divided into several clauses by the repetition of a word 
(anaphora), the predicate is found both in the singular (as referring to 
the nearest clause) and (more rarely) in the plural : Nihil libri, nihil 
litterae, nihil doctrina prodest (Cic. ad Att. IX. 10). Qvid ista 
repentina affinitatis conjunctio, qvid ager Campanus, qvid effusio 
pecuniae significant ? (Cic. ad Att. II. 17) . 

§ 214. a. If the subjects connected are of different gender, the 
adjective or participle of the predicate is regulated in gender, pro- 
vided the singular be used (§ 213, a, 2) by the nearest subject ; 

1 Et Q. Maximus et L. Paullus et M. Cato iis temporibus merunt 1 1 
Fam. IV. C), all lived at that time. 


Animus et consilium et sententia civitatis posita est in legibus 
(Cic pro Clucnt. 53). 

b. If* on the contrary, the plural is employed, then the gender in 
the case of living beings is masculine ; Uxor mea et filius mortui 
sunt. The neuter gender is used of things and impersonal ideas: 
Secundae res, honores, imperia, victoriae fortuita sunt (Cic. Off. 
II. G). Tempus et ratio belli administrandi libera praetori per- 
missa sunt (Liv. XXXV. 25). The gender may, however, be 
regulated by the nearest subject, when this is itself in the plural 
(so that the plural of the predicate may be referred to it alone) : 
Visae nocturno tempore faces ardorqve caeli (Cic. in Cat. III. 
8). Brachia modo atqve humeri liberi ab aqva erant (Caes. B. 
G. VII. 50). 

Obs. In case of the combination of living beings (of the male sex) 
With objects devoid of life, either the masculine is employed (when the 
latter have at the same time some reference to living beings) ; Rex 
regiaque classis una profecti (Liv. XXI. 50) ; or the neuter (so that 
the whole is considered as a thing) : Romani regem regnumqve 
Macedoniae sua futura sciunt (Liv. XL. 10), their property '. Natura 
inimica sunt libera civitas et rex (Liv. XLIV. 24), hostile beings. 
If the nearest subject be itself in the plural, the gender may be deter- 
mined by that alone: Patres decrevere, legatos sortesqve oraculi 
Fythici exspectandas (Liv. V. 15) ; and this is always the case when 
the predicate stands first : Missae eo cohortes qvattuor et C. Annius 
praefectus (Sail. Jug. 77). 

c. Even with connected subjects of the same gender, which are not 
living beings, the predicate, when the plural is used, is often in the 
neuter: Ira et avaritia imperio potentiora erant (Liv. XXXVII. 
32). Noz atqve praeda hostes remorata sunt (Sail. Jug. 38). 

d. An adjective which is annexed as an attribute to two or more 
substantives, is regulated by the nearest ; e.g. : — 

Omnes agri et maria ; agri et maria omnia (for the sake of per- 
spicuity, often expressed thus : agri omnes omniaqve maria) . Cae- 
saris omni et gratia et opibus sic fruor ut meis (Cic. ad Fam. I. 9). 

Ous. 1. If adjectives are introduced as a special characteristic in 
apposition, they are treated according to the rule under b ; e.g. labor 
voluptasqve dissimillima natura, societate qvadam inter se juncta 
sunt (Liv. V. 4), things which by nature are very different. (Other- 
wise, very seldom 5 Gallis natura corpora animosqve magna magis 
qvam firma dedit, Liv. V. 44.) 


Obs. 2. If several adjectives are attached to a substantive in mdi | 
way as to suggest the notion of several different things of the mum name, 
the substantive is put either in the singular or plural; but if it be the 
subject, it always takes a plural predicate : Legio Martia qvartaqve 
rempublicam defendunt (Cic. Phil. V. 17) ; prima et vicesima 
legiones (Tac. Ann. I. 31). In the same way, it is alao said of two 
men with a common name: Cn. et P. Scipiones (Cic. pro Balb. 15): 
more rarely, Ti. et C. Gracchus (Sail. Jug. 42) ; but Cn. Scipio et L. 

Ous. 3. (On §§ 212-214). In some few instances it happens that 
regard is paid, in the treatment of the predicate, only to the more remote 
subject as the essential one, to which the nearer is only supplementary ; 
e.g. Ipse meiqve vescor (Hor. S. II. 6, 66). 

§ 215. The nature and character of the subject are sometimes 
more regarded in the predicate than the grammatical form of the 
word employed. 

a. With collective nouns used of living beings, some prose-writers, 
arid the poets occasionally, join a plural predicate of the gender to which 
the individuals belong, but only in the case of substantives which denote 
an undefined number (a crowd, number, heap, part), as pars, vis, 
multitudo: Desectam segetem magna vis hominum immissa in 
pars — pars (some — others), uterqve, the superlative with quisqve, 
agrum fudere in Tiberim (Liv. II. 5). Pars perexigua, duce 
amisso, Romam inermes delati sunt (Liv. II. 14). In this way 
(optimus quisqve), are sometimes used with the plural : e.g. Uterque 
eorum exercitum ex castris educunt (Caes. B. C. III. 30). Delecti 
nobilissimus quisqve (Liv. VII. 19). 

Ons. With substantives which denote an organized whole (exercitus, 
classis, &c), such a plural predicate is only found by a negligence in 
the expression ; e.g. Cetera classis, praetoria nave amissa, qvantum 
qvaeqve remis valuit fugerunt (Liv. XXX V. 26). We must not 
confound with this use of the predicate in the plural, the employment of 
the plural verb in a subordinate proposition, with reference to the indi- 
viduals which are denoted in the leading proposition by a collective 
word : Hie uterqve me intuebatur seseqve ad audiendum signi- 
ficabant paratos (Cic. Fin. II. 1). Idem humano generi evenit, 
qvod in terra collocati sunt (sc. homines) (Id. N. D. II. 6). 

b. If male persons are denoted figuratively by feminine or neuter 
substantives, the predicate is, notwithstanding, sometimes added in the 
natural gender: Capita conjurationis virgis caesi ac securi per- 
cussi sunt (Liv. X. 1) ; so also occasionally with millia : Millia 
triginta servilium capitum dicuntur capti (Liv. XXVII. 16). 

188 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 217 

c. If the names of other persons are connected with a singular subject 
by the proposition cum, the predicate, if it refers to them all, usually 
Stands in the plural, just as if they wore several subjects regularly con- 
nected ; Ipse dux cum aliqvot principibus capiuutur (Liv. XXI. CO). 
If the gender be different, the rule § 214, b, is followed ; Ilia cum Lauso 
de Numitore sati (Ov. Fast. IV. 54). The singular, however, may be 
used when the subjects are not really considered as acting or suffering to- 
gether ; Tu cum Sexto scire velim qvid cogites (Cic. Att. VU. 14). 

§ 216. If the predicate consists of sum, or one of those verbs 
mentioned in § 209, b, and a substantive, the verb is usually gov- 
erned in number and gender by this substantive, if it comes imme- 
diately after it (or after an adjective belonging to it) : — 

Amantium irae amoris integratio est (Ter. Andr. III. 3, 23). 
Hoc crimen nullum est, nisi honos ignominia putanda est (Cic. 
pro Balb. 3). 

Obs. But this is not always the case, especially where sum denotes 
to make up, constitute : e.g. Captivi militum praeda fuerant (Liv. 
XXI. 15) ; or where the number or gender of the subject is essential to 
the meaning of the proposition : e.g Semiramis puer esse credita 
est (Justin I. 2). If the subject is an infinitive, the verb always 
agrees with the substantive in the predicate ; Contentum rebus suis 
esse maximae sunt certissimaeqve divitiae (Cic. Parad. VI. 3). 

§ 217. When an apposition is added to the subject in another 
gender or number, the predicate agrees with its proper subject: — 

Tullia, deliciae nostrae, munusculum tuum flagitat (Cic. ad Att. 
I. 8). 

Only when oppidum (urbs, civitas) is added to plural names of 
towns, the predicate commonly agrees with the former : Corioli oppi- 
dum captum est (Liv. II. 33). Volsinii, oppidum Tuscorum 
opulentissimum, concrematum est fulmine (Piin. H. N. II. 53). 
Also, when a proper name is put after a general or figurative designation, 
the predicate agrees with the proper name ; Duo fulmina nostri im- 
perii subito in Hispania, Cn. et P. Scipiones, exstincti occiderunt 
(Cic. pro Balb. 15). 

Obs. 1. To a plural subject there is often added by apposition a more 
special definition with the words alter — alter, alius — alius, and qvis- 
qve, in the singular : Ambo exercitus, Vejens Tarqviniensisqve, 
suas qvisqve abeunt domos (Liv. II. 7). Decemviri perturbati 
alius in aliam partem castrorum discurrunt (Liv. III. 50). The 
general subject is often left out, and must be inferred from what goes 
before: Cum alius alii subsidium ferrent, audacius resistere 


coeperunt (Cacs. B. G. II. 26), a* the,, hdped our another. Pro se 
qvisqve dextram ejus amplexi grates habebant (Curt. III. 16). 
Sometimes, however, the predicate agrees with won! in apposition: 
Pictores et poetae suum qvisque opus a vulgo considerari vult 
(Cic. Oif. I. 41). His oratoribus duae res maximae altera alteri 
defuit (Cic. Brut. 55). Especially when a division and contrast are 
denoted by alter — alter, or by the special names of the individual sub- 
jects; Duo consules ejus anni, alter morbo, alter ferro periit (Liv 
XLI. 22). 

Obs. 2. When another substantive is connected with the subject by 
qvam (tantum, qvantum) or nisi (in comparisons or exceptions), the 
predicate, if it follows the word so subjoined, often agrees with it : e.g. 
raagis pedes qvam arma Numidas tutata sunt (Sail. Jug. 74). Me 
non tantum litterae qvantum longinqvitas temporis mitigavit 
(Cic. ad Fam. VI. 4). Qvis ilium consulem nisi latrones putant 
(Id. Phil. IV. 4). (This is unusual, if a resemblance only is denoted 
by a word subjoined with ut or tanqvam.) 

§ 218. An impersonal proposition, by which the existence of an 
action or relation is asserted, without being referred, as predicate, 
to any noun for its subject, is formed in Latin as follows : — 

a. By the purely impersonal verbs (enumerated in § 166). 

Obs. 1. Those verbs which denote the weather, especially tonat, 
fulgurat, fulminat, are also predicated personally of the god (Jupiter), 
who is conceived of as the author of the tempest, as well as figuratively 
of others ; e.g. tonare, of orators. (Dies illucescit.) 

Obs. 2. With the verbs libet, licet, piget, pudet, poenitet, taedet, 
we sometimes find a neuter pronoun in the singular used as a subject, to 
point out what produces the feeling expressed by the verb : e.g. sapi- 
entis est proprium nihil, qvod poenitere possit, facere (Cic. Tusc. 
V. 28). Non, qvod qvisqve potest, ei licet (Id. Phil. XIII. (>). 
(Occasionally even in the plural : Non te haec pudent? Ter. Ad. IV. 
7, 36. In servum omnia licent, Senec. de Clem. I. 18.) With 
these exceptions, what produces the feeling is expressed by the addition 
of a case (the genitive, see § 292), by the infinitive, the accusative with 
the infinitive, a proposition with quod, or by an indirect question ; each 
of which supplies the place of a subject, but is not the grammatical sub- 

Obs. 3. On the way in which the person is expressed with miseret, 
&c, see § 226; with libet, licet, § 244, a. The gerund of pudet and 
poenitet is occasionally used as if from a personal verb, signifying, 1 am 
ashamed, I repent : e.g. Non pudendo, sed non faciendo id, qvod 
non decet, impudentiae nomen fugere debemus (Cic. Or. I. 20). 

190 LATIN GRAMMAR. §218 

Voluptas saepius relinqvit causam poenitendi qvam recordandi 
(Id. Fin. II. 32) . But it never governs a case. 

b. Bv several verbs, which are used in this way in a certain sig- 
nification, but are personal in others: e.g. accidit, evenit, contin- 
git, it happens : constat (inter omnes), it is agreed ; apparet, it is 
evident, &C 1 (These verbs are followed by an infinitive or a sub- 
ordinate proposition, to which the assertion refers.) 

Obs. In this class we may place est with an adverb, without a sub- 
ject. See § 209, b, Obs. 2. 

c. By the passive of intransitive verbs (or of transitives, which 
are used intransitively in a certain signification), by which it is 
simply asserted that the action takes place : Hie bene dormitnr. 
Ventum erat ad urbem. Invidetnr potentibns (see § 244, b). 
Nunc est bibendum. Dubitari de fide tua audio. (Concerning 
the participle and gerundive, see § 97.) 

Obs. The idiomatic frequency of impersonal expressions in Latin 
may be avoided in English in various ways, particularly by the use of the 
indefinite they and one : e.g. one sleeps well here ; I hear that they doubt 
your honor ; they had come to the city ; and, the powerful are envied ,- 
now we must drink. Where the posture of affairs is to be expressed in 
a general way, res is sometimes used for the subject : Haud procul 
seditione res erat (Liv. VI. 16) ; res ad bellum spectabat, ad inter- 
regnum rediit (Liv. II. 56). 

d. By the verb est with a neuter adjective, followed by an infini- 
tive or a subordinate proposition : e.g. turpe est, divitias praeferri 
virtuti. Incertum est, qvo tempore mors ventura sit. 

Obs. 1. In this case, the infinitive or the subordinate sentence may be 
considered as the subject. 

Obs. 2. An impersonal proposition is also formed by the third person 
of the verbs possum, soleo, coepi, desino (coeptum est, desitum 
est), and the infinitive of an impersonal verb or an infinitive passive 
(acording to c) : Solet Dionysium, qvum aliqvid furiose fecit 
poenitere (Cic. ad Att. VIII. 5). Potest dubitari. Desitum est 
turbari (Liv. V. 17). 

1 Accedit, attinet, conducit, convenit, expedit, fallit (fugit, praeterit me), 
interest, liqvet, patet, placet, praestat, restat, racat, and a few others. 



the relations op substantives in tiie proposition; tiie 
cases; the nominative and accusative. 

§ 219. The relation in which a substantive, or a word used as 
a substantive (pronoun, adjective, participle), stands to the other 
parts of a proposition, is denoted by its Case (sometimes with the 
help of a preposition). 

Substantives standing in the same relation stand also in the same 
case ; viz. : — 

a. The word which has another in apposition with it, and the word in 
apposition: Hie liber est Titi, fratris tui; Tito, fratri tuo, viro 
optimo, librum dedi. 

b. Words which are connected by conjunctions, or by enumeration, 
or division and antithesis ; e.g. Gajus laudis, Titus lucri cupidus est. 

c. The word with which a question is put, and that with which the an- 
swer is given (if in the answer there is only the name of the person or 
thing in question): e.g. Qvis hoc fecit? Titus (sc. fecit). Cujus 
haec domus est? Titi et Gaji, fratrum meorum. Cui librum 
dedisti ? Tito, fratri tuo. 

Obs. 1. If a word in the accusative, dative, ablative, or genitive, be 
subjoined to another word, in order to complete and define its meaning, 
we say that the former is governed by the latter (as its object) . If a word 
generally takes other words in a particular case, — e.g. the dative, — in 
order to define it, we say that it is constructed with, or governs this 
case. Since the construction depends on the signification of the govern- 
ing word, and this occasionally varies, the same word may be differently 
constructed, according to its different significations. 

Obs. 2. If a word in a certain signification may be constructed with two 
different cases, — e.g. similis rei alicujus, and rei alicui, — Ave some- 
times, but rarely, find the two constructions in the same sentence united 
by a conjunction, or in antithesis : Stoici plectri similem lingvam 
solent dicere, chordarum dentes, nares cornibus iis, qvae ad ner- 
vos resonant in cantibus (Cic. N. D. II. 59). (Adhibenda est 
qvaedam reverentia adversus homines, et optimi cujusqve et reli- 
qvorum, Cic. Off. I. 28.) 

Obs. 3. The introduction of dico, / mean, does not affect the con- 
struction of a word in apposition : Qvam hesternus dies nobis, con- 
sularibus dico, turpis illuxit! (Cic. Phil. VIII. 7.) 

102 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 221 

Obs. 4. When words are cited simply as words (materialiter, no regard 
being had to the idea which they express), they are, notwithstanding, 
when they admit of inflection, generally put in Latin in that case which 
the governing verb calls for, especially with the prepositions ab and pro: 
Burrum semper Ennius dicit, nunqvam Pyrrhum (Cic. Or. 48). 
Navigare ducitur a navi (amor ab amando, in the gerund) . Pau- 
peries dicitur pro paupertate. Except when a direct reference is made 
to some particular form ; e.g. ab Terentius fit Terenti, from the nomi- 
native Terentius comes the vocative Terenti. 

§ 220. In regard to apposition, it is to be observed, that in Latin 
it often denotes, not the character of the person or thing in general, 
but the condition in which the person or thing is during the time 
implied in the sentence: — 

Cicero praetor legem Maniliam suasit, consul conjurationem 
Catilinae oppressit (as prcetor, as consul, — when he was proctor, when 
he was consul). Cato senex scribere historiam instituit (as an old 
man, in advanced life). Hie liber mini puero valde placuit (when I 
was a boy). Hunc qvemadmodum victorem feremus, qvem ne 
victum qvidem ferre possumus -(in case he should be victorious) ? 
Asia Scipioni provincia obtigit. Adjutor tibi venio. (Compare 
§ 227.) In this way, it is said: ante Ciceronem consulem (before 
Cicero as consul, before the consulship of Cicero). 

Obs. 1. In such cases, numeral adverbs may be added, to denote a 
repetition of the same relation ; e.g. Pompejus tertium consul judicia 
ordinavit (when he was consul for the third time, in his third consul- 

Obs. 2. Apposition does not denote a quality which is merely pre- 
sumed or imputed (e.g. he was taken up as a thief), which must be 
expressed by tanqvam, qvasi, or ut; nor yet a comparison, which is 
denoted by ut, sic — ut, tanqvam ; sic eos tractat, ut fures. Cicero 
ea, qvae nunc usu veniunt, cecinit ut vates (Corn. Att. 16), like a 

Obs. 3. Sometimes a word is put in apposition to a single word, which 
is the object of an active or the subject of a passive proposition, al- 
though, according to the sense, it belongs to the whole sentence, or to the 
predicate of it: e.g. Admoneor, ut aliqvid etiam de sepultura di- 
cendum existimem; rem non difficilem (Cic. Tusc. I. 43), which is 
no difficult matter. 

§ 221. The subject of a proposition and the predicate noun with 
sum, or fio, evado, maneo, or with a passive verb of incomplete 
signification, is put in the nominative. 


Caesar fuit magnns imperator. T. Albucius perfectus Epicureua 
evaserat (Oic. Brut. 35). ' 

The passives of verbs of naming, creating, accounting (see 3 227), 
which, to complete their signification, require the addition of words which 

shall show how the subject is named or accounted, or what it La created 
arc followed simply by those required words in the nominative: Nurua 
creatus est rex. Aristi&es habitus est justissimus. 

§ 222. The Accusative in itself only denotes that a word U not 
the subject; but further than this, like the nominative, it specifies 
no particular relation. The Object of transitive verbs, or the pi 
or thing to which the action of the subject is directly applied, is put 
in the accusative : Caesar vicit Pompejum ; teneo librum. The 
object may be turned into the subject, and the same verb predicated 
of it in the passive; in which case the agent (which in the active 
proposition was the subject) is subjoined with a or ab : Pompejus 
a Caesare victus est ; liber a me tenetur. 

Obs. 1. (On §§ 221 and 222). What is predicated of the subject as 
an action, may be predicated of the object as suffering, so that this takes 
the place of the subject. The accusative is the original word, unlimited 
and unrelated. In the masculine and feminine, a peculiar form — the 
nominative — has been devised, in order to denote the word as a 
subject (or a predicate noun) ; but, in the neuter, the accusative and 
nominative are identical. The accusative, therefore (as an absolute 
form of the noun introduced), is in the most simple way to define and 
complete the predicate expressed in the verb. In the indefinite infini- 
tive expression, where the connection between the subject and predicate 
is not of itself asserted, the subject and the predicate noun stand in the 
accusative : e.g. hominem currere, that a man runs ; esse dominuni, 
to be lord. See § 394, and § 388, 6. 

Obs. 2. In the case of some verbs, which maybe limited in the active, 
by means of the preposition ab, — e.g. postulare aliqvid ab aliqvo, — 
it may sometimes be doubtful, in the passive, whether ab has the same 
signification as with the active verb, or whether it denotes the agent; e.g. 
postulatur a me may signify either, others demand of me, or, / de- 

Obs. 3. With reference to the use of the passive, it is to be observed, 
that it is often employed in Latin, where, in English, an active; transitive 
is used, with the reflective pronoun expressed or understood, because the 
action is conceived of, not so much as proceeding from the subject as some- 

1 Evado denotes a result which is produced or attained after a considerable time. 


194 LATIN GRAMMAR. §223 

thing directed towards it : e.g. commendari, to recommend one^s self; 
cougregari, to assemble (themselves) ; contralii, to contract (itself) ; 
delectari, to delight (one's self); effuudi, to pour out; diffundi, to 
spread ; lavari, to icash ; moveri, to more ; niutari, to change ; porrigi, 
to reach. But this depends as much on the way in which the action is 
contemplated by the speaker, as on any usage affecting the several verbs. 
Sometimes, the passive, in Latin, has a peculiar .signification, which a 
mere literal translation would not adequately express : as, tondeor, to 
get shaved ; cogor, to see one's self obliged, &c. 

Obs. 4. Some few verbs occasionally lay aside their transitive charac- 
ter, and are used in the active, with a reflective signification ; e.g. duro, 
inclino, insinuo, muto, remitto, verto. In other instances, an object 
is omitted, which may easily be supplied from the context, and the verb 
used as intransitive in a special signification ; e.g. solvere, appellere 
(uavem), movere (castra), ducere in hostexn (exercitum). These 
and similar examples may be found in the dictionary. 

§ 223. a. "Whether a verb is transitive, depends on the question 
whether it signifies at the same time both a direct activity of some- 
thing, and a direct working or operating upon something. (Of those 
verbs, which in Latin only suggest the idea of an action in reference 
to an object, which in such cases follows in the dative, we shall speak 
when we treat of the dative case.) 

b. Many Latin verbs are in their conception fundamentally dis- 
tinct from the English verbs by which they are commonly trans- 
lated, and they have therefore a different construction ; e.g. : — 

Paro bellum (7 prepare for war ; properly, I prepare war) ; peto 
aliqvid ab aliqvo (I ask a person for something ; properly, I seek to get 
a thing from a person) ; qvaero ex (ab or de) aliqvo, qvaero causam 
(I ask some one, inquire after the reason) ; consolor aliqvem, but also 
consolor alicujus dolorem (I console some one in his distress) ; excuso 
tarditatem litterarum, / apologize for my tardiness in writing (or 
me de tarditate litterarum) ; but also excuso morbum, I plead illness 
as my excuse. 

Obs. Many verbs have different significations, so that in one they are 
transitive and govern the accusative, while in another they are differently 
constructed : as, consulo aliqvem, I consult some one ; consulo ali- 
cui,' I have a regard to some one's interest ; consulo in aliqvem, I treat 
some one, e.g. crudeliter; animadverto aliqvid, I observe something ; 
animad verto in aliqvem, I punish some one, 

1 Si qvi earire volunt, consulere sibi possunt (Cic. in Cat. II. 27). 


c. Many verbs that are properly intransitive sometime 
a transitive signification: e.g. several, which denote a .Mate of mind, 
or its expression as occasioned by something; as, — 

Doleo, i" am pained; lugeo, / mourn; doleo, lugeo, aliqvid, / 
lament something; horreo, / tremble, shudder; horrco aliqvid, / 
am alarmed at something; miror, qveror, aliqvid, / wonder at com- 
plain of something ; gemo, lacrimo, lamentor, fleo, ploro aliqvid, / 
weep for something; rideo aliqvid, I laugh at .something; so likewise 
maneo (te triste manet supplicium, awaits thee, Virg.), 1 crepo (< ,g, 
militiam, to be always talking of) ; depereo aliqvem, to be in love with 
one; navigo mare, I navigate the sea; salto Turnum, / dance Turnui 
(represent him by dancing) ; erumpo stomachum in aliqvem (pour 
out my bile) . 

These peculiarities of different verbs must be learned by practice, 
and from the dictionary. The poets have used several verbs transitively, 
which are never so used in prose. 2 

Obs. 1. The passive, however, in prose is used only of a few such verbs 
as have clearly assumed a transitive meaning. We say, rideor, / am 
laughed at ; but doleo, horreo, never have the passive, except in the 
gerundive, horrendus, horrible. 

Obs. 2. We must particularly notice the accusative with olere, redo- 
lere, to smell of, i.e. to have the smell of; sapere, resipere, to have the 
taste of; e.g. olere vinum, to smell of wine. In the same way, it is 
said, sitire sangvinem; anhelare scelus (to breathe out wickedness) ; 
spirare tribunatum (to have one^s mind full of the tribuneship) ; vox 
hominem sonat (sounds like that of a man. Never in the passive) . 

Obs. 3. The poets often go very far in giving intransitive verbs a 
transitive signification : e.g. in expressions like resonare lucos cantu 
(Virg.), to make the groves re-echo with song ; instabaiit Marti currum 
(Virg.), they labored diligently at a car; stillare rorem ex oculis 
(Hor.), manare poetica mella (Id.), to drop, let flow. They also form 
a passive from such expressions: e.g. triumphatae gentes (Virg., in 
prose triumphare de hoste) ; nox vigilata (Ov.). 8 

Obs. 4. The accusative of a substantive of the same stem, or at least 
of corresponding signification, may stand with verbs which are otherwise: 
not used transitively, usually with the addition of an adjective or pro- 
noun : e.g. vitam tutiorem vivere, justam servitutem servire, insan- 
ire similem errorem (Hor.). Ego patres vestros vivere arbitror, 

1 Manere, however, is also constructed with the dative, to remain to a person. So like- 
wise, res aliqvem latet, and less frequently, alicui. 
2 Mediasqve fraudes 
Palluit audax (Hor. Od. III. 27. 27). 
3 Begnata Laconi rura Phalanto (Hor. Od. II. G12). 

1 9 J LATIN GRAMMAR. § 224 

et earn qvidem vitam qvae est sola vita nominanda (Cic. Cat. M. 
21). Hence, in the passive, hac pugua pugnata (Corn. Hann. 5), when 
flu's bailie was fought. (Nunc tertia vivitur aetas, Ov. Met. XII. 


§ 224. It is particularly to be observed, that several verbs, which 
denote a motion through space, when compounded with prepositions, 
acquire a transitive signification, and are constructed with the accu- 
sative. Such verbs are the following : — 

a. Those compounded.with the prepositions, circum, per, praeter, 
trans, super, subter ; as, circumeo, circumvenio, circumvehor, 
percurro, pervagor, praetergredior, praetervehor, praetervolo, 
transeo, transilio, transno, supergredior, subterfugio, subterlabor ; 
e.g. locum periculosum praetervehor. 

Obs. 1. So also praecedo, praegredior, praefluo (flow by), praeve- 
nio (praecurro, with the ace. and dat.) ; obeo (regionem, negotia), 
with obambulo, obeqvito, oberro, with the signification, to icalk, ride, 
rove through, or over (but with the dative, signifying, before or against, 
obequitare portae) ; usually subeo (tectum, montem, nomen exulis ; 
subire ad muros, to draw near beneath the walls, poet, subire portae ; 
subit animo mini, it occurs to me). In the case of the others com- 
pounded with ob and sub, the reference to a thing is expressed by the 
dative. See § 245. 

Obs. 2. The accusative stands also with verbs compounded with 
circum, which denote a voice or sound ; circumfremo, circumlatro, 
circumsbno, circumstrepo. 

Obs. 3. Supervenio, to come upon, after, to, is constructed with the 

b. Various verbs, which, from being compounded with ad, con, or in, 
acquire a derived and altered meaning ; as, adeo, to visit, apply to some 
one (colonias, deos, libros, Sibyllinos), to enter upon (hereditatem) ; 
aggredior, adorior, to attack ; convenio, to meet a person (in order 
to speak with him) ; coeo, to enter upon (societatem) ; ineo, to enter, 
form, enter on, tread (societatem, consilia, rationem, magistratum, 
fines). Both these and the verbs adduced under a are used also in 
the passive as complete transitives : Flumen transitur ; hostis cir- 
cumventus ; societas inita est. 

Obs. 1. Adeo ad aliqvem, I go to some one; accedo ad aliqvem. 
(Compare § 245, a, with Obs. 2.) 

Obs. 2. Insidere locum, to take j)ossession of a place, to settle there 
(insidere locum, to keep possession of it) ; insidere in animo, to im- 
press itself on the mind ; insistere viam, iter, pursue, enter upon ; 
insistere loco (dat.) and in loco, to stand in a place. Ingredior and 


invado arc constructed both with the simple aoettMtfa and with the 
preposition repeated (ingredi urbem and in urbem; ingredi iter, 
magistratum, to enter upon; invadere in hostem, ( ic. ; hostis m- 
vaditur, Sail.) ; usually irrumpo ill urbem, insilio in eqvum, but 
also irrumpo urbem, insilio eqvum (not in the passive). Incessit 
(from incedo; see § 138) timor patres and cura patribus (dat.). 
Other verbs with in (e.g. incido, incurro, involo, innato) are used 
only rarely and poetieally with the accusative instead of with in or the 

c. Excedo, egredior, to overstep ; e.g. fines. 

Obs. In the signification to go out, these verbs are mostly constructed 
with ex, as also commonly elabor ; evado, to slip from, escape. Con- 
cerning excedo, egredior, with the simple ablative, see. § 262. (The 
passive of excedo and evado is not used. Exeo, with the accus., — 
e.g. modum, — is poetical.) 

d. Antevenio, to be beforehand with ; antegredior, to go before. 
The verbs antecedo, anteeo, antecello, praesto, to excel, are con- 
structed both with the dative and the accusative, but most frequently 
with the former (not in the passive) . 

^)bs. Excello is used with the dative (excellere ceteris), or without 
a case (inter omnes) . 

§ 225. Those verbs which denote presence in a place (jaceo, 
sedeo, sto) govern the accusative when they are compounded with 
circum ; Multa me pericula circumstant. (Concerning the com- 
pounds with ad, see § 245, Obs. 2.) 

Obs. We must separately notice obsideo (with its signification 
entirely changed; to besiege). Of other compound verbs, which convey 
no idea of space, and yet become transitive by composition, we may 
notice allatro, alloqvor, impugno, oppugno, and expugno. (Attendo 
aliqvid ; e.g. versum, and aliqvem, attendo animum ad aliqvid, 
praeeo verba, carmen.) 

§ 226. With the impersonal verbs piget, pudet, poenitet, taedet 
(pertaesum est), miseret, the name of the person whose mind is 
affected stands as an object in the accusative (but that which ex- 
cites the emotion, in the genitive) : e.g. pudet regem facti ; miseret 
nos hominis; solet vos beneficiorum poenitere. In the same 
way decet, it beseems, becomes, and dedecet, govern the accusative ; 
e.g. Oratorem irasci minime decet. 

Obs. Transitive verbs which are used impersonally retain the accusa- 
tive; e.g. non me fallit (fugit, praeterit), it docs not t&capt my 


198 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 227 

§ '227. Some verbs, which do not in themselves denote a com- 
plete action, take, besides the object itself, the accusative of a sub- 
stantive or adjective, which constitutes a predicate of the object, 
and serves to complete the notion of the verb. (Strictly speaking, 
this accusative forms an apposition to the object.) In the passive, 
these verbs are used as incomplete with the predicate noun in the 
nominative, according to § 209. Such verbs are the following : — 

a. Those verbs which denote to make (to choose, nominate), to have 
or appoint (to give, take, assume, &c), as facio, efficio, reddo, creo, 
eligo, declaro, designo, renuntio, dico, &c, do, sumo, capio, in- 
stituo, &c. That into which a thing is made, &c, is subjoined to these 
verbs in the accusative : Avaritia homines caecos reddit. 1 Meso- 
potamiam fertilem efficit Euphrates (Cic. N. D. II. 52). Scipio 
P. Rupilium potuit consulem efficere (Id. Lael. 20). Populus 
Romanus Numam regem creavit (jussit, Liv.). Ciceronem una 
voce universus populus Romanus consulem declaravit (Cic. de 
Leg. Agr. II. 2). Appius Claudius libertinorum filios senatores 
legit. Cato Valerium Flaccum in consulatu collegam habuit. 
Tiberius Druso Sejanum dedit adjutorem. Augustus Tiberium 
filium et consortem potestatis ascivit. 

b. Those verbs which signify to show one's self as something, to find a 
thing of a certain character: e.g. Praesta te virum (Cic). Rex se 
clementem praebebit. Cognosces me tuae dignitatis fautorem 
(in me you will find one who will promote your dignity'). 

c. Those verbs which signify to name and to look upon or esteem 
(to hold, reckon, declare), (appello, voco, nomino, dico, saluto, &c, 
inscribo, to entitle; habeo, duco, existimo, numero, judico, and 
sometimes puto) : Summum consilium reipublicae Romani appel- 
larunt senatum. Cicero librum aliqvem Laelium inscripsit. 
Senatus Antonium hostem judicavit. Te judicem aeqvum puto 
(Cic). Quid intelligit Epicurus honestum? What does Epicurus 
conceive of as virtue ? What does he understand by virtue ? (Cic. de Fin. 
II. 15). 

Obs. 1. Habeo and existimo are used in this signification mostly in 
the passive: Aristides habitus est justissimus ; nolo existimari 
impudens. We also find habere aliqvem pro hoste (to treat him as 
an enemy) ; pro nihilo putare ; in hostium numero habere ; parentis 
loco (in loco) habere (ducere) aliqvem. 

1 Reddo is especially used with adjectives ; but not in the passive, where fieri alone is 


Obs. 2. Puto, existimo, judico, duco, io think, bdiev4, hold (thai ■ 

thing is so and so), are followed by an infinitive proposition. Credor, 
used in the way here mentioned (to be looked upon at sunn thing), is 
poetical; credor sangvinis auctor (Ovid). 

Ons. 3. If several objects, differing in gender or number, are com- 
bined with one of these verbs, the predicate noun, if it be an adjective <>v 
participle, is regulated according to the rulea given in §§ 213 and 214. 

Obs. 4. A predicate noun may also be subjoined to the pa 
participle of these verbs : e.g. Marius hostis judicatus, Marius who 
was declared an enemy; and (although rarely) in other eases betides the 
nominative and accusative, e.g. in the ablative : Filio suo magistro 
eqvitum creato (Liv. IV. 4G), when he had named his son mag. eqv. 
Consiilibus certioribus factis (Liv. XLV. 21, from certiorem facio, 
to apprise); and in the dative: Remisit tamen Octavianus Antonio 
hosti judicato amicos omnes (Svet. Oct. 17). 

§ 228. Some few words, all of which have for their object a 
person (or something considered as a person), may take another 
accusative, to denote a more remote object of the action ; viz. : — 

a. Doceo, to teach one a thing ; edoceo, to inform, acquaint villi ; 
dedoceo, to cause one to unlearn a thing (make one break off) ; celo, to 
keep one in ignorance of & thing (conceal) : e.g. docere aliqvem litteras. 
Non celavi te sermonem homiirum (Cic). But we find also the 
construction, docere aliqvem de aliqva re, signifying to acquaint with 
something ; and celare aliqvem de aliqva re. 

Obs. In the passive, the accusative may be retained with doceo 
(doceri motus Ionicos, Hor. ; L. Marcius sub Cn. Scipione omnes 
militiae artes edoctus fuerat, Liv.), especially with the participle 
(doctus iter melius, Hor. ; edoctus iter nostrum, Tac.) ; but the 
more usual expression is discere aliqvid (doceri de aliqva re, to be 
informed). (Also, doctus Graecis litteris, skilled in Greek; doceo 
aliqvem Graece loqvi ; Graece loqvi docendus.) The accusative 
of a neuter pronoun may stand with celor (e.g. Hoc nos celatos non 
oportuit, Ter. Hec. IV. 4, 23) ; otherwise, it is expressed celor de re 
aliqva. 1 

b. Posco (reposco); flagito, to demand something from one; oro, 
to pray for something; rogo, to ask; interrogo (percontor), to ask 
one about a thing : Verres parentes pretium pro sepultura liberum 

1 Docere aliqvem Latine, Graece (scire, nescire, oblivisci Latine, Grae- 
ce); docere aliqvem fidibus(*o teach one to play on a stringed instrument). With a 
simple accusative of the thing in the signification to lecture on, trado (philosophiam 
trado) is used in preference to doceo. 



poscebat (Cic. Veir. I. o). Caesar frumentum Aeduos flagitabat 
(Caes. B. (J. I. 16). Achaei regem auxilia orabant (Liv. XXYI1I. 
5). Tribunus me primum sententiam rogavit (Cic. ad Q. Fr. II. 1). 
Socrates pusioueiu geometrica qvaedam interrogat (Cic. Tusc. I. 
24). Hence, in the passive, interrogatus sententiam (and in the 
. poscor aliqvid, something is desired of me). 

Obs. 1. We may also say posco, flagito aliqvid ab aliqvo (as we 
always find peto, postulo aliqvid ab aliqvo). (Precor deos, ut.) 
Rogo and oro are also put merely with the name of the thing wished 
for ; rogare ausdlium, pacem orare. These verbs have espeeially 
two accusatives, when the object desired is expressed by the neuter of a 
pronoun (e.g. hoc te oro ; qvod me rogas), or of a numeral adjective 
(unum, multa te rogo, see § 224). The same holds of rogo; inter- 
rogo, to ask about ; they have a substantive as the accusative of the 
thing only when they mean to call upon a person to say something: 
e.g. sententiam, testimonium ; with this exception, interrogo de 
re aliqva. Percontor is rarely used in this way. (Si qvis meum te 
percontabitur aevum, Hor. Ep. I. 20, 26), commonly percontor 
aliqvem, to examine a person, or percontor aliqvid ex aliqvo. 

Obs. 2. Here Ave may also notice the expression, velle aliqvem 
aliqvid, to want a thing from a person ; e.g. qvid me vis? 

§ 229. 1. The accus. neuter of a pronoun (id, hoc, illud, idem, 
qvod, qvid, aliud, alterum, aliqvid, qvidpiam, qvidqvam, qvid- 
qvid, nihil, utrurnqve) or of a numeral adjective (unum, multa, 
pauca), is sometimes subjoined to intransitive verbs, to denote, not 
the proper object, but the compass and extent of the action (in gen- 
eral). This is done — 

a. In particular with several verbs which denote a state of mind and 
its expression ; e.g. laetor, glorior, irascor, succenseo, assentior, 
dubito, studeo. A more accurate definition is often annexed to the 
pronoun by an additional clause. (The pronoun belongs properly to 
the substantive notion contained in the verb itself; e.g. hoc glorior =: 
haec est gloriatio mea. If the object of the verb is to be expressed by 
a substantive, another case, or a preposition, must be employed : e.g. 
victoria glorior, de plerisqve rebus tibi assentior.) Vellem idem 
posse gloriari, qvod Cyrus (Cic. Cat. M. 10), strictly, to boast the 
same thing ; i.e. of the same thing. Utnimqve laetor, et sine dolore 
corporis te fuisse et animo valuisse (Cic. ad Fam. VII. 1). Al- 
terum fortasse dubitabunt, sitne tanta vis in virtute, alterum non 
dubitabunt, qvin Stoici convenientia sibi dicant (Cic. Finn. V. 
28). Ulud vereor, ne tibi Dejotarum succensere aliqvid suspicere 


(Cic. pro Dej. 18), that he entertains some grudge. Omnes nra] 
eadem student (Tor. Hoc. II. 1, 2), have the same inclinati 

b. Likewise, with oilier verbs, which may require, to complete their 

notion, a similar definition of measure and extent : Qvid prodest 
mentiri? Hoc tamen profeci. Ea, qvae locuti Bumus (different 
from de qvibus locuti sumus). Si remittent qvidpiam dolores 
(Ter. Hoc. III. 2, 14). Si qvid adolescens offenderit, sibi totum, 
tibi nihil offenderit (Cic. ad Fam. II. 18), if he commit* a fault, he 
will have to bear all the consequences, and not you. Calliatratus in 
oratione sua multa invectus est in Thebanos (Corn. Epam. 'J), 
heaped many reproaches on the Thebuns. 

Obs. 1. Hence in the passive, si qvid offensum est, instead of the 
purely impersonal, si offensum est. Hoc pugnatur (Cic. 
Am. 3), this is the object of the contest. 

Obs. 2. With the phrase auctor sum (/ advise, assure), we some- 
times find a neuter pronoun in the singular, as with a transitive verb ; e.g. 
Consilium petis, qvid tibi aim auctor (Cic. ad Fam. VI. 8. Else- 
where, cujus rei). 

.2. This method of limiting an action occurs sometimes, also, with transi- 
tive verbs which have an accusative of the proper object : Qvidqvid 
ab urbe longius arma profertis, magis magisqve in imbelles 
gentes proditis (Liv. VII. 32). Nos aliqvid Rutulos juvimus 
(Virg. iEn. X. 84). This is found especially with verbs of teaming or 
exhorting: moneo, admoneo, commoneo, hortor; also with cogo. 
Discipulos id num moneo, ut praeceptor es non minus qvam ipsa, 
studia ament (Quint. II. 9, 1). Metellus pauca milites hortatus, 
est (Sail. Jug. 49). Qvid non mortalia pectora cogis, auri sacra 
fames ? (Virg. iEn. III. 56). This accusative is found with the passive 
also; Non audimus ea, qvae ab natura monemur (Cic. Lei. 24), 
If a neuter pronoun is not used, we find, e.g., admoneo aliqvem rei, 
(§ 291), or de re. But in a very few cases we find the accusative of a sub- 
stantive, instead of de ; Earn rem nos locus admonuit (Sail. Jug. 7U)- 

§ 230. The accusative is employed with the prepositions given in 
§ 172, II. With regard to those prepositions which, according to 
the different relations they express, may be employed with the accu- 
sative or the ablative, the following observations may be useful. 

In. a. In has the accusative when it denotes a motion to or into, or a 
direction towards a thing, and in the kindred although not literal Molli- 
fications derived from these, and denoting a state of mind, action towards, 
and in reference to something, activity in a certain direction, and with a 
certain object. Proficisci in Graeciam, in carcerem conjicere, in civi- 
tatem recipere ; advenire in provinciam, convenire, congregari, 
concurrere, exercitum contrahere in locum abqvem (and heme 

202 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 230 

congregari aliqvo, eo, not alicubi, ibi) ; tres pedes habere in longi- 
tudinem, in latitudinem ; dicere in aliqvem, amor in patriam, me- 
rita in rempublicam ; accipere in bonam partem (in good part) ; in 
speciem (for appearance's sake); mutari in saxuni; consistere in 
orbem (into a circle, so as to make a circle) ; in majus celebrare (so as 
to exaggerate) ; grata lex in vulgus (in its effect on the lower classes) ; 
multa dixi in earn sententiam (to this purport) ; in eas leges (on those 
conditions, so that the conditions were such) ; in tres annos (for three 
years) ; in omne tempus, in perpetuum ; in dies singulos crescere, 
for every dag, daily (in dies, day by day ; in horas, hourly) ; dividere 
(distribuere, &c), in tres partes, into three parts. 1 

b. In has the ablative when it denotes the being or happening in a 
thing or at a place, and in the significations derived from these (on, with 
a thing, among, during an action, &c.) ; in urbe esse, in ripa sedere 
(considere) ; in flumine navigare, in campo currere ; vas in mensa 
ponere ; in Socrate (in Socrates, in the person of Socrates) ; in opere 
(in the workman's hands). 

Obs. 1. Sometimes in stands with the ablative of a person, in order to 
distinguish it as the object on which something is practised, in reference 
to which something takes place : Hoc facere in eo nomine consve- 
runt, cujus orationem approbant (Caes. B. G. VII. 21). Achilles 
non talis in hoste fuit Priamo (Virg. iEn. II. 540), did not conduct 
himself thus toward (in reference to) him. Hoc dici in servo potest 
(of a slave).' 2 (Poetically, ardere in aliqva, to be enamoured of a 

Oi5S. 2. In some few expressions, in, joined to esse and habere, is 
occasionally (but only by way of exception) followed by an accusative 
sing, instead of an ablative : e.g. habere in potestatem ; in amicitiam 
dicionemqve populi Romani esse. 3 

Obs. 3. Although pono, loco, colloco, statuo, constituo, have in 
with the ablative (collocare aliqvid in mensa), yet we say imponere in 
currum, in naves (in a carriage, to lade the ships), and sometimes 
exponere milites in terram (to land) : but otherwise, imposuistis in 
cervicibus, nostris dominum; imponere praesidium arci, dative, 
see § 243). (Reponere pecuniam in thesauris, and in thesauros, to 
put it in the treasury.) 

1 In spem futurae multitudinis urbem munire (Liv. I. 8), with, reference to the 
hope, so as to connect with it the hope. 

2 The relation expressed by the preposition in these sentences is better given by the phrase 
in the case of; in eo nomine, in the case of that man ; in Priamo, in the case of Priam ; 
in servo, in the case of a slave. (T.) 

3 This originated in an inaccuracy of the pronunciation, where the distinction between the 
accusative and ablative rested on the single letter m ; on the other hand, we never find such 
phrases as in imperium esse, or in vincla habere. 


Obs. 4. With certain verbs, the osage varies, in tome 
in with the accusative, and iu with the ablative, with .scum- slight differ- 
ence of meaning. Thus, we find includere aliqvem in carcerem, 
orationem in epistolam (to bring info), and includere aliqvem in 
carcere (to shut up) ; also simply includere carcere (.see § 263) and 
includere aliqvid orationi suae (see, under the dative, § 243) ; so 
also condere aliqvem in carcerem (in vincula), to throw into prison, 
but condere aliqvid in visceribus (Cic), incidere aliqvid in aes 
(to cut a thing in brass), in tabula (on a tablet), and incidere nomen 
saxis (dat., see § 243) ; imprimere, insculpere aliqvid in animis, in 
cera and cerae. Wc find abdere se in aliqvem locum (in intimam 
Macedonian!, Cic), to go to a place for the purpose of concealment 
(henee also abdere se domum, Arpinum, according to § 232, eo, ali- 
qvo), but abdere milites in insidiis, abditus in tabernaculo. 

Sub. a. Sub takes the accusative when it denotes motion and direc- 
tion ; e.g. sub scalas se conjicere, venire sub oculos, cadere sub 
sensum; also of time, when it denotes towards, immediately after, at 
about : sub noctem, sub adventum Romanorum, sub dies festos 
(immediately after the holidays) ; sub idem tempus. 1 

b. Sub has the ablative when it denotes the being under a thing ; sub 
mensa, esse sub oculis. (Rarely when applied to time ; sub ipsa pro- 
fee tione, during the very time of.) 

Super has the ablative, in prose, only when it signifies concern i n ;/ : 
Hac super re scribain ad te postea (Cic. ad Att. XVI. G) ; with this 
exception, it takes the accusative. (In the poets, we also find super foco, 
on the hearth, &c.) 

Subter (under, on the under side of) usually has the accusative, very 
rarely the ablative, and that only in the poets ; e.g. subter prae- 

Obs. 1. The compound adverbs, pridie and postridie, are also, to a 
certain extent, used as prepositions with the accusative, but in good 
writers only with the days of the month, and the names of festivals 
(pridie Idus, postridie Nonas, postridie ludos Apollinares) ; with 
the genitive usually only in the expression, pridie, postridie ejus diei. 
For a peculiar use of the preposition ante (in ante, ex ante), see the 
section on the Calendar, in the Appendix. 

Obs. 2. Not only is the adverb propius, proxime (according to § 172, 
Obs. 4), used like the preposition prope with the aceusativc (more rarely 
with the dative), but even the adjective is sometimes constructed in this 
way: e.g. propior montem (Sail.), proximus mare (Cffls.); but the 
dative is, in such cases, the most usual. (Proximus ab aliqvo, // 
after a person, in a series, like prope ab, not far from ; propius a terra 

1 [Extremae sub casum biemis, jam vere sereno (Virg. Georg. I. 340).] 

'204: LATIN GRAMMAR. § 232 

moveri; proxime alter ab altero habitant. In the signification 
near, wc find both accedo prope aliqveni and prope accedo ad ali- 

§ 231. With the following transitive verbs compounded with 
trans, — traduco, trajicio, transporto, — we have not only the name 
of the object, but also that of the place over which a thing is led 
or transported, in the accusative (which belongs to the preposition) : 

Hannibal copias Iberum traduxit. Caesar rnilites navibus 
flanien transportat. (Also traducere, trajicere, homines trans 

Obs. Of the same character is the expression adigo aliqveni arbi- 
trum, to bring a -person before (ad) the judge; and adigo aliqvem jus- 
jurandum (also ad jusjurandum, and adigo aliqvem jurejurando), 
to put one to his oath. 

§ 232. The proper names of towns and smaller islands (each of 
w r hich may be considered as a town) stand in the accusative with- 
out a preposition, when they are specified as the place where the 
motion is to end : — 

Romam ire, Athenas proficisci, Delum navigare (appellere clas- 
sem Puteolos, navis appellitur Syracusas, runs into the harbor of 
Syracuse). Haec via Capuam ducit. Usqve Ennam profecti sunt 
(Cic. Verr. IV. 49), as far as to. But ad is used when only the vicin- 
ity of the town is meant ; Adolescentulus miles ad Capuam profectus 
sum (Cic. Cat. M. 4), to an encampment before Capua. 

Ons. 1. Where no motion is indicated, but only an extent of space 
expressed, the preposition is added ; omnis ora Salonis ad Oricum 
(Ca3s. B. C. III. 8). 

Obs. 2. If urbs or oppidum be prefixed, the preposition is inserted : 
Consul pervenit in oppidum Cirtam (Sail. Jug. 102) , into Cirta ; ad 
oppidum Cirtam would mean, arrived at Cirta. So also usually, when 
urbs or oppidum with an adjective is put after the proper name ; 
Demaratus Corinthus contulit se Tarqvinios in urbem Etruriae 
florentissimam (Cic. R. P. II. 19). 

Obs. 3. In is used with the names of countries, and larger islands. 
Sometimes, however, we find the names of larger islands constructed 
like the names of towns; in Cyprum venit, and Cyprum missus 

Obs. 4. In the poets, the names of countries also are put as the place 
where a motion is to end without a preposition ; e.g. Italiam venit 

1 Trajicere exercitum Pado, on the Po ; trajicere, transmittere flumen. to 
cross the river. Trajicere in Africam, without an object, to cross over to Africa. 


(Virg.). (Occasionally, in prose, the Greek names of countries in us, 

as Aegyptus, Epirus, Bosporus ; e.g, Aegyptum proficisci 
Dat. I), The poets also use national names, as well as common names 
in general, when considered as the place where a motion if to end, in the 
accusative without a preposition; e.g. Ibimus Afros (Virg I.I 
I. G4). Tua mea imago haec limina tendere adegit (Id. JEn. VI. 
696). Verba refers aures uou perveuientia nostras (Ovid, Met. 
III. 402). ' 

§ 233. The accusatives domum, home ; and rus, to the country, — 
are constructed like the names of towns : e.g. domum reverti, rus 
ire ; also, domos, of several different homes ; e.g. ministerium resti- 
tuendorum domos obsidum (Liv. XXII. 22), the business of bring- 
ing each of the hostages to his home. To domum may be added a 
possessive pronoun or a genitive, in order to show whose house is 
meant : e.g. domum meam, domum Pompeji venisti (domum alie- 
nam, domum regiam = regis) ; domos suas discesserunt (Corn. 
Them. 4) ; but we also find in domum suam, in domum Pompeji 
(and domum ad Pompejum). 

Obs. 1. With other pronouns and adjectives in must be inserted; in 
domum amplam et magnificam venire. 

Obs. 2. The accusative of the place is sometimes joined to a verbal 
substantive: domum reditio (Ca3s.) ; reditus inde Romam (Oic.). 2 

§ 234. a. When the measure of extent is given, or a movement 
is measured, the word which expresses the measure is put in the 
accusative with verbs, and such adjectives or adverbs as express 
extension (longus, latus, altus, crassus) ; e.g. : — 

Hasta sex pedes longa; fossa decern pedes alta; terram duos 
pedes alte infodere. Fines Helvetiorum patebant in longitudi- 
nem ducenta qvadraginta millia passuum. Caesar tridui iter pro- 
cessit A recta conscientia transversum ungvem (a finger's breadth) 
non oportet discedere (Cic. ad Att. XIII. 20) . 

b. When a distance is specified (abesse, distare), the measure 
may stand either in the accusative or the ablative ; e.g. : — 

Abesse tridui iter (Cic). Teanum abest a Larino xviii 
millia passuum (Cic. pro Cluent. 0). Aesculapii templum v mil- 
libu3 passuum ab Epidauro distat (Liv. XLV. 28). 

1 [Tumulum antiqvae Cereris, sedemqve sacratam venimus (1 trg. .I'm U» 

3 [Iter Italiam (Virg. Ma. III. 507). Hac iter elysiuru (Id. Mm. VI. 542).] 

206 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 235 

In like manner both eases are used when it is said at what dis- 
tance a thing takes place; e.g.: — 

Ariovistus inillibus passuum sex a Caesaris castris consedit 
(Cses. B. G. I. 48). Caesar millia passuum tria ab Helvetiorum 
castris castra ponit (Id. ibid. I. 22). 

Obs. So also magnum spatium abesse (Cses. B. G. II. 17), and 
aeqvo spatio a castris utrisqve abesse (Id. ibid. I. 43). But if 
spatium or iutervallum be used in defining the distance at which a 
thing happens, these words always stand in the ablative : e.g. Rex 
Juba sex millium passuum intervallo consedit (Cses. B. C. II. 38). 
Hannibal xv ferme millium spatio castra ab Tarento posuit 
(Liv. XXV. 9). If the place from which the distance is reckoned 
is not specified, the preposition ab only often stands before the 
measure ; A millibus passuum duobus castra posuerunt (Cses. 
B. G. H. 7). 1 

c. In the same way with the adjective natus (so and so) old; 
the number of the years (the measure of the age) is put in the 
accusative ; viginti annos natus. 

Obs. Concerning the way of designating the measure by comparison 
with natus (major natus, more than years old), and other adjec- 
tives of extension (e.g. longior, more than ells, and the like, long, 

&c), see §306. 

§ 235. In specifying duration and extent of time (how long ?), the 
words which define the time are put in the accusative : — 

Pericles qvadraginta annos praefuit Athenis. Veji urbs decern 
aestates hiemesqve continuas circumsessa est (Liv. V. 22). An- 
num jam audis Cratippum (Cic. Off. I. 1). Dies noctesqve fata 
nos circumstant (Id. Phil. X. 10). 2 Ex eo dies continuos qvinqve 
Caesar copias pro castris produxit (Cses. B. G. I. 48), did it once 
a day for jive successive days. Occasionally per is prefixed (as in English 
through) ; Ludi decern per dies facti sunt (Cic. in Cat. III. 8), 
through ten whole days. 

Obs. 1. The way in which time is expressed with ordinals should be 
noticed ; Mithridates annum jam tertium et vigesimum regnat (of 
the current year) . 

Obs. 2. The accusative also stands with abhinc, ago ; e.g. Qvaestor 
fuisti abhinc annos qvattuordecim. 

1 [Naves ex eo loco ab millibus passuum octo vento tenebantur (Caes. B. 
G. IV. 22).] 

2 Not merely by day and by night, but all through the day and night. 


Ods. 3. The abbttive, to express dotation of time, fa ran in the be I 
Avi iters : Tota aestate Nilus Aegyptum obrutam oppletamqvo tenet 
(Cie. N. D. II. 52). Pugnatuni est continenter horia qvinqve 
(Caes. B. C. I. 47). This construction occurs more frequently in later 
writers ; e.g. Octoginta annia vixit (Seneo. Ep. 98). On the other hand, 
to express the time which is applied to any purpose/and in which it fa 
accomplished, the ablative is always employed ; e.g. Tribus diebus opus 
perfici potest. See § 276. 

§ 236. In exclamations of astonishment or Buffering at the condi- 
tion or character of a person or thing, the person or thing standi in 
the accusative with or without an interjection : — 

Heu me miserum ! or Me miserum ! O fallacem hominum spem 
fragilemqve fortuuam (Cie. de Or. III. 2). Testes egregios! (iron- 

Obs. 1. In the exclamation with the interjection pro, the vocative fa 
employed: Fro, Di immortales ! Pro, sancte Juppiter ! except in the 
phrase, Fro deum (hominum, deum atqve hominum) fidem! The 
vocative of direct address may also be used with o : O magna vis veri- 
tatis ! O fortunate adolescens, qvi tuae virtutis Homerum praeco- 
nem inveneris ! (Cie. pro Arch. 10). 

Obs. 2. With the interjections hei and vae, which express lamenta- 
tion, the name of the person or thing lamented is put in the dative : 
Hei mihi ! Vae tergo meo ! 

Obs. 3. With en and ecce (which call the attention to something as 
present), we often find the nominative (in Cicero, always) : Ecce tuae 
litterae (behold, there came your letter) . En memoria mortui sodalis. 
The accusative occurs less frequently. 

§ 237. The poets use the accusative more freely in certain com- 
binations, and in this some prose-writers imitate them in a few 

a. The passive of the verbs cingo, to gird; accingo, induo, to clothe ; 
exuo, to undress; induco,fo draw over, — is employed with a new active 
signification, — to clothe one's self with, to put on, exuor, to put off, and 
constructed with the accusative : Coroebus Androgei galeam clipei- 
qve insigne decorum induitur (Virg. JEn. II. 392). Priamus inu- 
tile ferrum cingitur (Id. ibid. II. oil). (Figuratively: magicas 
accingi artes (Id. ib. IV. 493), to put on magic as armor, to cjuij' tWf'l 
self with it. Inducta cornibus aurum victima (Ov. Met. VII. 161), 
Virgines longam indutae vestem (Liv. XXVII. 87). (Otherwise 
in prose : induo aliqvem veste ; also, induo vestem, to put on a 


Ons. In the same way, it is said, Cyclopa moveri, to dance a Cy- 
clops (represent him in dancing) ; and, in prose : censeri magnum agri 
modum, to return a large quantity of land for assessment. 

b. The participle perfect of the passive (as in Greek the parti- 
ciple perfect of the passive and middle) is used of a person who has 
done something to himself, as an active verb, with an accusative: — 

Dido Sidoniam picto chlamydem circumdata limbo (Virg. Mn. 
IV. 137), tcho had on, qvae sibi circumdederat. Pueri laevo sus- 
pensi loculos tabulamqve lacerto (Hor. Sat. I. 6, 74), who had — sus- 
pended. Juno nondum antiqvum saturata dolorem (Virg. iEn. V. 
C08), who had not yet satisfied her pique. 1 

Obs. But it is sometimes employed also to designate a person to 
whom something is done (by others) ; e.g. per pedes trajectus 
lora tumentes (Virg. JEn. II. 273) , who has straps drawn through his 

c. The accusative is put with passive and intransitive verbs, and 
with adjectives, to denote that part of the subject with reference to 
which the verb or adjective is predicated of it : — 

Nigrantes terga juvenci (Virg. iEn. V. 97) ; lacer ora; os humer- 
osqve deo similis. Eqvus micat auribus et tremit artus (Virg. G. 
III. 84). An accusative, denoting something incorporeal, is found 
so used in a few instances : Qvi genus (estis) ? (Virg. JEn. VIII. 
114). In this way, passive verbs acquire a reflective signification 
(as under b) ; Capita Phrygio velamur amictu (Virg. iEn. III. 
545), we cover our heads. 

Obs. 1. In prose, the active is used for the reflective expression 
(velamus capita) ; otherwise, 'the ablative is always employed in this 
construction (ore humerisqve deo similis). See § 253. Only in 
speaking of wounds, we find the accusative with ictus, saucius, trans- 
verberatus, &c. ; Adversum femur tragula ictus (Liv. XXI. 7). 

Obs. 2. This use of the accusative, as well as that explained under 
a and 6, is common in Greek, and has originated in Latin (with a few 
exceptions, as with censeor) from an imitation of that language. 

Obs. 3. In a similar way (adverbially) are used, in prose, the expres- 
sions, magnam (maximam) partem, for the most part (e.g. Svevi 
maximam partem lacte atqve pecore vivunt, Caes. B. G. IV. I), 2 
and vicem alicujus (meam, vestram, &c.),for any one, on account of 
(properly, instead of), particularly with intransitive verbs and adjectives, 

1 [Nodo sinus collecta fluentes (Virg. ^En. I. 320).] 

2 Ex aliqva, magna, majore parte, partially, for the most part. 

§ 240 THE DATIVE. 

which denote an emotion of the mind : tuam vicem saepe doleo, 
indignor; nostram vicem irascuntur ; sollicitus, anxius reipub- 
licae vicem; suam vicem (j'or his pari) officio functus 
wise cetera, in other respects ; vir cetera egregiua (Liv.). 

§238. In a few phrases, the accusative stands for the more special 
e.ise, genitive or ablative; se. id temporis, lor eo tempore (e.g. 
id temporis eos venturos esse praedixeram, ( i< . in Cat. I. I); 
id (illud) aetatis, for ejus aetatis (e.g. homo id aetatis; qvum 
esset illud aetatis), and id (hoc, omrie) genus, fop ejus (hujus 
omnis) generis (e.g. id genus alia, other things of thai hind). 

Obs. Concerning the genitive in id temporis, compare § 285, //. 
On virile, muliebre secus, see § 55, 5. 

§ 239. We must particularly notice the elliptical expression, Qvo 
mini (tibi), with an accusative, signifying, What am I (arc you) to 

do loith ? of what use is to me (to you) ? e.g. Qvo mihi for- 

tunam, si non conceditur uti? (Hor. Ep. I. 5, 12) ; and similarly: 

Unde mihi (tibi), Where can I get ? e.g. unde mihi lapidem? 

(Id. Sat. II. 7, 116). (Qvo tibi, Pasiphae, pretiosas sumere ves- 
tes? Ov. A. A. I. 303.) 



§ 240. The remaining cases, except the vocative, denote severally 
a particular relation, in which a person or thing stands either to an 
action, but without being immediately the object acted on (accu- 
sative), or to another person or thing. 

Obs. The dative and the ablative primarily denoted the local relation 
of a person or thing to an action; viz., the dative, the direction of the 
action towards something external to itself, or its taking place near it ; 
the ablative, the taking place of the action on or in something (also, at 
the same time its proceeding from a place, from being in a place). 
Subsequently, these cases were used of other relations, in which 
the imagination discovered a resemblance with the outward material 
relations. This now became the proper leading signification of these 
cases; and the actual local relations were, for the mosj part, defined 
more closely through the medium of prepositions, sometimes with one 
of these special cases (the ablative), sometimes with the accuaatire, as 
the general form of the word. 




§ 241. The dative denotes, in general, that what is asserted by 
the predicate is done, or holds good, for and in reference to some 
particular person or thing (the relation of interest): — 

Subsidium bellissimum senectuti est otium (Cic. de Or. I. 60). 
Charondas et Zaleucus leges civitatibus suis scripserunt (Id. 
Lcgg. II. G). Domus pulchra dominis aedificatur, non muribus 
(Id. X. D. III. 10). Foro nata eloqventia est (Id. Brut. 82). Non 
scholae, sed vitae discimus (Sen. Ep. 106). Sex. Roscius praedia 
coluit aliis, non sibi (Cic. Rose. Am. 17), for the benefit of Nihil 
loci est segnitiae neqve socordiae (Tcr. Andr. I. 3, 1). Orabo 
nato uxorem (Id. ib. III. 2, 47), I will propose for her for my son. 
Filius Blaesi militibus missionem petebat (Tac. Ann. 1. 19), applied 
for discharge for the soldiers. 

Obs. 1. This dative, which is not (as in the following special rules) 
attached to a single word, but to the whole predicate, is commonly 
called Dativus commodi and incommodi. 

Obs. 2. The special signification in defence of (a person or thing) 
never resides in the dative, but is expressed by pro: Discere pro 
aliqvo, pugnare pro nobilitate, pro patria mori ; so also we find 
esse pro aliqvo, in his favor : Hoc non contra me est, sed pro me. 

Obs. 3. A whole proposition is sometimes qualified by a dative of 
interest, to show in reference to what a thing is so and so, instead 
of qualifying a single substantive by means of a genitive or preposition : 
Is finis populationibus fait (Liv. II. 30. Also, populationum). 
Qvis huic rei testis est? (Cic. pro Quinct. 11). E bestiarum cor- 
poribus multa remedia morbis et vulneribus eligimus (Cic. N. D. 
II. 64. Also, contra morbos, or remedia morborum). Neqve 
mini ex cujusqvam amplitudine aut praesidia periculis aut ad- 
jumenta honoribus qvaero (Cic. pro Leg. Man. 24, in which example 
the double dative should be remarked ; I seek for myself no protection 
against (in reference to) future dangers : adversus pericula, praesidia 
periculorum) . Aduatuci locum sibi domicilio delegerunt (Cscs. 
B. G. II. 29). The poets take greater liberties in this respect: e.g. 
Dissimulant, qvae sit rebus causa novandis (Virg. iEn. IV. 290) ; 
otherwise, causa hujus rei novandae). (Longo bello materia, 
Tac. II. I. 89.) 

Obs. 4. We may particularly notice the use of the dative with the 
verb sum with a predicate noun, where it is specified in what relation 
one person stands to another : Murena legatus Lucullo fuit (Cic. pro 
Mur. 9) , legatus with Lucullus, of Lucullus. L. Mescinius heres est 
M. Mindio, fratri suo (Id. ad Fam. XIII. 26). Ducem esse alicui, 
to be one's leader. 

§ 242 Tin: dativi:. 21 I 

0BS.5. Here we may also notice the dative with facio (fio), with 
qvid, Idem, signifying to do with mm (in relation to one): e.g. arid 
facies huic conclusioni ? (tie. Acad. II. ;;u). Qvid? Bnpo 
non idem Verres fecit? (Cio. Verr. IV. 22). Qvid mihi fin 
est? On the ablative in this signification (hoc homine), lee I 267. 

Ons. 6. The dative of a participle is occasionally used i., denote when 
(under what circumstances) a thing occurs : Sita Anticyra est in Lo- 
cride laeva parte sinum Corinthiacum in trail tibus (Lit. XXVI. 
26), on the left to those who sail in == on the left as von sail in. Duo 
milites neqvaqvam visu ac specie aestimantibus pares (Liv VII 

§ 242. The dative is particularly joined to many verbs which 
in themselves denote an acting in reference to something. Many 
transitive verbs express an action, which, besides the object acted 
on, concerns another person or thing with reference to which it is 
performed, and therefore take two substantives, the proper object 
in the accusative, and a reference object, or more remote object, to 
which the action is directed, in reference to which it is performed, 
in the dative: Dedi puero librum; trado provinciam succes- 
sor! ; erranti viam monstro. The dative also stands with the 
passive of these verbs, the relation being the same : Liber puero 
datus est; provincia successori traditur; erranti via mon- 

Such verbs are, e.g., do, trado, tribuo, concedo ; divido, to dis- 
tribute ; fero, to bring; praebeo, praesto, polliceor, promitto; debeo, 
to be indebted ; nego, adimo, monstro, dico, narro, mando, praecipio, 
&c. (with which the more remote object is most frequently a person) . But, 
besides this, the dative stands with all expressions formed of a verb and 
an accusative, which in their combination denote a similar relation to a 
person or thing : e.g. rnodum ponereirae; patefacere, praecludere 
aditum hosti ; fldem habere alicui, or narrationi alicujus ; morem 
gerere alicui, to humor a person ; nullum locum relinqvere precibus, 
honestae morti; dicere (statuere) diem colloqvio, to fix a day for 
a conference. 

Obs. 1. This dative of the more remote object is sometimes properly 
used with Latin verbs, where, on account of the somewhat different mean- 
ing and construction of the English phrases commonly used in translating 
them, we should have expected a different construction in Latin. So we 
find probare alicui sententiam suani, to make his opinion agreeable to 
some one (in the passive, haec sententia mihi probatur) ; conciliare 
.Pompejum. Caesari, to make Pompey a friend to Catsar, gain him over 

212 LATIN GRAMMAR. §243 

to Ccesar; placare aliqvem alicui. Especially should we notice 
miiiari (minitari) alicui malum, mortem, to threaten one with a mis- 
fortune, with death (on the other hand, minari alicui baculo, abl. with 
the stick, as an instrument) . (The construction svadere alicui aliqvid 
is generally found only when the object is a pronoun : as, faciam, qvod 
mini svades ; otherwise, we most usually find svadere bellum (with- 
out a dative) ; or svadere alicui ut [to advise one to — ]. The same 
holds of persvadeo [in the passive, persvasum mini est, ut]). 

Obs. 2. In compound phrases, the usage sometimes fluctuates (com- 
pare § 241, Obs. 3) between the dative qualifying the whole phrase, and 
the genitive qualifying the object of the proposition : e.g. finem facere 
injuriis, to put an end to the injuries, to set bounds to them ; but finem 
facere scribendi, to leave off writing. 

Obs. 3. In English, this relation of the more remote object is usually 
denoted by prepositions (for, to, &c). In Latin, ad can only stand 
when an actual motion to a place (or to a person in a place) is intended. 
We find dare alicui litteras, to give one a letter to take care of; but 
dare litteras ad aliqvem, to write a letter to some one ; mittere alicui 
aliqvid, to send one something (that he is to have) ; mittere legatos 
ad aliqvem, mittere litteras alicui and ad aliqvem ; scribere ad ali- 
qvem, to write to some one; scribere alicui, to write something for one; 
dicere ad populum, to make a speech before the people (not to say to 
the people). 

§ 243. A reference to something distinct from the proper object 
is often expressed by compounding the verb with one of the prepo- 
sitions ad, ante, circum (con), de, ex, in, inter, ob, post, prae, 
sub. With these verbs (both in the active and the passive), the 
more remote object to which the preposition applies is put in the 
dative. But if an actual or figurative local relation (motion to or 
from a place, a continuance or agency in a place) is clearly indi- 
cated by those verbs which are compounded with ad, de, ex, in, 
sub, then (in the best prose-writers) the preposition is usually 
repeated and constructed with its proper case : — 

a. Afferre reipublicae magnam utilitatem ; affere alicui vim, 
manus; consuli milites circumfundebantur ; circumdare brachia 
collo, to put one's arms round a person's neck; Caesar Ambiorigi 
auxilia Menapiorum et Germanorum detraxit ; urbs hostibus 
erepta est; inferre alicui injuriam; injicere hominibus timorem; 
imponere alicui negotium ; objicere aliqvem telis hostium ; hon- 
estas praefertur utilitati ; omnia virtuti postponi debent ; homines 
non libenter se alterius potestati subjiciunt; supponere ova 

§ 243 THE DATIYE, 

b. (Manifest local relation): Ad nos multi rumores afTenmtui ; 
affigere litteram ad caput alicujus (Cic, Rote. Am. 20), I 
OH his head; detrahere annulum de digito ; injicere Be in hostes, 
into the midst of the enemy ', inscribere aliqvid In tabula; InJfcm 
signa in hostem; ' imponere in cervicibus hominum sempitei num 
dominum (a figurative hut manifest local relation) ; impiimcic 
notionem in animis ; eripere aliqvem e periculo.- 

OBS. 1. In the case of some verbs compounded with ad, the pr< 
tion is repeated, even without its proper signification, in preference to 
employing the dative, especially with addo, adjicio : adjungo, / 
(but adjungo mini amicum, 1 gain myself a friend) ; applico me ad 
virtutem, ad philosophiam, ad aliqvem doctorem, / uttm/i myelf 
to him ; adhibeo ad aliqvid, to apply to any purpotc. Subjicio 
and subjungo oecur in derived signification with both construction*: 
Mummius Achajae urbes multas sub imperium populi Rom.mi 
subjunxit; subjicio aliqvid oculis and sub oculos, t,, pine, so„<<- 
iking {under) before on£s eyes, sensibus and sub sensus. We read 
extorqvere alicui gladium and pecuniam ab aliqvo ; impendero 
pecuniam, operam in aliqvid, and (in Liter writers) alicui rei. 

Ons. 2. The verbs compounded with cum usually repeat the proposi- 
tion ; confero, comparo, compono aliqvid cum aliqvo, conjungo 
eloqventiam cum philosophia. Yet Ave find also the dative : Ennius 
eqvi fortis senectuti comparat suam (Cic. Cat. M. <">) ; parva com- 
ponere magnis. Tibi me studia communia beneficiaqve tua jam 
ante conjunxerant (Cic. ad Fain. XV. 11). We find always, com- 
munico aliqvid cum aliqvo. 

Obs. 3. The later writers (from Livy downwards) use the dative with 
increasing frequency, even in an improper signification, like the poets: 
e.g. incidere nomen saxis (Plin. Min. Incidere legem in aes ; 
foedus in columna incisum, Cic). Insculpere elogium tuniulo 

Ons. 4. The dative is also sometimes put with continuo (laborem 
nocturnum diurno, cause it to follow immediately aj'tcr), socio, jungo, 
on account of their similarity in signification with these compound ferbf. 

1 [Inferretqve deos Latio (Virg. Mn. I G).] 

* The following verbs, as well as some others, belong to this class : nfTerO, offlRO, 
admisceo, admoveo, circumdo, circumfundo, circumjicio, circumpono, 
detraho, decutio, deripio, detero, eripio, extorqveo, impono, imprimo. m- 
fero, injicio, interpono, objicio, offero, offundo, oppono, pnieflcio, subdo, 
subjicio, subjungo, suppono, subtraho (superpono); ami which 
comparison : antefero, antepono, prael'ero, praepono, posthabeo, postpono ; 
to these we may add aufero. 

214 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 244 

(Sapientia juncta eloqventiae, Cic.) So also aeqvare aliqvem 
alicui, to put one person on a level loith another; aeqvare turrim 
muris, to make the lower equal to the ivalls, i.e. to build it as high. 

Obs. 5. For another construction with adspergo, circumdo, and 
some other verbs, see § 259, b. 

§ 244. a. The dative is also used for the more remote object with 
various intransitive verbs, which denote an action, state of mind, or 
condition, with reference to a person or thing, but without convey- 
ing (to a Latin) the idea of an immediate acting upon it (e.g. to 
benefit, to injure, to please, &c.) : — 

Prodesse reipublicae et civibus ; nocere hosti ; nemo omnibus 
placere potest ; magnus animus victis parcit. 

The most important of these are : — 

a. (Those which signify to benefit, to injure) : prosum, obsum, 
noceo, incommodo, expedit, conducit. 1 

o. (To be for or against, to yield) : adversor, obtrecto, officio, 
cedo, suffragor, refragor, intercede gratificor. 

c. (To be well or ill affected) : cupio (alicui, to wish one well), 
faveo, gratulor, studeo ignosco, indulgeo, invideo, 2 insidior. 

d. (To assist, to take care for, to remedy, to spare) : auxilior, 
opitulor, patrocinor, 3 consulo, prospicio, medeor (sano governs 
the ace), parco. 

e. (To please, to displease) : placeo, displiceo. 

f. (To order, obey, serve, advise, persuade) : impero, 4 obedio, 
obseqvor, obtempero, pareo, servio, famulor, suadeo, persuadeo. 

g. (To be friendly or unfriendly, or to speak as such) : assentior, 
blandior, irascor, succenseo, convicior, maledico, minor. 

h. (To trust, to distrust) : credo, fido, confido, diffido. 5 
i. Desum (liber mini deest, / have not the book ; amicis, officio 
deesse, not to support one's friends, not to do one^s didy ; 6 nubo, to 
marry (used only of a woman) ; 7 propinqvo (appropinqvo), to op- 
proach ; supplico, to implore ; 8 videor, to seem. 

1 Laedo, to injure, offend, transitive, aliqvem or aliqvid. 

2 Invideo is followed by the dative either of the person or the thing ; invideo tibi and 
invideo felicitati tuae. When both person and thing are to be expressed, the usual con- 
struction is, e.g., Caesaris laudi invidebat, ignosco festinationi alicujus. 

3 Adjuvo aliqvem, to aid, further, transitive. 

4 Jubeo aliqvid, aliqvem facere aliqvid, transitive. 

5 Fido and confido (rarely diffido) also govern the ablative. 

c Careo, to be without, dispense tvith, re aliqva. DeficiO, to fail, frequently with the 
accusative (vox oratorem). 

7 Nupta alicui and cum aliqvo. 

8 Precor, to entreat, deos, transitive. 

§ 244 Tin: DATIVE. 

k. (To happen, to befall) : accidit, contingit, ev 

I. Libet, licet. The same is the construction of the phrase* obi 

eo (obvius sum, fio), praesto sum; dicto audieiis sum (alicui), to 

listen to a man, obey him; supplex sum, auctor sum (alien: 


b. This more remote object cannot, like the proper object, bt 
the subject with the passive; and such verbs (like those which are 
intransitive) can only be used impersonally in the passive, iu which 
case the dative follows without alteration : — 

Invidetur (men envy) praestanti florentiqvc fortunae (Ci.. d, 
Or. II. 52). Non parcetur labori (Id. ad Att. 11. 11). Nemiui 
nocetur ; legibus parendum est (one must obey). Obtrectatum est 
adhuc Gabinio (Id. pro Leg. Man. 19). Divitibus invideri solet, 
men are accustomed to envy. Mini uunqvam persvaderi potuit, 
animos esse mortales (Cic. Cat. M. 22), no man lias ever been able to 
convince me. 

The beginner must take particular care that he is not misled by the 
English phrases, I am envied, maligned, &c, to use the verbs, obtrecto, 
invideo, parco, maledico, and studeo, personally in the passive. 

Obs. 1. With some verbs the construction varies between the dative 
and the accusative, according to the meaning. 1 Metuo, timeo, caveo, 
signify, with an accusative (aliqvem, aliqvid), to fear some one (some- 
thing), to beware of something (an evil, an enemy) ; with a dative, 
to be (from a motive of kindness) anxious or apprehensive for some- 
thing : e.g. timeo libertati, caveo veteraiiis (poetically, mater pallet 
pueris). 2 Prospicio and provideo, with a dative, signify, to be pro- 
spectively anxious about a thing : e.g. prospicere saluti, providere 
vitae hominum; with an accusative, to take care for the providing of 
something, e.g. frumentum. Tempero aliqvid, to order, to regulate 
(properly, to mix) : e.g. rempublicam legibus ; moderor aliqvid, to 
conduct, arrange; e.g. consilia; with a dative, to moderate: e.g. tem- 
pero, moderor irae, laetitiae. Consulo, see § 223, b, Obs. 

Obs. 2. Some few verbs are used both with the accusative and the 
dative without any perceptible difference in their signification : adulor 
(generally the accusative), aemulor (almost always the accusative), 
comitor, despero (salutem and saluti; pace desperata, after the hope 
of peace was given up), praestolor. In poetry, verba of contending, 
&c. (certo, pugno, luctor), with the dative instead of the ablative 
with cum; e.g. Frigida pugnabaiit calidis (Ov. Met. 1. VJ). 

1 [Consulere sibi and se (Cic Cat. II. 27).] 

2 Caveo (mini) ab aliqvo, ab aliqva re, to be on one's guard against a jxrson or 



Ons. 3. Some few of those verbs have also such a transitive signification, 
that they may take (according- to § 242) both a proper object in the ac- 
cusative and a more remote object : as, credo alicui aliqvid, to tvusi a 
thing to any one (aliqvid creditur alicui) ; impero provinciae 
tributum, niilites, to command a province to pay tribute, to furnish 
troops (tributuni imperatur provinciae) : minor alicui mortem (see 
§ 242, Obs. 1) ; prospicere, providere exercitui frumentum. (In- 
video alicui aliqvam rem, — whence res invidenda, a thing for which 
a person is to be envied, — but more commonly aliqva re. See § 260, b.) 

Obs. 4. To change such a dative into the subject of a proposition, 
and to use the verb personally in the passive, is a rare irregularity : 
Ego cur, acqvirere pauca si possum, invideor ? (Hor. A. P. 56). 
Vix eqvidem credor (Ov. Trist. III. 10, 35). Medendis corporibus 
(Liv. VIII. 36), by the healing of the bodies. 

Obs. 5. In a few instances, a substantive which is derived from a 
verb that governs the dative, and denotes the idea contained in it, is 
itself constructed alone with the dative : Insidiae consuli non pro- 
cedebant (Sail. Cat. 32), the plots against the consul did not succeed. 
Obtemperatio legibus (Cic. Legg. I. 15). 

§ 245. a. The intransitive verbs compounded with the preposi- 
tions ad, ante (con), in, inter, ob, post, prae, re, snb, super, like 
the transitive verbs similarly compounded (§ 243), take the dative 
to express relation to another object; namely, that to which the 
preposition applies, if the compound verb has a secondary meaning, 
which suggests no idea of any local relation ; e.g. : — 

Adesse amicis, antecellere omnibus, instare victis et fugienti- 
bus, indormire causae (to sleep over a cause), inter venire, interesse 
praelio, occurrere venientibus. praeesse exercitui, resistere inva- 
dentibus, respondere exspectationi, subvenire egentibus, suc- 
cumbere dolori. The dative remains unaltered, if the verb stands 
impersonally in the passive : Resistitur audaciae hominum ; egenti- 
bus subveniendum est. 1 

1 Such verbs are adjaceo, alludOt annuo, arrepo, arrideo, aspiro, assentior, 
assideo, asto, antecedo, anteeo, antecello (see § 224, d), colludo, congruo, 
consentio, convenire (to be fating, suitable ; convenire cum, to agree with; pax, 
res convenit inter nos, toe are agreed about peace, the matter) ; consto (mihi), con- 
s6no, incumbo (incubo), indormio ; inhaereo, illudo (auctoritati; also transi- 
tive, praecepta), immorior, innascor, innitor, insto, insisto, insulto (alicui in 
calamitate; also, patientiam alicujus); interjaceo (rarely with an accusative), m- 
tervenio, oceumbo (morti, but more frequently mortem or morte, is death); 
obrepo, obsto, obstrepo, obtingo, obvenio, obversor, praesidio, repugno, 
resisto, suceumbo, supersto, with the compounds of sum. 

§246 mi: DATIVE. 

b. But if a local relation be clearly designed, though only 1 
tively, the preposition wiih ii commonly osed: 

Adhaeret navis ad scopulum. Inhneret s. 
Ajax incubuit in gladium. Severitas inest in vultu. Inoi 
in hostes; invehi in aliqvem ; incurrere m reprehension 
cidere in periculum, in morbuin (tofaU) : concurrcrc, congred. 
hoste ; cohaerere cum aliqvo. 

Sometimes a different preposition is employed to denote the 
relation more accurately ; e.g. obrepere in aninium, obversari ante 

Obs. 1. In individual verbs, we must particularly untie- the s 
which the idea is conceived; so we have incumbo in or ad studium 
aliqvod, to apply one's self to a study ; acqviesco in aliqvo, to ae , 
in any thing, to find composure in it. In general, the older ; 
writers more frequently repeat the preposition (e.g. always insum 
the poets and later writers use the dative more (inesse rei). 
where the verb has its own proper signification : e.g. accidere genibus 
praetoris (Livy; we find in Cicero, ad pedes alicujus), congredi 
alicui, cohaerere alicui. 

Obs. 2. The preposition is never repeated with adjaceo, assideo, 
asto (assidere alicui, not ad aliqvem) ; accedo, on the other hand, 
never has the dative, except in the signification to join, to go ever to (an 
opinion, a party), accedo Ciceroni, sententiae Ciceronis, or when it 
means to be added; otherwise, the construction is always accedo ad. 
In the poets and some few prose-writers (chiefly of a later age), the 
accusative is sometimes found after the compounds of jaceo, sedeo, and 
those verbs which denote motion, with ad in its proper signification (i.e. 
applied to space), without the preposition being repeated : e.g. assidere 
muros, adjacere Etruriam (Livy) ; allabi oras, accedere aliqvem 
(Sail.), advolvi genua. On the verbs compounded with ante, and on 
praesto, see § 224, d. 

§ 246. The verb sum stands with the dative, to denote that some- 
thing exists for (is possessed by) a person or thing : — 

Sex nobis filii sunt. Homini cum deo similitudo est (Cic. I 
I. 8). Jam Troicis temporibus erat hoiios eloqventiae (Qc. Brut. 
10). Controversia mini fuit cum avunculo tuo (Cic. Fin. II! 
Rhodiis cum populo Romano amicitia societasqve est 
dians are friends and allies of the Romans, 

Obs. 1. This form of expression is commonly used only to d\ 
what belongs to a person or thing as a possession or given relation, no- 
of what appertains to it as a quality or as a constituent part. W e BhouW 
therefore avoid such phrases as Ciceroni magna fuit eloqventia 


Cicerone), or Huic provinciae urbes sunt opulentissimae tares (for 
Haec provincia urbes habet, or In hac proviucia sunt, &c). 

( >;•-. 2. In tin 4 expression mihi (tibi, ei rei) est nomen, cognomen, 
1 Ji<irc the name, am culled (nonien niihi nianet, / retain the name, 
datum, inditum est) the name itself stands cither in the nominative (in 
appositioD to nomen) : Ei morbo uomen est avaritia (Cic. Tusc. 
IV. 11); or (more frequently) in the dative (by attraction to mihi, 
&e.) : Scipio, cui postea Africano cognomen fuit (Sail. Jug. 5). 
Leges decemvirales, qvibus tabulis duodecim est nomen (Liv. 
III. 57), which are railed the twelve tables. Puero ab inopia Egerio 
inditum nomen (Id. I. 34). Yet the name may also stand in the 
genitive, governed by nomen; e.g. Q. Metello Macedonici nomen 
inditum est (Veil. I. 11). With active expressions such as nomen do, 
dico alicui, the same constructions are found (the accusative taking the 
place of the nominative) : Filius, cui Ascanium parentes dixere 
nomen (Liv. I. 1) ; ei cognomen damus tardo (Hor. Sat. I. 3, 58) ; 
but the dative is more generally employed. 

Ons. 3. The following expression is imitated from the Greek : Ali- 
qvid (e.g. militia) mihi volenti est, a thing is agreeable to my ivish, 
properly, is related to me as wishing it (Sail. Jug. 84). 

§ 247. a. The dative (according to its general signification, 
§ 241) is put with adjectives, to denote that a thing has a certain 
quality for a person or thing; e.g. : — 

Civis utilis reipublicae ; res tibi facilis, ceteris difficilis ; onus 
grave ferentibus ; homo omnibus gratus et car us ; oratio plebi 

Obs. The adjectives proprius and dignus (which do not denote any 
particular definite quality) are constructed otherwise. See § 290,/, and 
§ 268, a. 

b. The dative is particularly put with certain adjectives, which 
in themselves denote a reference to something else, as a friendly 
or unfriendly disposition, similarity, nearness (amicus, inimicus, 
aeqvus, iniqvus, propitius, infensus, infestus, &c, with obnoxius, 
subject; par, impar, dispar, similis, dissimilis, consentaneus, 
contrarius, aeqvalis, of the same age ; propinqvus, propior, proxi 
mus, vicinus, finitimus, conterminus, affinis, cognatus) ; e.g. : — 

Siculi Verri inimici infestiqve sunt; verbum Latinum par 
Graeco et qvod idem valeat (Cic. Fin. IT. 4) ; locus propinqvus 
urbi. Nihil est tam cognatum mentibus nostris qvam numeri 
(rhythm) atqve voces (Cic. de Or. 111. 51). 

§ 248 mi:: DATIVE. 219 

Obs. 1. Some stich adjectives are frequently 
sons (or what ii considered as a person) u lubstanthrei with the 
tive; vi/., amicus, inimicus (arnica, inimica. alfO fa miliaria, a 
confidant), par (pnfs like or equ tl), aeqvaii., oo lopinqvim 

(a iclatimi, also necessariusi, alliiiis, vicinus. AmiciiB, inin. 
and familiaris are BO used, even in the superlative: regis amicissi- 
mus; inimicissimus illius ; familiarissimus meus. (Alio iniqvi 
mei, nostri, invidi nostri.) Thus, too, we generally find, superstes 
omnium suorum, one who has survived all hi* friends, — leas frequently, 
superstes alicui. 

Obs. 2. Similis (consimilis, adsimilis) and dissimilis are put in 
the best writers both with the genitive and the dative; and, in th< 
Her writers, almost always with the genitive of the names of living 
beings (especially gods and men) : similis igni and ignis, similis pa- 
tris, similis mei, sui, nostri. 

OBS. .'5. The poets say not only dissimilis, but also diversus alicui, 
instead of ab aliqvo [different from), and use the verbs discrepo, 
differo, disto, dissideo, with the dative instead of with ab ; Qvid dis- 
tant aera lupinis ? (Ilor.) 

OBS. 4. Affinis, signifying concerned in, governs both the dative and 
the genitive : Affinis ei turpitudini ; affinis rei capitalis. 

Oiis. 5. Propior and proximus are also put with the accusative. 
§ 230, Obs. •> (alter subter). 

Obs. 0. Those adjectives which denote an aptitude (br any thing 
(aptus, habilis, idoneus, accommodatus, paratus), have more often 
ad than the dative: orator ad nullam causam idoneus; homo 
ad rem militarem aptus. Idoneus arti cuilibet (Hor.). They 
govern the dative in the signification suited, fitted: oratores aptissimi 
concionibus ; histriones fabulas sibi accommodatissimas eli- 
gunt. (Alienum nostrae dignitati, unsuited to our dignity, 
§ 268, &.) 

Ons. 7. The dative is also put with the adverbs convenienter, 
congruenter, constanter, obseqventer; e.g. vivere convenienter 
naturae, dicere constanter sibi. 

Ons. s. The poets sometimes employ the dative after idem (in any 

ease but the nom.), instead of atqve with the nominative; Invitum 
qvi servat, idem facit Occident! (Ilor. A. 1'. 467), tin rtNtt 01 
kills him, 

$ -2 18. The datives mihi, nobis (sometimes tibi, vobis), are put 
with expressions of surprise and reprehension, with demand^ or 
with questions about a person, in order to denote a certain d 
of COncerB or sympathy : — 

220 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 249 

Qvid ait nobis Sannio ? what does our Sannio say ? Qvid mini 
Celsus agit? how is my Celsus") Hie mini qvisqvam misericor- 
diam nominat? (Sail. Cat. 52), will any one here speak to me of pity 7 
Haec vobis illorum per biduum militia fuit (Liv. XXII. 60). 
(Dativus Ethicus.) 

Obs. Qvid tibi vis ? what do you want ? what do you mean by that ? 
Qvid sibi vult haec oratio ? What do these words mean ? Qvid 
haec sibi dona voluerunt ? 

§ 249. The dative sometimes denotes the design and operation 
of a thing (that which it subserves, and to which it tends). In this 
way the dative is used with sum, and with the verbs which signify 
to impute, assume, or take; and in some other phrases with do, 
habeo, sumo, capio, pono (to give, have, take, or place as some- 
thing) ; so likewise the datives praesidio, subsidio, auxilio, 1 with 
verbs which denote a movement and position (in war). The verb 
has often another dative at the same time, which denotes to whom 
a thing is serviceable for this or that purpose ; cui bono est ? who 
is benefited? 

Incumbite in studium eloqventiae, ut et vobis honori, et ami- 
cis utilitati, et reipublicae emolumento esse possitis (Cic. de Or. 
I. 8). Esse usui, impedimento, esse argumento, documento. testi- 
monio. 2 Summam laudem S. Roscio vitio et culpae dedisti (Cic. 
Hose. Am. 16). Neqve hoc ei qvisqvam tribuebat superbiae (Corn. 
Timol. 4). Laudi, honori, probro vertere, ducere, habere aliqvid 
alicui ; dare alicui aliqvid muneri, dono (also donum, in apposi- 
tion) ; habere rempublicam qvaestui (as a source of gain) ; habere 
aliqvid religioni (to make conscience of a thing) ; ludibrio, con- 
temptui habere; ponere aliqvid pignori; locum capere castris; 
Aduatici locum sibi, domicilio delegerunt (Cass. B. G. II. 29) . Ve- 
jentes Sabinis auxilio eunt. Caesar legiones duas castris prae- 
sidio relinqvit. (Canere receptui, to sound a retreat.)* 

Obs. Especially is the dative of a substantive havirig a gerundive 
agreeing with it used (even after a substantive) to denote a purpose and 
destination ; e.g. decemviri legibus scribendis. See § 415. 

1 [Custodiae : Custodiae ex suis ac praesidio reliquerunt (Caes. B. G. II. 29) ] 

2 Esse odio, to be hated ; esse alicui magnae CUrae, to be a subject of great anxiety 
to a person; est alicui cordi, it pleases him, is agreeable to him. (We also meet with the 
expression, maximum est argumentum, the strongest argument is — , but est argu- 
mentum, documentum alone, with a dependent proposition, is unusual in the best 

3 [Hinc populum . . . venturum excidio Libyae (Virg. Mn. I. 22) ] 

§252 THE ABLATIVE. 221 

§ 250. a. With passive verbs the agent is sometimes put in the 
dative instead of the ablative with ab ; in prose, however, with the 
idea somewhat modilied, since it denotes, either that the action is 
done for the interest of the agent, or (in the perfect and pluper- 
fect) that it exists for him as completed : — 

Sic dissimillimis bestiis communiter cibus qvaeritur (( lie. 
"N. D. II. 48). Haec omnibus pertractata esse possunt (Id. de 
Or. II. 34). Res mini tota provisa est (Id. Verr. IV. 42). hut in 
the poets even without this distinction ; Carmina qvae scribuntur 
aqvae potoribus (Hor. Ep. I. 19, 3). 

b. On the other hand, the dative is regularly put with the gerun- 
dive and gerund, to denote the person who has to do somethiug 
(whose duty a thing is) : — 

Hoc mini faciendum est; haec pueris legenda sunt (the boys 
must read this). See §§ 420 and 421. 

§ 251. The poets use the dative, in order to express the direction of 
a motion towards: It clamor caelo (Virg. Mn. V. 451 = ad coelum 
versus). Spolia conjiciunt igni (i.q. in ignem, Id. ib. XI. 1U4). 



§ 252. The Ablative denotes, in general, that a thing, though not 
standing in the relation of the direct or more remote object indi- 
cated by the accusative and dative, belongs to the predicate, serving 
to complete and define it more accurately (stands with the thing 
predicated as a circumstance attending it, or a thing pertaining to 
it). The ablative is used in this way either with the prepositions 
given in § 172, 1, or alone: for those cases in which the ablative 
is used without a preposition, the rules are given below. 

Obs. Nearly everywhere where the ablative stands in Latin, a prepo- 
sition (as in, through, on, from, with, by) is used in English. This < I i t- 
ference should be carefully noted by beginners. The general divisions 
which are made in classifying the Latin ablatives sometimes approximate 
so nearly, that it cannot be easily determined to which class some par- 
ticular cases belong. 

'2±2 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 254 

§ 253. The ablative denotes that with regard to which something 
is predicated of the subject : — 

Aeger pedibus (in the feet) ; claudus altero pede ; captus ocu- 
lis; eloqventia praestantior (in eloquence); nulla re inferior; 
aetate et gloria antecellere ; natione Gallus (by nation) ; centum 
numero (in number) erant Sunt qvidam homines non re, sed 
nomine (not in reality, but in name). Specie urbs libera est, re vera 
omnia ad nutum Romanorum fiunt (Liv. XXXV. 31). Non tu 
qvidem tota re, sed temporibus errasti (Cic. Phil. II. 9) . 

Obs. With regard to is expressed by ad in connection with adjectives, 
•when mention is made of something external to the subject, with regard 
to which judgment is passed on the subject : accusare multos qvum 
periculosum est turn sordidum ad famam (Cic. Off. II. 14). Nulla 
est species (sight) pulchrior et ad rationem sollertiamqve (in 
respect of their wise arrangement^ praestantior qvam solis lunaeqve 
cursuum (Cic. N. D. II. 62) . On the side of or in the direction of where 
the situation and condition of a person or thing are spoken of, is also 
expressed by ab : Caesar metuebat, ne a re frumentaria laboraret 
(Cses. B. G. VII. 10), lest he should be embarrassed with respect to pro- 
visions ; mediocriter a doctrina instructus. 

, § 254. The ablative is used to denote the means and instrument, 
by and with which a thing takes place or is done (ablativus instru- 
ment!) : — 

Manu gladium tenere ; capite onus sustinere ; seciiri aliqvem 
percutere ; amorem forma et moribus conciliare ; servari cura et 
opera alicujus ; aliqvid animo (scientia, amore, numero), com- 
prehendere, vexare aliqvem injuriis et contumeliis ; veneno ex- 
stingvi. Britanni lacte et carne vivunt. Lycurgus leges suas 
auctoritate Apollinis Delphici confirmavit Lege Julia Latini civi- 
tatem Romanam consecuti sunt. 

Obs. 1. The thing which, with passive verbs, stands as the means, 
is, in active propositions, often put in the nominative as the agent: 
e.g. in the passive, Dei providentia mundus regitur; in the 
active, Dei providentia mundum regit; but also Deus providentia 
sua mundum regit. In the passive, a thing is only represented 
as acting (and this is done by adding the preposition ab, instead of 
using the mere ablativus instrumenti), when it is thought of as a per- 
son : e.g. Non est consentaneum qvi metu non frangatur, eum 
frangi cupiditate, nee, qvi invictum se a labore praestiterit, vinci 
a voluptate (Cic. Off. I. 20), labor and voluptas are personified as par- 
ties in the struggle. Eo a natura ipsa ducimur ; but, natura fit, ut 
liberi a parentibus amentur. (Piget dicere, ut vobis animus ab 


ignavia atqve socordia corruptus ait, Sail. Jug. 31. The mor« l 

construction would omit ab.) 

Obs. 2. Some poets use ab where the ablativus instrumenti would 
usually stand in prose : e.g. Turbinem celer assveta versat ab arte 
puer (Tib. I. 5, -1), by the help of his wonted art. Sidereo siccata 
ab aestu (Ov. Met. VI. 341). l 

Obs. 3. When it is intended to denote that a thing is effected by the 
employment of a rational agent, the ablative is not used, but per: 
Augustus per legatos suos bellum administrabat (also opera 
legatorum). But the ablative may stand when the person is named 
simply as a substitute for the thing it implies : e.g. testibus for tes- 
tium dictis ; or when it is considered as a thing : e.g. bodies of troops : 
Jacent (they are convicted) suis testibus (Cic. pro Mil. 18). Hos- 
teni sagittariis et funditoribus eminus terrcbat (Sail. Jug, ( J\). 
(On the contrary, of animals ; bubus arare, eqvo vehi, like curru.) 

§ 255. The ablativus instrumenti is used in Latin, in some con- 
structions, where the notion of a mean or instrument is not conveyed in 
the English expression which most nearly corresponds to them : e.g. 
extollere aliqvem honoribus (by posts of distinction, instead of 
which we should say, in English, to posts of distinction) ; erudire ali- 
qvem artibus et disciplinis (but also, erudire aliqvem in jure 
civili, of a particular department of instruction). In such expressions 
as florere (opibus et gratia) and valere (T. Coruncanius plurimum 
ingenio valuit), we have at the same time the idea of abundance. See 
§ 259. (Sacrificatum est majoribus hostiis, greater victims were 
sacrificed ; faciam vitula pro frugibus.) 

Obs. 1. With verbs which signify to value, to judge, to classify, &c, 
the ablative denotes that by which the valuation is regulated (the means 
and measure of the valuation) : Non numero haec judicautur, sed 
pondere. Maguos homines virtute metimur, non fortuna (Corn. 
Eum. 1). Populus Romanus desciiptus erat censu, ordinibus, 
aetatibus (Cic. Legg. III. 19). Amicitiae caritate et amore cer- 
nuntur (Id. Part. Or. 25). Hecato utilitate officium dirigit magis 
qvam humanitate (Cic. Off. III. 23). 

Obs. 2. Some verbs which signify to enclose, to hold, to receive, are 
sometimes followed by the ablative of the place by which the enclosing 
is effected, instead of the preposition in; as, includere aliqvem 
carcere (in carcere, usually in carcerem), versu aliqvid con- 
cludere, recipere, invitare aliqvem tecto, urbe (usually aliqvem 
in civitatem, in ordinem senatorium, aliqvem domum recipere), 
tenere se castris (copias in castris continere), tollere aliqvem 

i LTorrida ab igni (Virg. Georg. I. 231). J 

224 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 256 

rheda. Especially contineri aliqva re, to be composed of, to rest 
vpon ; artes, qvae conjectura continentur. Consto, to consist of, is 
usually constructed with ex (ex animo et corpore), sometimes with 
in, or the ablative only. 

§ 25 G. The ablative denotes the motive (in the agent himself) 
from which, or the influence through which (by virtue of which), a 
thing is done (ablativus causae moventis) : — 

Incendi dolore, ira incitari, arderc studio, cupiditate occaecari, 
caecus avaritia, exsultare gaudio. Multi homines officia dese- 
runt mollitia animi (Cic. Finn. I. 10). Qvod benevolentia fit, id 
odio factum criminaris (Id. Rose. Am. 15). Qvidam morbo ali- 
qvo et sensus stupore svavitatem cibi non sentiunt (Id. Phil. II. 
45). Servius Tullius regnare coepit non jussu, sed voluntate 
atqve concessu civium (Id. E.. P. II. 21). (Conversely : injussu 
imperatoris de statione discedere.) Veni ad eum ipsius rogatu 
arcessituqve (Cic. N". D. I. 6). 

(So permissu, coactu, efllagitatu, hortatu alicujus facere aliqvid, 
&c. , with verbal substantives, which are used only in the ablative, § 55, 
4). 1 Romano more filii puberes cum parentibus non lavantur 
(Id. Oil*. I. 35) . Cimon Atheniensium legibus emitti e vinculis non 
poterat, nisi pecuniam solvisset (Corn. Cim. I.). 

Obs. 1. The ablative of the motive is put most frequently with in- 
transitive and passive verbs, which denote the state of mind of the sub- 
ject, and more especially with their participles, when they qualify the 
subject of a proposition, where, in English, we often only say, out of. 
(Adductus, ardens, commotus, incitatus, incensus, impulsus ira, 
odio, haec feci, I did this out of anger, hatred.) Livy says, also : ab 
ira, ab odio, ab insita animis levitate, on account of (out of) anger, 
&c. (A preventing cause is expressed by prae : prae moerore, prae 
lacrimis loqvi non possum. / cannot speak for tears. Gens suarum 
rerum impotens prae domesticis discordiis, Liv. IX. 14.) (Per 
me licet, as far as I am concerned, for all me; qvi per aetatem pot- 
erant, by reason of age.) 

Obs. 2. According to is more accurately expressed by ex; Coloniae 
ex foedere milites dare debebant. 

Obs. 3. We must also notice the expressions, mea (tua, &c.) sen- 
tentia, meo judicio, in my (your) opinion : Curio mea sententia vel 
eloqventissimus temporibus illis fuit (Cic. de Or. II. 23). So- 
crates omnium eruditorum testimonio totiusqve judicio Graeciae 
qvum prudentia et acumine turn vero eloqventia omnium fuit 
facile princeps (Id. ib. III. 16). (The ablative here denotes that on 
the strength of which a person forms or expresses an opinion.) 

1 Injussu is used also as an adverb without a genitive (Liv.). 


§ 257. The ablatives causa and gratia, for the takeoff are pot 

with (and usually after) a genitive or possessive pronoun: — 

Reipublicac causa accusare aliqvem ; tua causa hoc facio ; dolo- 
rum effugiendorum gratia voluptates omittere. 

Ons. 1. Without a genitive or possessive pronoun, we have ea de 
causa, or ea causa ; justis causis, ea gratia. 

Obs. 2. With these exceptions, the cause (signifying that for the take 
of which a thing is done) is not expressed by the ablative, but bv the 
prepositions ob and propter (or by causa, gratia). Yet from a con- 
ciseness of expression the use of the ablative of means or motive comet 
very near to denoting the cause, and is almost identical with it ; e.g. 
Levitate armorum et qvotidiana exercitatione nihil hostibus 
noceri poterat (Cass. B. G. V. 34, i.q. efficiebatur, ut nihil no- 
ceri posset). The distinction between the ablative of the motive 
(in the subject itself) and the mode of exactly expressing the cause 
may be seen from the following example : Non tam ob recentia ulla 
merita qvam originum memoria (Liv. XXXVIII. 39), remembering 
their origin. 

Obs. 3. Here we may notice the use of the ablative eo, and occasion- 
ally hoc, in the signification on that account ( = ideo) : Homines 
suorum mortem eo lugent, qvod eos orbatos vitae commodis 
arbitrantur (Cic. Tusc. I. 13). (Millia frumenti tua triverit area 
centum, Non tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac meus, Hor. Sat. I. 
1, 46.) 

§ 258. The ablative of a substantive qualified by an adjective 
(participle) or pronoun, denotes the way in which a thing is done, 
the accompanying circumstances wider which it is done (ablativus 
modi). With those substantives which in themselves denote a way 
or manner (modo, more, ratione, ritu, sometimes consvetudine, 
habitu), a genitive may be put instead of the adjective. 

Miltiades summa aeqvitate res Chersonesi constituit (Corn. 
Milt. 2), with the greatest justice. Deos pura, integra incorrupta et 
mente et voce venerari debemus (Cic. N. D. II. 28). Summa 
vi insistere. More Carnadeo disputare. Fieri nullo modo (pacto) 
potest. Apis more modoqve carmina fingo (Hor. Od. IV. 2, 27). 
Voluptas pingitur pulcherrimo vestitu et ornatu regali (tf», or with, 
the most beautiful vestments and royal magnificence) in solio sedens 
(Cic. Fin. II. 21). (Also, habitu reginae, in the garb of a queen.) 
Ire agmine qvadrato. Allobrogum legati pontem Mulvium 
magno comitatu ingrediuntur (Id. in Cat. III. 2), with a numerous 


226 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 253 

suite) . Obvius fit Miloni Clodius, expeditus, in eqvo, nulla rheda, 
nullis impedimentis (Id. pro Mil. 10), without a carriage, without bag- 
9 a ff e - 

So nullo ordine, nullo negotio, without difficulty, &c. Saltus 
baud sine clade, majore tamen jumentorum qvam hominum 
pernicie, superatus est (Li v. XXI. 35). Nonum jam annum velut 
in acie adversus optimates sto maximo privatim periculo, nullo 
publice emolumento (Id. VI. 39) . Yet the preposition cum is often 
introduced when something accompanying the action, or externally 
connected with it, is spoken of: e.g. magno studio aliqvem adju- 
vare, and cum magno studio adesse (Cic. pro Leg. Man. 24) ; cum 
labore operoso et molesto moliri aliqvid (Id. N. D. II. 23) ; cum 
omni gravitate et jucunditate aliqvid explicare (Id. de Or. I. 13). 
Romani cum magno gaudio Horatium accipiunt (Liv. I. 25). 
Sedere cum (in) tunica pulla (Cic. Verr. IV. 24). 

Obs. 1. On the other hand, cum can never be put with those sub- 
stantives which, in themselves, denote a way and manner (modo, &c), 
or a disposition and purpose (hac mente, hoc consilio feci, aeqvo 
animo fero), or a condition (ea condicione, ea lege, on the condition), 
nor yet with the parts of the body : nudo capite, promisso capillo 

Obs. 2. If the name of that which accompanies the action, and is 
manifested by it, has no adjective or pronoun agreeing with it, the 
preposition cum is employed : e.g. cum cura scribere (not cura 
alone) , cum fide exponere, cum virtute vivere. Multa facere im- 
pure atqve taetre, cum temeritate et imprudentia (Cic. Div. I. 
29). Some ablatives, however, are excepted, which, in certain com- 
binations, are used alone adverbially; as, ordine, ratione (recte atqve 
ordine facere, via et ratione disputare), more, jure, injuria, con- 
sensu, clamore, silentio (also cum clamore, cum silentio), dolo, 
fraude, vi, vitio (in the phrase, vitio creatus), agmine (ire, in the 
order of march). (Non proeliis neqve acie bellum gerere, Sail. Jug. 
54, of the way and means chosen. Versibus aliqvid scribere.) The 
preposition per is sometimes used in almost the very same sense, to 
denote in a certain way : e.g. per vim (multa dolo, pleraqve per 
vim audebantur, Liv. XXXIX. 8), per simulationem ; per scelus 
et latrocinium aliqvid auferre (Cic. Verr. I. 21) ; per litteras, in 
writing ; per causam exercendorum remigum (Caes. B. C. III. 24), 
under the pretext. 

Obs. 3. Cum must always be put to express any thing that a 
person has with or on him (except his dress), even if an adjective 
be added ; servus comprehensus est cum gladio, and cum magno 


Ons. 4. As in the example magno comitatu, the modal ablative is often 
used of military forces: exiguis copiis pugnare; proficisci, venire, 
adesse omnibus copiis, expedito exercitu, triginta navibus longis. 
But cum is also used ; Caesar cum omnibus copiis Helvetios seqvi 
coepit (Cabs. U. G. I. 2G). (When there is no adjective or numeral, 
cum is always used.) 

Ons. 5. Here also we may notice the expressions, pace alicujus and 
bona venia alicujus dicere aliqvid, with his permission; periculo 
alicujus aliqvid facere, at his risk; also, alicujus auspiciis, imperio, 
ductu rem gerere, under any one's command; simulatione (specie) 
timoris cedere, zvith assumed fear (Caes. B. C. II. 40) ; obsidum 
nomine, as hostages (Id. B. G. III. 2) ; classis nomine pecuniam 
civitatibus imperare, to impose a tax, under the pretence of employing 
it for the equipment of a fleet (Cic. pro Flacc. 12) ; alicujus verbis 
salutare aliqvem, in some one's name. On the other hand, cum 
(to) sometimes serves to denote an (attendant) consequence and effect : 
Accidit, ut Verres illo itinere veniret Lampsacum cum magna ca- 
lamitate et prope pernicie civitatis (Cic. Verr. I. 24) . 

§ 259. The ablative serves to denote the price for which a thing 
is bought, sold, made, or brought about (also with the verbs esse, 
stare, constare, licere, signifying to cost, to be on sale for), and to 
express the value at which a thing is estimated: — 

Eriphyle auro viri vitam vendidit. Praedium emitur (venit) 
centum millibus nummum. Caelius habitat triginta millibus 
(Cic. pro Ca?l. 7). Apollonius mercede docebat. Victoria 
Poenis (dative) multo sangvine stetit. Tritici niodius in Sicilia 
erat (aestimatus est) ternis sestertiis (Cic. Verr. III. 81). Otium 
non gemmis venale. 

Obs. 1. If the price is only indefinitely given (as being high or low), 
the genitive of adjectives is sometimes used to express it (tanti, magni, 
&c). See § 294. 

Obs. 2. We find the expressions mutare, commutare, permutare 
aliqvid aliqvo, to exchange a thing (part with it for something else) : 
e.g. fidem et religionem pecunia mutare ; oves pretio mutare. 
Sometimes, however, they denote, to obtain a thing in exchange for 
another. We also have commutare aliqvid cum aliqvo, to aeqi 
part with a thing in the way of exchange (usually the latter). 

§ 260. The ablative is put with various verbs, to define their 
meaning more accurately, by specifying in what, and in n jerence 
to what, the action or condition in question is manifested. 


a. With those verbs which signify (intrans.) to have an abund- 
ance of an)- thing, or (trans.) to provide with any thing, to treat any 
one (any thing) in such a way, that lie (it) obtains something, the 
ablative is employed, to show in what the abundance consists, and 
with what a thing is provided (ablativus copiae) ; e.g. : — 

Abundare otio, affluere divitiis ; culter nianat cruore, is drip- 
j)ing with blood : refercire libros fabulis ; augere aliqvem scientia ; 
imbuere vas odore, animum honestis artibus; afficere aliqvem. 
beueficio, honore, incommodo, poena, ignominia ; dignari aliqvem 

Such verbs are abundo, redundo, affluo, scateo, and others in cer- 
tain significations : e.g. pluit lapidibus, it rains stones ; aures vocibus 
circumsonant, personant ; 1 compleo, expleo, impleo, refercio, 
stipo, instruo, orno, onero, cumulo, satio, augeo, remuneror, afBcio, 
imbuo, conspergo, respergo, dignor (in an active signification) , and 
some others. (Littora urbibus distincta, studded with cities.) 

Obs. In the poets and a few prose-writers, impleo and compleo 
have the genitive instead of the ablative ; e.g. implere hostem fugae 
et formidinis (Liv. X. 14). The same construction is occasionally 
found in the poets with one or two of the other verbs ; e.g. Satiata 
ferinae dextera caedis erat (Ov. Met. VII. 808). 

b. The signification of some verbs may be conceived in two ways, 
so that they may either be constructed with the accusative and 
ablative in the way above noticed (to furnish one with a thing), or 
(signifying, to give a person a thing, to do a thing for and in refer- 
ence to him), with the accusative and dative : e.g. donare scribam 
suum anulo aureo, to present one's secretary with a gold ring ; and 
donare adjutoribus suis multa, to make many presents to his coad- 

Such verbs are the following : dono, circumdo (urbem muris and 
muros urbi), adspergo (alicui labeculam, to affix, to spirt on him, 
as it were ; and aliqvem ignominia, to bespatter, to covet^) ; induo 
(aliqvem veste, particularly in the passive, indutus veste, and alicui 
vestem 2 ), inuro (alicui notam and aliqvem nota), misceo (com- 
monly aqvam nectare, rubor candore mixtus, more rarely fletum 
cruori, misceo iram cum luctu), and admisceo, with some few others 
compounded with ad and in (afflo, illino, imprimo, inscribo, intexo) ; 
also circumfundo, especially in the passive ; circumfundor luce and 
circumfunditur mini. lux. 

1 We find also clamor hostes circumsonat, and hence circumsonor clamore. 

2 Also induo vestem, to put on a dress; and poet, induor. See § 237, o. 

§ 262 THE AHLATIVl:. 

Obs. The following ii a bold poetical expression (in VI. 

229) : Ter socios pura circumtnlit unda, went round and $pr\ 

them with pure water. (Loca custodii3 intermissa, Liv. VI i 
i.q., ubi custodiae intermissae sunt.) 1 

§ 2G1. a. The ablative is put with those intransitive verbs which 
signify a deficiency in (a need of) something, and those transitive 
verbs which signify a deprivation of a tiling, to denote that of which 
there is a deficiency or of which a person is deprived (ablative 
of want); as, with careo, egeo, indigeo, vaco, — orbo, privo, 
spolio, 2 fraudo, nudo {to strip of — ) ; e.g. : — 

Carere sensu, egere auxilio, vacare culpa, spoliare hominem 
fortunis, nudare turrim defensoribus. 

Obs. Egeo and indigeo (indigeo especially very often) also govern 
the genitive. 3 

b. In the same way we have invideo alicui aliqva re (laude sua), 
and interdico alicui aliqva re, forbid a person the use of a thing and 
access to it; e.g. aqva et igni, domo sua. (In the passive, imperson- 
ally ; prodigis (dative) solet bonis interdici.) 

Obs. 1. These verbs are less frequently constructed with an accusa- 
tive : invidere alicui laudem (but often invidere laudi alicujus), 
and interdicere feminis usum purpurae ; interdicta voluptas. 

Obs. 2. A double construction (as in § 259, b) is found with exuo 
(aliqvem veste and vestem mini, or commonly only vestem) and 
abdico (me magistratu and abdico magistratum) . 

§ 2G2. Those verbs are also constructed with an ablative, which 
denote (being intransitive) to abstain from a thing, to renounce It : 
or (transitive), to free, to keep away, to exclude from something ; 
as, — 

Abstineo, desisto, supersedeo, libero, solvo, exsolvo, levo, 
exonero, arceo, prohibeo, excludo: e.g. abstinere (or abstinere 
se) maledicto, scelere, liberare aliqvem suspicione, levare aliqvem 
onere, arcere tyrannum reditu, prohibere aliqvem cibo tectoqve ; 
prohibere Campaniam populationibus, to protect from pillage. 

But the verbs which signify to abstain, to hinder, to exclude, are also used 
with the preposition ab: e.g. abstinere a vitiis; prohibere hostem a 

1 [ Virgineum suffuderit ore cruorem (Virg. Georg. I. 430).] 

2 [Foliis viduantur orni (Hor. Od. II. 9, 8).] 

3 Vaco occurs also in the signification to be imouupied, ami tbn ■ dative m:i\ bt Mil- 
joined : e.g. philosophiae, have leisure to engage in it ; brace, in later writers, vacare rei 
alicui, to apply to a thing, sptnd one's time about it. 


pugna (cives a periculo) ; excludere aliqvern a republica. Where 
a person is specified, the preposition is always employed ; arcere 
aliqvid a sese. 

Obs. 1. Ab is rarely put -with libero, and never with levo, ex- 
onero, absolvo, but only the ablative. (Liberare aliqvem ex iucom- 
modis, out of.) 

Obs. 2. Intercludo has a double construction (viam, fugam alicui, 
to cut off; and aliqvem commeatu, a castris, shut out from). 

Obs. 3. Only the poets and some later prose-writers use absterreo, 
deterreo, and occasionally also some verbs compounded with dis, as 
dignosco, disto, distingvo, together with secerno, separo, with the 
ablative without ab ; e.g. vero distingvere falsum, turpi secernere 
honestum (Hor.). 

Obs. 4. The poets, in imitation of a Greek idiom, have put the geni- 
tive with some few such verbs ; e.g. abstineto irarum (Hor. Od. III. 
27, 69), desine qverelaruxn (Id. Od. II. 9, 17), solutus operum (Id.), 
freed from work. 

§ 263. Those verbs also, which denote to remove a person or 
thing (with violence) from or out of the place where it is, are some- 
times put with the ablative alone, but usually with a preposition of 
place (ab, ex, de) ; e.g. : — 

Movere aliqvem vestigio, pellere, expellere, depellere hostem 
loco (e loco, ab urbe), deturbare aliqvem moenibus (de moenibus) ; 
also, in a derived signification, deturbo, and especially dejicio (ali- 
qvem spe, praetura, but also de sententia). 

In the same way, the ablative without a preposition is often put with 
cedo, to retire from, quit ; decedo, excedo (cedere loco, vita, and 
e loco, de vita; decedere provincia, Italia, and de provincia; also, 
cedere alicui possessione hortorum, to give up possession to one) ; so 
also with abeo, used of resigning an office (abeo, magistratu, dicta- 
tura). 1 

Obs. The ablative alone is very rare with exeo, egredior, ejicio. 
On the ablative of the names of towns in answer to the question, Whence? 
see § 275. 

§ 264. With the verbs gaudeo, laetor, glorior, doleo, moereo, and 
with fido and confido, the ablative denotes that at which one rejoices, 
&c, or that on which a man relies; e.g. gaudere aliorum incom- 
modo, gloriari victoria sua, confidere natura loci 

1 Excidere UXOre (Ter. Andr. II. 5, 12). In the language of the courts, causa, for- 
mula cadere, manumittere (manu mittere) servum. 

§ 266 THE AllLATIYi:. 

OBS. Fidoand confido alio have the dative (diffido, almo-t tin 
See § 244. Doleo has also the accusative (meum casum illi dolue- 
runt). Sec § 223, c. Glorior de and in aliqva re (tn and of the 
possession of a thing). Nitor auctoritate alicujus, support one 4 
on it (as a moan or instrument) ; also, divinatio nititur in conjectura. 
We should also notice delector aliqva re and aliqvo, tojind pit ai 
any thing or person) ; Laelio valde delector. 

§ 265. The verbs utor (abutor), fruor, fungor, potior, vescor, 
have the object in the ablative : — 

Uti victoria, frui otio, fungi munere, urbe potiri, vesci came. 
(Utor aliqvo amico, to have him for a friend, — amico being in appo- 
sition ; so, likewise, Me usurus es aeqvo, you will find me fair.) 

Obs. 1. The use of the ablative is to be explained by the fact, that 
these verbs had not originally a purely transitive signification. Potior is 
also put with the genitive, though rarely in prose; but always in the 
phrase, potiri rerum, to make one's self master of sovereign power (to 
possess it). 

Ons. 2. In the older poets, and some few prose-writers, these verbs 
are occasionally found with the accusative. The gerundive is used like 
that of a common transitive verb which governs the accusative : e 
munere fungendo ; dare alicui vestem utendam ; spes potiun- 
dorum castrorum (Cses. B. G. III. 6 = castris potiendi). 

§ 266. The expression opus est stands as a predicate with the 
nominative, without altering opus ; e.g. : — 

Dux nobis (dative) et auctor opus est (Cic. ad Fam. II. 0), Wt 
a leader and guide; exempla permulta opus sunt (Id. de Invent. II. 

Or impersonally (there is need, one wants) with the ablative j 
e.g.: — 

Praesidio opus est. Auctoritate tua mini opus est. Qvid (nihil ) 
opus est verbis? (In the negative form, or the interrogative with qvid, 
it is, almost without exception, impersonal.) In this last way, usus est 
is also employed with the same signification : Vigiuti usus est minis. 
(Si usus est, in case it should be necessary.) 

Ons. With opus est, that which is necessary may also be expressed 
by an infinitive, or an accusative with the infinitive ; e.g. Qvid opus est 
maturare? or, Opus est te abire, opus est Hirtium conveniii, that 
Ilirtius should be spoken to. Instead of this infinitive, the ablative of ■ 
participle, or substantive combined with a participle, is often employed : 
Opus est maturato (Liv. I. 58). Opus fuit Hirtio convento (< i> . ad 
Att. X. 4). Qvid opus est facto (qvid, — as if fieri were to fol- 

232 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 263 

§ 267 . We should particularly notice the ablative with assvesco and 
assvefacio : e.g. assvetus labore ' (more rarely with the dative, 
assvetus militiae) ; and with sto, to adhere to, abide by (stare con- 
ditionibus, promissis, stare suo judicio), 2 and with facio and fio 
when the question is, What is to be, or can be made, or become of a 
thing : Qvid facies hoc nomine ? Qvid fiet nave ? (Qvid me fu- 
turum est ?) 

Obs. We find also with the dative, Qvid facies huic homini (with) $ 
see § 241, Obs. 5. (Qvid fiet de militibus? What is to be done with 
respect to the soldiers ?) 

§ 268. The ablative is put with various adjectives, which are 
allied in signification with the verbs cited in §§ 260, 261, 262, and 
264, to point out the object in reference to which the quality is 
given. Such adjectives are the following: — 

a. Those which denote an abundance of any thing (§ 260) : praeditus, 
onustus, plenus, fertilis, dives, also dignus and its opposite indignus ; 
e.g. onustus praeda, dives agris. 

Obs. 1. Plenus, fertilis, dives, are also put with the genitive, which 
is the usual construction of plenus, in the best writers : Gallia plena 
civium optimorum ; plenus rimarum ; ager fertilis frugum. So 
also the participles refertus and completus (but only with the geni- 
tive of personal appellations) : Gallia referta negotiatorum ; career 
completus mercatorum. 

Obs. 2. Conjunctus, combined with any thing (used of things) often 
has the ablative : Mendicitas aviditate conjuncta (conjungere men- 
dicitatem cum aviditate) ; but, Talis simulatio conjuncta est avi- 
ditati, borders on vanity. 

Obs. 3. The word macte is used alone, or with the imperative of 
sum (macte esto, este), in praises and congratulations, and takes the 
name of the thing on account of which a man is pronounced happy 
(generally virtute) in the ablative : Macte virtute diligentiaqve esto. 
(Juberem te macte virtute esse, Liv. II. 12, would congratulate you 
on your bravery. y 

b. Those which denote a want of something, an exemption from some- 
thing (§§ 261 and 262) : inanis, nudus, orbus, vacuus, liber, im- 
munis, purus, alienus (strange, unsuitable), and also extorris ; e.g. 
orbus rebus omnibus, liber cura animus ; ducere aliqvid alienum 

1 [Nullo officio aut disciplina adsuefacti (Caes. B. G. IV. 1).] 

2 Also stare in eo, qvod sit judicatum. 

3 This word is generally, but without good reason, considered as the vocative of an adjective 
otherwise unused. 

§ 270 Till-: ABLATIVE. 

sua maj estate ; extorris patria, regno. (On iuops and paup. 
§ 209, c.) But these adjectives, with the exception irf liwyrii. trrtrnt. 
and extorris, are also used with the preposition ab ; oppidum vacunni 
defeusoribus and a defensoribus. 

Obs. 1. Liber always has ab with the names of persons (locus liber 
ab arbitris), otherwise but seldom. Alienus has ab, especially in the 
signification disinclined (alienus a litteris), and always with the nimoi 
of persons ; alienus a me. 

Obs. 2. Inanis and immunis have also the genitive: haec inanis- 
sima prudentiae reperta sunt; alienus, less frequently. The n 
these adjectives are hardly found with the genitive, except in the poets ; 
liber curarum, purus sceleris, vacuus operum; mons nudus arbo- 
ris (Ov.). Alienus, signifying inconvenient, unfavorable, has also the 

c. Contentuo, anxius, laetu3, maestus, superbus, fretus. Natura 
parvo cultu contenta est. Fretus conscientia officii. 1 

d. Dignua and indignus : dignus beneficio, poena ; dignus Hercule 
labor ; indigna homine oratio. 

§ 269. Those participles which denote birth (natus, ortus, geni- 
tus, satus, editus), have the parentage or rank indicated in the 
ablative : — 

Mercurius Jove et Maj a natus erat ; natus nobili genere ; eqves- 
tri loco ortus. With the parents, ex (de) is also used ; Ex fratre 
et sorore nati erant. 

Obs. More remote ancestors are expressed by ortus ab : Belgae orti 
sunt a Germanis (Ca3S. B. G. II. 4). Cato Uticensis a Censorio 
ortus erat (Cic. pro Mur. 31). 

§ 270. The ablative sometimes denotes the measure of distance. 
See, under the accusative, § 234. With comparatives the ablative 
denotes how much a thing exceeds (is greater or less than) some- 
thing else in the quality mentioned : — 

Romani duobus millibus plures erant qvam Sabini ; uno digito 
plus habere, a finger more ; multis partibus (times) major; dimidio 
minor ; altero tanto longior, as long again ; qvinqvies tanto am- 
plius (Cic. Verr. III. 97). Honestas omni pondere gravior ha- 
benda est qvam reliqva omnia (Id. Off. III. 8), infinitely mure weighty % 
more important. In the same way. the ablative IS used, with ante and 
post, signifying how much earlier or later a thing takes place : and with 

1 Fretus also occurs in Livy with a dative (like fido). 

234 LATIN GRAMMAR. §271 

infra, supra, and ultra: e.g. multis annis ante; novem annis post 
bellum Punicum. 

Obs. 1. The ablative of a neuter pronoun or adjective is accordingly 
used with comparatives, as well as with ante and post, aliter and secus, 
to denote the measure indefinitely : e.g. eo, so much ; qvo, as ; multo, 
tanto, qvanto, paullo, nihilo; multo major, paullo post (rarely post 
paullo) ; qvo antiqvior, eo melior. (Hoc major gloria est, qvod 
solus vici, so much the greater, because, i.q. so much the greater as — .) 
But we also find adjectives in the accusative (adverbs in m), as niul- 
tum, aliqvantum, in the poets and later writers, instead of the ablative ; 
e.g. Aliqvantum iniqvior (Ter. Heaut. I. 2, 27). (With the super- 
lative, multo maxima pars, the greatest part by far.) 

Obs. 2. The ablative of those adjectives which denote number and 
quantity is also found with the verbs malo, praesto, supero, and those 
compounded with ante : Multo malo. Omnis sensus hominum 
multo antecellit sensibus bestiarum (Cic. N. D. II. 57). But (ex- 
cept with malo) the accusative is also used: Multum (tantum) 
praestat, it is much {so much) better. 

Obs. 3. Sometimes ante, with the ablative, refers to the present; so 
long ago : e.g. Catilina paucis ante diebus erupit ex urbe (Cic. in 
Cat. III. 1) ; which is otherwise expressed by abhinc with the accusative 
(see § 235, Obs. 2), or by ante with the accusative (see the following 
observation) . 

Obs. 4. The interval of time is also expressed by the accusative 
with ante and post, instead of the ablative ; so that decern diebus 
post (ante, — or, by altering the arrangement of the words, decern post 
diebus, rarely post decern diebus) is the same as post (ante) decern 
dies (decern post dies) : e.g. Eodem etiam Rhodia classis post 
dies paucos venit (Liv. XXXVII. 13). Aliqvot post menses 
homo occisus est (Cic. pro Rose. Am. 44). * Sometimes ante 
centum annos is used to denote a hundred years ago (== centum 
abhinc annos) ; and post tres dies, in three days. For the expression 
with an ordinal number, ante diem decimum qvam, and the use of the 
ablative only in the signification ago (his centum annis), see § 276, 
O65. 5 and 6. 

§ 271. With comparatives the second member of the compari- 
son, which is otherwise subjoined with qvam (than), is often ex- 
pressed by the ablative; e.g. major Scipione = major qvam Scipio. 
For further particulars on this head see under the comparative, 
§ 304, &c. 

1 For decern diebus anteqvam (postqvam), earlier (later) than, we find also (lesa 
frequently) ante (post) decern dies qvam. 

§ 273 THE A ML ATI VK. 

Obs. The ablative seems properly to denote that the bigfaa 

brought to light by the other, which U ftMOCiated with it in the com- 

§ 272. The ablative of a substantive combined with an adjective 
(participle, pronoun) is joined to a substantive either with the rerb 
esse, or without any connecting word, to denote the quality and 
character of a person or thing (the ablative of quality y the di 
tire ablative) : — 

Agesilaus statura fuit humili et corpore exiguo. Herodotus 
tanta est eloqventia, ut me magnopere delectet (Cic. deOr. II. IS). 
Summis ingeniis exqvisitaqve doctrina philosophi (Id. Fin. I. 1). 
C. Valerius, summa virtute et humanitate adolescens ((as. T>. C. 
I. 47). Erat inter Labienum et hostem difficili transitu flumen 
ripisqve praeruptis (Id. B. G. VI. 7). Apollonius affirmabat 
servum se illo nomine habere neminem (Cic. Verr. V. 7). (Fhilo- 
dami iilia summa integritate pudicitiaqve existimabatur, Cic. 
Verr. I. 25, = esse existim.) 

Obs. 1. For the distinction between the ablative of quality and the 
genitive of quality, see § 287, Obs. 2. 

Obs. 2. In the same way, we have trulla aureo manubrio, a cup 
with a golden handle (of a constituent part of the vessel itself) ; but also 
cum aureo manubrio. 1 Sometimes the ablative of quality is put with 
sum, to denote a situation, where we otherwise find in : Esse magna 
gloria. Nunqvam pari periculo Carthago fuerat (Corn. Ilannib. 2). 
Esse meliore condicione ; eodem statu esse, manere ; and In 
eodem statu. 

Obs. 3. Instead of the ablative, a genitive is sometimes used, when ref- 
erence is made to external form and magnitude : e.g. clavi ferrei digiti 
pollicis crassitudine (Caes. B. G. III. 13), of the thickness of' oik's 
thumb. Uri sunt specie et figura et colore tauri (Id. B. G. V 1 

§ 273. A local relation (the remaining or happening in a place, 
motion from a place) is commonly expressed by prepositions (in — 
ab, ex, de) ; in some cases, however, the preposition is left out and 
the ablative used alone. 

a. The remaining or happening in a place is denoted by the abla- 
tive alone, when the names of towns and smaller islands (which may be 
regarded as towns) are spoken of, if the names belong to the third 
declension, or are of the plural number : Babylone habitare ; Athenis 
litteris operam dare. 2 

1 [Nuntiabant agnum cum duobus capitibus natum, et Sinuessae porcum 
humano capita (Liv. XXXII. 9).] 

2 Carthagini, Tiburi, sec § 43. d. 



If, on the other hand, the name of the town (or island) is of the 
singular number and of the first or second declension, the genitive is 
employed. See § 296. 

Obs. If urbs or oppidum precedes, in is inserted; in oppido 
Hispali. So also, in general, when there is a word in apposition to the 
name ; Cives Romanos Neapoli, in celeberrimo oppido, saepe cum 
mitella vidimus (Cic. pro. Rab. Post. 10). 

b. In like manner the preposition in is often omitted with the word 
locus, when accompanied by a pronoun or adjective : hoc loco ; aeqvo 
loco pugnare ; castra opportunis locis posita erant ; (but also in 
altis locis, especially in speaking of what happens in all high places). 
The following also stand without a preposition: ruri (more rarely, 
rure) , in the country ; dextra, laeva, on the right, on the left ; terra 
mariqve, by land and sea (also mari res magnas gerere ; but in mari, 
on the sea ; in terra pedem ponere) ; and sometimes medio, in the 
middle; medio aedium, in the middle of the house; medio coeli 
terraeqve. (Usually in mediis aedibus, medius inter coelum ter- 
ramqve.) (See § 300, b, and § 311.) 

Obs. 1. When locus has a derived signification, in is almost always 
omitted ; secundo loco aliqvem numerare ; meliore loco res 
nostrae sunt. Yet we find both parentis loco ducere (habere) 
aliqvem, filii loco esse, and in parentis, in filii loco. 1 Loco and in 
loco (suo loco) denote in the right place (in one's own place) . In is 
also sometimes omitted with parte, partibus, signifying side. Reliqvis 
oppidi partibus sic est pugnatum, ut aeqvo loco discederetur 
(Cses. B. C. III. 112). With libro, in is usually omitted, when the 
contents of the whole book are referred to ; De amicitia alio libro 
dictum est (Cic. Off. II. 9). Animo stands without a preposition 
when emotions of the mind are spoken of; commoveri, angi animo, vol- 
vere aliqvid animo. 

Obs. 2. The poets often use other words also in the ablative, without 
a preposition, to express remaining in a place, when there is no fear of 
its being confounded with other significations of the ablative : Lucis 
habitamus opacis (Virg. 2En. VI. 673). Custodia vestibulo sedet 
(Id. ib. VI. 575). Silvisqve agrisqve viisqve corpora foeda 
jacent (Ov. Met. VII. 547). 

c. The ablative is also usually used without a preposition, when the 
adjective totus is subjoined, to denote that something is pervaded : e.g. 
Urbe tota gemitus fit, through the whole city. Caesar nuntios tota 
civitate Aeduorum dimittit (Cses. B. G. VII. 38). Menippus, 
tota Asia illis temporibus disertissimus (Cic. Brut. 91), in all Asia, 

1 Parentis numero esse, haberi; butinnumero oratorum esse (haberi, 
duci), to be reckoned amongst the orators. 


if one were to search fkrontgh all Asia, Qvis toto mari locus tutus 
fuit? (Id. pro Loo-. Man. 11), what place in the whole 

Ons. In is nevertheless also used: e.g. Tanti terrae motus In 
Gallia compluribusqve insulis totaqve in Italia facti sunt (Cic. do 
Div. I. 85). Nego In tota Sicilia ullum argenteum vas fuissc, 
qvod Verres non conqvisierit (Id. in Verr. l\ r . 1). 

§ 274. The ablative is used without a preposition to signify the 
path or way by which, or direction in which, a movement take* place : 

Via Nomentana (via breviore) proficisci ; porta Collina urbem 
intrare; recta linea deorsum ferri; Pado frumentum subvehere, 

on the Po, up the Po. 

§ 275. A motion from a place is expressed without a preposition 
by the ablative of the names of towns and smaller islands, and the 
words domo, from home ; rure, from the country ; and sometimes 
humo, from the ground: — 

Roma proficisci, discedere Athenis, Delo Rhodum navigare ; 
frumentum Rhodo advehere ; domo auxilium mittere ; rure ad- 
venire ; oculos tollere humo (also, ab humo) . 

Obs. 1. Ab is, however, sometimes (by Livy usually) used with the 
names of towns, and always when a removal from the neighborhood of 
a town is spoken of; e.g. Caesar a Gergovia discessit (CflBB. P>. <1. 
VII. bd),from Gergovia, which he had been besieging. The preposition 
is likewise used when oppidum or urbs precedes the name : Expellitur 
ex oppido Gergovia (Id. ib. VII. 4). (Genus Tusculo, ex clar- 
issimo municipio, profectum, Cic. pro Font. 14.) 

Obs. 2. The ablative of the names of towns (together with domo) is 
used without a preposition to denote the place from which a letter is 
written (e.g. Roma a. d. iv. Idus Octobres), and with abesse, to be 
absent ; e.g. abesse Roma (but tria millia passuum a Roma abesse, 
of the distance) . 

Obs. 3. To denote a person's home, we sometimes find such expres- 
sions as Gn. Magius Cremona (Cjcs. B. C. I. 24), On. Magius of 
Cremona; more usually with an adjective: Gn. Magius Cremonensit. 
(In Livy we also find Turnus Herdonius ab Aricia, I. 50.) In the 
same way is used the ablative of the names of the Roman tribes ; Ser- 
vius Sulpicius Lemonia, of the Lemonian tribe. 

Obs. 4. The poets use also the ablatives of other words to indicate 
the place from which a motion proceeds : e.g. descendere caelo 
(Virg.) ; labi eqvo (Ilor.). (Abesse virtute Messalae, to tall short 
of Hor.) Of the ablative with certain verbs, in the signification out of, 
away from, see § 263. 

238 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 276 

§ 276. The ablative of words which denote a space of time is 
used both to denote the time at which (when) a thing happens, and 
the time within which, in the course of which, it happens: — 

a. Tertio anno urbs capta est. Hora sexta (vigilia tertia) 
Caesar profectus est. Res patrum memoria (nostra aetate) gestae. 
Pyrrhi temporibus jam Apollo versus facere desierat (Cic. de Div. 
II. 56). Qva nocte natus Alexander est, eadem Dianae Ephesiae 
templum deflagravit (Id. X. D. II. 27). Initio aestatis consul in 
Graeciam trajecit. So also without an adjective (or genitive) : hieme 
(in the winter) , aestate, die, nocte, luce (in broad daij) . 

b. Roscius Romam multis annis non venit (Cic. Rose. Am. 27). 
Nemo his viginti annis reipublicae fuit hostis, qvi non bellum 
eodem tempore mini qvoqve indixerit (Id. Phil. II. 1). Saturni 
stella triginta fere annis cursum suum conficit (Cic. N. D. II. 
20). Agamemnon vix decern annis urbem unam cepit (Corn. 
Epam. 5). 

Obs. 1. To express the time when a thing happens, in is added, in some 
particular phrases. To denote a thing which is always true, we find the 
expressions, in omni aetate, in omni aeternitate (through all eter- 
nity), in omni puncto temporis (at every moment). In tempore, and 
simply tempore, signifies at the right (suitable) time. 1 In tali tem- 
pore (Sail. Cat. 48), under such circumstances ; auxilio alicui esse in 
gravissimis ejus temporibus. 

Obs. 2. Some words, too, which do not, in themselves, denote time, 
but an event, are used, in the ablative, without a preposition, in order to 
intimate the time when a thing takes place, particularly adventu and 
discessu with a genitive : Adventu Caesaris in Galliam Moritas- 
gus regnum obtinebat (Ctes. B. G. V. 54), at the time of Ccesafs 
arrival; with some others (ortu, occasu solis), comitiis, ludis, gla- 
diatoribus, at the time of (during) the comitia, &c. ; sometimes, also, 
pace, in time of peace ; bello, tumultu, in time of war ; but in bello, 
in the war. With the addition of an adjective : Praelio Senensi 
consul ludos vovit, and in praelio Senensi ; bello Punico secundo 
(bello Antiochi), at the time of the second Punic war, and in bello 
Alexandrino, in the Alexandrian war. 2 To express the different times 
of life, in is inserted: e.g. in pueritia; but it maybe omitted, when 
the ablative is qualified by an adjective : prima, extrema pueritia. 
We have initio, principio, in the beginning, and in initio. 3 

1 Ad tempus, ad diem, at the right {appointed) time. 

2 la later writers also : dedicatione templi Veneris Genetricis, at the consecra- 
tion, Plin. Maj. ; publico epulo, at a public entertainment, Svet., &c. 

3 Principio also signifies firstly. 


Obs. 3. To express the time within which a thing lakes place, in ii 

sometimes inserted : Sulla sollertissimus omnium in paucis tem- 
pestatibus factus est (Sail. Jug. 96) ; particularly when a numeral if 

employed to show how often a tiling happens, or how much is done in a 
certain time : e.g. bis in die (a day) saturum fieri; ter in anno nuu- 
tium audire. Lucilius in hora saepe ducentos versus dictabat 
(Hor. Sat. I. 4, 9). (But also septies die, seven times a day.) 

Obs. 4. In the same way, in is often inserted to intimate within what 
time, reckoned from a certain point, a thing happens : Deere vit sena- 
tus, ut legati Jugurthae in diebus proximis decern Italia decede- 
rent (Sail. Jug. 28) ; but also diebus decern (Id. ib. 38), qvatriduo 
eum exspecto (in four days). Paucis diebus and in paucis die- 
bus, in the course of a few days, a few days afterwards, or in a 
few days: Paucis diebus Jugurtha legatos Romam mittit (Sail. 
Jug. 13) ; paucis diebus ad te veniam. Here, too, we should 
notice the expression in connection with a relative clause : paucis 

(in paucis) diebus (annis), qvibus , a few days after, ; 

e.g? Diebus circiter xv, qvibus in hiberna ventum est, de- 
fectio orta est (Cses. B. G. V. 26). In paucis diebus, qvibus 
haec acta sunt, Chrysis moritur (Ter. And. I. 1, 77). Sex. Roscii 
mors qvatriduo, qvo is occisus est, Chrysogono nuntiatur (Cic. 
Rose. Am. 37), properly, in the course of the same four days, during 
which his assassination took place} 

Obs. 5. We must particularly remark thfe use of the ablative with hie 
or ille to give the period of time, measured from the present, or from 
some given point in the past, within which a thing occurs : His annis 
qvadringentis Romae rex fuit (Cic. R. P. I. 37), it is not more than 
four hundred years since there was a king at Rome, — four hundred years 
ago, or less. Ante hos qvadringentos annos and abhinc annos 
qvadringentos is a more definite statement. See § 270, Obe. 4. 
Respondit, se paucis illis diebus argentum misisse Lilybaeum 
(Id. Verr. IV. 18). Hanc urbem hoc biennio evertes (Id. Somn. 
Scip. 2), before two years are past ; more definitely, intra biennium.- 

Obs. 6. For an ablative of time with an ordinal numeral, followed by 
the adverb ante or post (e.g. die decimo post or decimo post die), 
we find also the preposition ante or post, with the accusative : post diem 
decimum (decimum post diem), as in § 270, Obs. 4. (Post tertium 
diem moriendum mini est, Cic. Div. I. 25 —■ tribus his diebus, post 

1 [Oppidum paucis diebus, qvibus eo ventum est, expugnatum (Gm B. G. 
III. 13). Diebus x, qvibus materia coepta erat comportari (Id. U>id. IV. IS) ] 

2 Intra centum annos, in less than a hundred years; inter centum annos, in 
the course of a hundred years, in a period of a hundred years; e.g. Inter tot annos UUUS 
innocens imperator inventus est (= tot annis). 

240 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 277 

tres dies.) For dboimo die anteqvam, or postqvam (e.g. undecimo 
die postqvam a te discesseram, Cic. ad^Att. XII. 1), we find also 
ante, post decirnum diem, qvam ; e.g. Post diem qvintum, qvam 
iterum barbari male pugnaverant, legati a Boccho veniunt (Sail. 
Jug. 102). We even find (though this is a rare instance) post sextum 
cladis annum (Tac. Ann. I. 62), for sexto anno post cladem. 
(Ante qvintum mensem divortii, Svet. Claud. 27. ) 1 

Obs. 7. Concerning the use of the ablative instead of the accusative 
in expressing the duration of an action, see § 235, Obs. 3. 

§ 277 A substantive (or substantive pronoun) having an adjec- 
tive or participle agreeing with it, or having another substantive in 
apposition, by which it is described as being in a certain state (rege 
vivo, te vivo, rege mortuo, rege duce), is put in the ablative, and 
joined to a proposition, to show that that which is asserted in the pro- 
position takes place during the continuance of that which is expressed 
by the ablatives. This is called the ablative absolute, or ablative of 
consequence (also, duo ablativi). It denotes either simply a par- 
ticular time (e.g. factum est rege vivo, while the king lived) ; or 
the way in which the action is performed, or the relation to it of 
some person or thing (e.g. bellum gestum est rege duce, so that 
the king was commander, i.q. under the king's command). The 
force of this construction, which expresses occasion, contrast, and 
the like, is given in English by a great variety of phrases : — 

Augustus natus est Cicerone et Antonio consulibus (in the con- 
sulate of Cicero and Antony) ; iisdem consulibus Catilinae conjuratio 
erupit (under the same consids) , Pythagoras Tarqvinio Superbo re- 
gnante in Italiam venit (in the reign of Tarquin). Regibus ejectis 
consules creari coepti sunt (after the expulsion of the kings). An- 
tonius Caesare ignaro magister eqvitum constitutus est (without 
Ccesar's knowledge). Hoc factum est me invito. Nihil de hac re 
agi potest salvis legibus (Cic. ad Fam. I. 2), without violating the 
laws. Lex Cassia lata est Scipione auctore (Id. Legg. III. 16), at 
the instigation, or by the advice of Scipio. Qvo auctore tantam rem 
aggressus es? Nonne simillimis formis saepe dispares mores 
sunt et moribus simillimis figura dissimilis est? (Id. N. D. I. 35), 
do we not often find different characters under the same exterior ? (Aestu 
magno ducere agmen, Id. Tusc. II. 15, in very hot weather. Tabulas 

1 For die (anno) decimo postqvam, we find (without the preposition) die (anno) 
decimo qvam : e.g. Anno trecentesimo altero, qvam condita Roma est, ite- 
rum mutatur forma civitatis (Li v. III. 33). (Postridie qvam, postero die 
qvam.) So likewise it is said: Intra qvintum, qvam affuerat, diem (Svet. Jul. 35), 
before the fifth day after. 

§ 278 THE ABLATIVE. 241 

in foro, summa hominuni freqventia, exscribo, I«l. \'( rr. II. 77, ; n 
the midst of a great crowd. Compare § 257.) 

A negative may also be attached to the adjective or participle : factum 
hoc est me non invito. 

Obs. 1. In this way, the contents of a Whole proposition, with its 
accessory ideas, may, by means of participles, be expressed as ;i circum- 
stance qualifying another proposition ; e.g. hostibus post acre prae- 
lium a littore submotis, Caesar castra posuit. See §§ 428 and 429. 

Obs. 2. A simple demonstrative pronoun may sometimes stand in place 
of the adjective: Qvid hoc populo obtineri potest? (Cic. Legg. III. 
16,) what measure can be carried, so long as the people is such as it now 
is, or with the present peopled ' His moribus, in the present condition o/' 
the public morals. 

Obs. 8. In a few particular expressions, an external circumstance is 
intimated still more briefly by the ablative of a single word ; e.g. se- 
reno (Liv. XXXVII. 3), with a fair shy ; austro (Cic. Div. II. -21), 
in a south wind, when the wind is southerly. 

§ 278. a. Sometimes, when it can be done without obscuring the 
sense, a single predicate is qualified by several ablatives, which all 
differ from each other, so far as the application of the foregoing 
rules are concerned : — 

Et legibus et institutis (§ 256) vacat senectus muneribus iis 
(§ 261) qvae non possunt sine viribus sustineri (Cic. Cat. M. 11). 
Catilina scelerum exercitatione (§ 254) assvefactus erat frigore 
et fame et siti perferendis (§ 267). (Id. in Cat. II. 5.) Menippus 
meo judicio (§ 256, Obs. 3) tota Asia (§ 273, c) illis temporibus 
(§ 276) disertissimus erat (Cic. Brut. 91). 

b. An ablative, which denotes reference (§ 253), or the means 
(§ 254), as well as an ablative of place (§§ 273, a, 274, 275), or of 
time (§ 276), is sometimes joined immediately to a verbal substan- 
tive, and not to the predicate of the proposition ; e.g. : — 

Harum ipsarum rerum reapse, non oratione, perfectio (Cic. Rep. 
I. 2) ; exercitus nostri interitus ferro, fame, frigore, pestilentia (Id. 
in Pis. 17) ; mansio Formiis (Id. ad Att. IX. 5) ; reditus Narbone 
(Id. Phil. II. 30) ; ilia universorum civium Romanorum per tot 
urbes uno puncto temporis misera crudelisqve caedes (hi. pro 
Flacc. 25). (Bello civili victor.) This, however, is rare. (Com- 
pare § 298.) 

1 [Itaqve ego ilium exercitum, et Gallicanis legionibus, et hoc delectu, 
qvem in agro Piceno et Gallico Q,. Metellus habuit, et his copiis, qvao a 
nobis qvotidie cornparantur, magno opere contsmno (Cfc. iu Cat. II. o) ] 


-42 LATIN GRAMMAR. §280 



§ 279. The genitive of a word denotes that another stands with 
it in some connected relation, and is in this way defined by it. The 
genitive serves chiefly to show the relation of the substantive so 
used to some other substantive (or word put substantively), so 
that both substantives in combination express one idea ; it is, how- 
ever, also combined with some adjectives and verbs. 

Obs. The connection denoted by the genitive may be divided princi- 
pally into three kinds. It is either an immediate one between two sub- 
stantive ideas, of which one is conceived of as belonging to the other, 
and defined by it (patria hominis, patria nostra), the possessive 
or subjective genitive; or it directs some energy or quality or effort 
towards some object (studium gloriae, studiosus gloriae, oblivisci 
rei, studium nostri), the objective genitive ; or it represents a thing as 
subordinate to something else as its whole (pars rei, pars nostrum), 
the genitive of the whole, the partitive genitive. To these leading classes, 
are to be subjoined some more special applications, in some of which the 
primary notion cannot be ascertained with certainty. 

§ 280. The genitive depending on a substantive is used to 
express the name of a person or thing to which something be- 
longs (the possessive or subjective genitive) : — 

As, for instance, by relationship, filius Ciceronis ; by possession, horti 
Caesaris ; by origin, tabula Apellis (a picture by Apelles) ; by mutual 
relation and position, hostis Romanorum {an enemy of the Romans) ; 
or as an action, fuga Pompeji ; quality, fortitudo Leonidae ; contents, 
and appurtenance, vasa abaci (the vessels belonging to the sideboard ) ; 
servus Titii, dominus Stichi ; Cupido Praxitelis (the Cupid — a 
statue — of Praxiteles) ; libri Ciceronis (the books of Cicero, either as 
author or possessor) ; consvetudo nostri temporis ; hominum genus 
(the race of men, the race which they constitute) ; poena sceleris ; laus 
recte factorum; frumentum triginta dierum (corn for thirty days, as 
much as thirty days require) ; animus patris (the disposition of the 
father, or a father, i.q. a fatherly disposition) ; comitia consulum 
(the assembly for the election of consuls, i.q. that in which they are 

§ 280 "uiK <;i:mti\ i:. 248 

OBS. 1. The relation which in Latin if . 1. n. -t * . 1 l.s the genitivi i 

usually expressed in English by i preposition (especially <j/*) t or l>\ ■ 
substantive and adjective: e.g. ordo mercatorum, the mercantili 
belhim servorum, the war with the slarrs (also, bellum servile). 

Obs. 2. In order to a\oid repetition, the substantive which governs 
the genitive ma} be omitted, it' it can, without ambiguity, be lupplied 

from the context : Meo judicio stare malo qvam omnium reliqvorum 
(Cic. ad Att. XII. 21). Perspicuum est, benevolentiae vim esse 
maguarn, metus imbecillam (Id. Off. II. 8). Qvis potest sine 
maxima contumelia conferre vitam Trebonii cum Dolabellae? 
(Id. Phil. XI. 4.) Flebat pater de filii morte, de patris filius (Id. 
Yen-. 1. 80). (On the other hand : Nulla est celeritas, qvae possit 
cum animi celeritate contendere, Id. Tusc. I. 1 ( J). A pronoun (hie 
or ille), answering to the word understood, is rarely inserted before the 
genitive, and only when direct reference is made to something already 
known, or mentioned shortly before; Nullam enim virtus aliam mer- 
cedem laborum periculorumqve desiderat praeter hanc laudis et 
gloriae (Cic. pro Arch. 11), except Hits, of which I hare already 
spoken. Expressions like the following: Videtisne captivorum ora- 
tionem cum perfugis convenire (Cass. B. C. II. 89), instead of cum 
perfugarum (sc. oratione) ; or, Ingenia nostrorum hominum mul- 
tum ceteris hominibus praestiterunt (Cic. de Or. I. 1), instead of 
ceterorum hominum ingeniis, result from a want of precision in the 
thought, the person or thing itself being put in the place of that which 
belongs to it. 

Ous. 3. The word aedes or templum is often omitted (elliptically), 
after the preposition ad (sometimes after ab), before the genitive of the 
name of the divinity: Ventura erat ad Vestae. Pugnatum est ad 

Obs. 4. A man's wife or son or daughter is, in a few instances, briefly 
expressed by the genitive alone: Verania Pisonis (Plin. Kp. II's Verania, i.q. PlSO's wife Verania; Hasdrubal Gisgonis (I.iv. 
XXV. .")7), (iisi/o's JIas<lrubaf, i.<j. Hasdrubal , the son of QuffO, to dis- 
tinguish him from another famous Hasdrnbal, the son of llamilcar. In 

the case of sons, this way of expression ia chiefly w>ed with names which 

are not Roman. (So likewise, Flaccus Claudii, Flaeeus, / 
freedman of Claudius.) 

Obs. 5. Since a thing may belong to a person in various ways, it fel- 
lows thai one and the same possessive genitive, governed l>\ the same 

Word, may admit of two meaning- : e.g. libri Ciceronis. Bo also, inju- 
riae praetoris, the unjust arts of the p rwhr (active) j and injmiae 
Civium, the wrongs suffered fry the ritizms (passive), 

244 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 282 

Obs. 6. We may notice especially the use of the indeclinable substan- 
tive iustar, which, in common language, is used only in combination with 
a genitive, to signify as much as, the same (in compass, weight, impor- 
tance) : as, Plato rnihi est instar omnium (Cic. Brut. 51), as good as 
all together; haec navis urbis instar inter ceteras habere videba- 
tur (Id. Verr. V. 31), to be, as it were, a city ; montis instar eqvus 
(Virg. 2En. II. 15, apposition), a horse like a mountain. 

Obs. 7. The possessive genitive may also be governed by an adjective 
used substantively, or by a neuter pronoun; Omnia erant Metelli 
ejusmodi (Cic. Verr. II. 26), every thing from Metellus, that is, all his 
measures. (See also, § 485, c, Obs.) 

§ 281. Instead of being joined immediately to the governing 
substantive, a possessive genitive may be combined with it by 
means of the verb sum or fio, so as to declare whose a thing is, or 
whose it becomes, or to whom it belongs : — 

Domus est patris. Ego totus Pompeji sum (Cic. ad Fam. II. 
13). Hie versus Plauti non est (Id. ibid. IX. 16), is not by Plautus. 
Omnia, qvae mulieris fuerunt, viri fiunt (Id. Top. 4). Thebae 
populi Roman! belli jure factae sunt (Liv. XXIII. 13). 

In the same way, facio expresses whose property a thing is made ; 
puto, habeo, existimo, whose it is supposed to be ; e.g. Neqve glo- 
riam meam, laborem illorum faciam (Sail. Jug. 85), I will not take the 
glory to myself, and leave the toil to them. 

Obs. From this use of sum with the genitive, signifying to be some 
one's, to belong to some one, is derived the expression, aliqvid est mei 
judicii, is for me to decide ; esse dicionis Carthaginiensium, to be under 
the jurisdiction of the Carthaginians (Liv. XXX. 9) , and facere ali- 
qvid suae dicionis, potestatis, arbitrii, to bring a thing under one's own 
power, make it dependent on one's own. disposal; Romani imperio aucti, 
Albani dicionis alienae facti erant (Liv. I. 25) . Marcellus id nee 
juris nee potestatis suae esse dixit (Id. XXV. 7), that lie had neither 
the right nor the power. 

§ 282. The genitive with the verb sum also denotes to whom or 
what a thing suitably and appropriately belongs : — 

Non hujus temporis ista oratio est (is not suited to). Petu- 
lantia magis est adolescentium qvam senum (is more appropri- 

In this way especially a genitive (or a possessive pronoun) is 
often, by the help of the verb sum, combined with an infinitive for 
the subject, to express what is any one's affair (task, duty, custom, 
&c), what is the nature (characteristic sign) of a thing: — 

§283 THE GENITIVE. 246 

Cujusvis hominis est errare, nullius, nisi iiisipientis in err ore 
perseverare (Cic. Phil. XII. 2), to err is the lot of every man, may hap- 
pen to every man. Est boni judicis parvis ex rebus conjecturam 
facere. Secundas res immoderate ferre levitatis est (betray* weak- 
ness of 'character). Nihil est tarn angusti animi tamqve parvi qvam 
amare divitias (Cic. OIF. I. 20). (Tempori cedere semper sapien- 
tis habitum est, Cic. ad Fam. IV. 9, has always been considered Jittiny 
for a wise man.) 

Obs. 1. The same is more definitely expressed thus : judicis officium 
(munus) est; sapientis est proprium, &c. Humanum est errare. 
Stulti est, it is peculiar to the fool, a distinguishing mark of the fool; 
stultum est, it is foolish. With adjectives of one termination, the first 
method of expression is almost always employed ; Est prudentis sus- 
tinere impetum benevolentiae (Cic. Lael. 17). We should hardly 
say, Est prudens sust. imp. ben. 

Obs. 2. The following construction is worthy of notice : Negavit 
moris esse Graecorum, ut in convivio virorum mulieres accumbe- 
rent (Cic. Verr. I. 26), that it was accordiny to the Greek custom. 

§ 283. A genitive is used with substantives of transitive signifi- 
cation to express the object of the transitive force (the objective 
genitive). Such substantives are those which are derived from 
transitive verbs, and express the notion of the verb ; and others, 
which denote an affection, aversion, knowledge, ignorance, or a 
power, capacity, or influence ; e.g. : — 

Indagatio veri, accusatio sceleratorum, amor Dei (love to God, 
amare Deum), odium hominum (misanthropy), timor hostium (fear 
entertained of the enemy), spes salutis, cura rerum alien arum, oblivio 
officii (obliviscor officii) ; taedium vitae (taedet vitae, § 292), 
fuga laboris, studium severitatis, studium Pompejanarum par- 
tium, cupiditas gloriae, fames auri ; scientia juris, peritia belli, 
ignoratio veri; potestas (copia) rei alicujus (facere alicui potesta- 
tem dicendi) ; signum erumpendi (for breaking out) ; occasio et 
locus pugnae (pugnandi) ; materia jocorum ; libertas dicendi; 
praecepta vivendi (rules for life) . 

Obs. 1. Amor Dei, timor hostium, may also signify (as the posses- 
sive genitive, according to § 280) God's love (to others), fear enter- 
tained by the enemy. The context shows which signification is to be 

Obs. 2. With those words which denote a feeling towards anyone, the 
prepositions, in, erga, and adversus, are also used : e.g. odium, mu- 
lierum, and odium in hominum universum genus (Cic. TlUC. IN . 
11). Meum erga te studium. Adhibenda est reverentia qvae- 

240 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 284 

dam adversus homines, et optimi cujusqve et reliqvorum (Cic. 
OIF. I. 28). The preposition is especially to be used when the govern- 
ing word itself stands in the genitive ; Si qvid amoris erga me in te 
residet (Id. ad Fam. V. 5). 

Obs. 3. This genitive, therefore, with verbal substantives, has the 
same meaning as the accusative with the verb (or the genitive with the 
verbs adduced below, § 291, and § 292 ; memoria beneficiorum, tae- 
dium vitae). Yet verbal substantives, whose verbs do not govern the 
accusative, are sometimes put with the genitive, to indicate a more remote 
reference to something to which the action is directed, and in which 
it shows itself, and which, with the verbal substantive, forms a com- 
pound idea : e.g. aditus laudis (an opportunity for glory) ; incita- 
mentum periculorum (incitare aliqvem ad pericula) ; amicitia est 
omnium divinarum humanarumqve rerum cum benevolentia et 
caritate consensio (Cic. Lael. 6), agreement in ; vacatio militiae ; fidu- 
cia virium ; victoria belli civilis ; contentio honorum (Cic. Off. I. 
25), the struggle for office ; magnam virtutis opinionem habere (Caes. 
B. G. VII. 59), to have the reputation of great bravery. In the same 
way, we find, with the names of persons, dux belli, the leader in the 
war), victor trium bellorum (Liv. VI. 4), magister officii. (The 
objective genitive with a substantive corresponds but very rarely with 
the dative governed by a verb, — as, obseqvium corporis (Cic. Leg. 
I. 23), — except in the instance of studium). 

Obs. 4. An objective genitive may sometimes be connected with 
the governing substantive by the verb sum ; e.g. Ars est earum rerum, 
qvae sciuntur (Cic. Or. II. 7), an art applies to those things that are 

§ 284. The genitive is put with words which denote a part of a 
thing, in order to designate the whole, which is divided (the parti- 
tive genitive). The partitive words may be substantives, numerals 
(cardinal and ordinal), and adjectives of number (multi, pauci, &c), 
pronouns, adjectives of the superlative degree (or the comparative 
for the superlative), and neuter adjectives used substantively: — 

Magna pars militum ; duo genera civium (tico classes of citi- 
zens) ; multi militum (many of the soldiers ; multi milites, many sol- 
diers) ; tertius regum Romanorum ; alter accusatorum ; nemo 
mortalium (nemo mortalis, no mortal) ; solus omnium ; illi Grae- 
corum, qvi (those of the Greeks, who) • fortissimus Graecorum ; 
plerumqve Europae (the greater part of Europe). Ager Appulus, 
qvod ejus publicum populi Romani erat, divisus est (Liv. XXXI. 
4), so much of it as was state property . 

§284 THE GENITIVE. 247 

Obs. 1. Instead of the genitive, the prepositions ex, de, and, in cer- 
tain combinations, in or inter, among, are also used: e.g. melior ex 
duobus, alter de duobus, aliqvis de heredibus, unus e tribus (one 
of three) ; Thales sapientissimus in septem fuit (Cic. Legg. II. 11) ; 
inter omnes unus excellit (Id. Or. 2). But a partitive substantive 
is not readily combined by a preposition with another substantive (not 
pars ex exercitu). Concerning the use of a distributive apposition 
(consules alter — alter), instead of a proper division (consulum alter 
— alter), see §217, Obs. 1. 

Obs. 2. A partitive genitive may also be governed by a substantive, 
which does not, in itself, signify a part, if several persons or things arc, 
designated by one name, and then mentioned severally ; Venio ad 
ipsas provincias, qvaruni (of which) Macedonia, qvae erat antea 
mimita et pacata, graviter a barbaris vexatur (Cic. Prov. Cons. 2). 
On the other hand, a partitive genitive is rarely combined with the sub- 
ject of a proposition by sum without a governing noun, as in the 
following instances: Ariminenses erant duodecim coloniarum 
(Cic. pro Caec. 35), were of belonged to, the twelve colonies. Fies 
nobilium tu qvoqve fontium (Hor. Od. III. 13, 13), one of the fa- 
mous fountains . 

Obs. 3. The word uterqve is always used with the genitive of pro- 
nouns (uterqve eorum, both of them ; uterqve nostrum, both of us) ; 
with substantives, on the contrary, it is generally put as an adjective : 
uterqve frater (rarely, uterqve legatorum, Veil. II. 50) . 

Obs. 4. The adverb partim is used as a partitive adjective in the 
nominative and accusative with the genitive or a preposition : Partim 
eorum ficta aperte, partim effutita temere sunt (Cic. Div. II. 55). 
Partim e nobis timidi sunt, partim a republica aversi (Cic. Phil. 
VIII. 11). (The gender is regulated by the leading idea.) 

Obs. 5. The use of a neuter adjective, in the singular or plural, as 
a substantive with the genitive, to denote a part (or parts) of a thing, 
is rare in the earlier writers (Cicero) , with the exception of dimidium, 
half: e.g. dimidium pecuniae (Cic. Q. Fr. II. 4) ; but common at a 
later period, and in the poets : medium (reliqvum) noctis ; extre- 
mum aestatis; ad ultimum inopiae (Liv. XXIII. 19), to the extrem- 
ity of want ; plana urbis; ultima Orientis. In the older writers, it is 
media nox, extrema aestas ; ultimus Oriens (see § 311) ; plana 
urbis loca. In the poets and later writers, the partitive idea often 
disappears, and only the quality of the thing is expressed; e.g. incerta 
belli, the uncertainty (accidents) of war ; lubricum paludum, slippery, 
marshy ground (Tac. Ann. I. G5). 1 

1 In poetical language also cuncta terrarum (Uor. Od. II. 1, 23), the whole of the earth, 
and (according to Obs. 6) cuncti hominum. 

248 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 235 

Obs. 6. In some rare instances, an adjective that is neither an adjec- 
tive of quantity, nor yet in the neuter gender, is used substantively with 
a partitive genitive; e.g. expediti militum (Liv. XXX. 9), the light- 
armed of the soldiers. 

Obs. 7. Beginners must observe, that, in English, the expressions, 
■many of , few of, none of, are often used where no partition is intended, 
but an enumeration of the whole ; in such cases, neither a genitive nor a 
preposition which signifies division can be employed, in Latin ; but we 
may say: amici, qvos multos habet (of whom he has many}, and 
qvos video esse nonnullos (Cic. pro Balb. 27), of whom I perceive 
there are some. Hominibus opus est eruditis, qvi adhuc, in hoc 
qvidem genere, nostri nuili fuerunt (Cic. de Or. III. 24), of whom 
there have been none with us. Veniamus ad vivos, qvi duo de con- 
sularium numero reliqvi sunt (Cic. Phil. II. 6). 

Obs. 8. The partitive genitive may also be governed by an adverb in 
the superlative, to show of which, among many, the predicate holds good 
in the highest degree ; Sulpicius Gallus omnium nobilium maxime 
Graecis litteris studuit (Cic. Brut. 20) . 

Obs. 9. With the pronominal adverbs of place, which denote the place 
where a motion is to end, we find a genitive, signifying up to a certain 
point (degree) of something : Nescire videmini, qvo amentiae pro- 
gressi sitis (Liv. XXVIII. 27). Eo miseriarum venturus eram 
(Sail. Jug. 40). Of the same character is the phrase qvoad ejus 
facere poteris, fieri poterit. 

Obs. 10. The genitive loci sometimes follows pronominal adverbs of 
place to define them more exactly (antiquated) : ibidem loci res erit 
(literally, the matter will be at the same point of place) ; but especially 
locorum, terrarum, gentium, to strengthen the expression : Ubinam 
gentium sumus ? Ubicumqve terrarum et gentium violatum jus 
civium Romanorum est, ad communem libertatis causam pertd- 
net (Cic. Verr. V. 55). Nusqvam gentium, nowhere in the world. 
(Longe gentium.) Of the same kind are the idioms postea loci, after- 
wards (strictly, at a later point of time) ; interea loci, in the mean 
time; adhuc locorum, till now. 

Obs. 11. It is further to be observed, that the ablatives, hoc, eo, eo- 
dem, qvo, are sometimes put substantively with the genitive loci (eo 
loci), for hoc loco, eo loco, &c. 

§ 285. a. The genitive is put with words which denote a num- 
ber, a measure, or a quantity, in order to denote the kind, the thing 
measured or counted (genitivus generis) : — 

Magnus numerus militum; magna vis argenti; acervus fru- 
menti ; modius tritici ; vini tres amphorae ; ala eqvitum. Auri 


navis (Cic. Fin. TV. 37), a ship-load of gold; flumina lactis, ricers of 
milk (Ovid). Tria millia eqvitum. See § 72. 

Ons. So also, sex dies spatii (C^s. 13. C. I. 3, — properly, six days'* 
term — a, term of six days; also, spatium sex clierum) ; sestertii 
bini accessionis (Cic. Verr. III. 49), two sesterces addition (accessio 
duorum sestertiorum, an addition of two sesterces) . Praedae honii- 
num pecorumqve. Imber sangvinis. 

b. This genitive is governed by the nom. or ace. sing. neut. of an 
adjective of quantity (multum, plurimum, amplius, minus, mini- 
mum, tantum, qvantum, tantundem, nimium, sometimes exi- 
guum, 1 or of a (demonstrative, relative, interrogative, or indefinite) 
pronoun, and by nihil, the governing word being used as a substan- 
tive, in order to lay stress on the measure or degree or nature of 
the things spoken of: — 

Multum temporis in aliqva re ponere ; minimum firmitatis 
habere ; id negotii habeo ; hoc praemii ; hoc tantum laboris itiner- 
isqve (Cic. Verr. V. 49) ; nihil virium ; qvod roboris erat (whai 
there was in strength, the strength which there was) . Qvidqvid habui 
militum, misi. Qvid mihi consilii datis? Qvid tu hominis es ? 
(Ter. Heaut. IV. C, 7), what sort of man are yout Exiguum campi 
(Liv. XXVII. 27) , 2 Where this prominence is not aimed at, we find 
simply tantum studium, tanta (tarn multa) opera ; qvod consilium 
mihi datis ? &c. (Plus operae — major opera, plus itself not being 
used as an adjective.) 

The above adjectives and pronouns may also have, for their genitive, 
a neuter adjective of the second declension, which stands as a substan- 
tive : aliqvid pulchri ; qviddam novi ; nihil boni ; tantum mali ; 
hoc incommodi ; qvod pulchri erat, omne sublatum est (whaicoer 
beautiful things there were) ; but also, aliqvid pulchrum ; nihil altum, 
nihil magnificum cogitare. (The adjectives of the third declension are 
not employed in this way ; we always find the form aliqvid meniora- 
bile. The adjectives of quantity are combined with another adjective 
only in the genitive in the singular: plurimum novi; in the plural, 
the other construction is used : plurima nova, § 301, 6 ; plura 

Obs. 1. Such an adjective or pronoun, with a genitive, cannot be gov- 
erned by a preposition ; we must say, ad tantum studium, not ad tan- 
tum studii. Yet wc find ad multum diei (ad multum diem), till 

1 Not magnum or parvum. 

2 [Cur sui qvidqvam esse imperii aut potestatis trans Bhenum postularet 
(Caes. B. G. IV. 16).] 

250 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 286 

late in the day ; and ad id loci (locorum), up to that point, up to that 

Obs. 2. The student should notice the expressions nihil reliqvi 
facere (literally, to make no residue, i.e. to leave nothing remaining, 
undone), and nihil pensi habere (literally, to have nothing weighed, i.e. 
to care nothing ; nee qvicqvam iis pensi est, qvid faciant, Liv. 
XXXIV. 49). 

c. In the same way, the adverbs satis, abunde, affatim, nimis, and 
parum, are used as substantives in the nominative and accusative (but 
not after prepositions) with the genitive : Satis copiarum habes ; pa- 
rum prudentiae {too little prudence) . 

§ 286. Sometimes a substantive containing a more general idea 
is followed by another in the genitive, by which the former is 
denoted more specifically (genitivus definitivus, or epexegeti- 
CUS) : — 

Vox voluptatis, the word pleasure; nomen regis, the kingly name, 
the name of king ; ' verbum monendi, the word monere ; numerus 
trecentorum, the number three hundred; opus Academicorum, the 
treatise Academica; familia Scipionum, the Scipio family ; con- 
svetudo contra deos disputandi, the habit of disputing against the 
gods. (The genitive of the gerund is often used in this way.) 2 (Ar- 
bor fici, arbor abietis, thefg-tree, the fir-tree.) 

Ons. 1. In Latin, two substantives can never be connected immedi- 
ately (without apposition) in the same case, except when a person or a 
place is indicated at once by its generic and proper name (Rex Tullius, 
urbs Roma, amnis Rhenus, terra Italia). In geographical designa- 
tions, the proper name is also put in some few instances (chiefly by the 
poets) in the genitive: tellus Ausoniae (Vrrg. iEn. III. 477), the land 
of Ausonia ; celsa Buthroti urbs (Id. ib. III. 293) ; promontorium. 
Pachyni (Liv. XXIV. 35). 

Obs. 2. In this way, the genitive sometimes supplies the place of 
apposition, when a general idea is followed by the special one which 
contains it ; e.g. Parvae causae vel falsae suspicionis vel repentini 
terroris (Cses. B. C. III. 72), small causes, which consist in false suspi- 
cion, or sudden alarm. 3 Aliis virtutibus, continentiae, gravitatis, 
justitiae, fidei, te consulatu dignum putavi (Cic. pro Mur. 10). 
Unum genus est infestum nobis eorum, qvos P. Clodii furor rapinis 
pavit (Id. pro Mil. 2), the class which consists of those persons. 

1 But also in a possessive signification ; the name of the king, e.g. Frederic, &c. 

2 [Injuriae retentorum cquitum Eomanorum (Cces. de Bell. Gall. III. 10).] 

3 Causa suspicionis may also mean tlu cause of t/ie suspicion. 

§ 287 THE GENITIVE. 261 

Obs. 3. If, by the aid of the verb sum, a substantive is explained by 
another, which might have been combined with it without a rerb in the 
genitive case to form a single idea, the genitive is often put with sum, 
and not the nominative, the subject being understood bj repeated 
alter sum: Unum genus est eorum, qvi, &c (Cic. in Cat. II. 8), one 
class is that of those, consists of those. Captivorum numerus fuit 
septem millium ac ducentorum (Liv. X. '.)('>), (lie number of the prit- 
oners was seven thousand two hundred (numerus septem millium). 
Major pars Atheniensium erat (Just. V. 10), the greater purl was of 
Athenians, consisted of Athenians ; but also, Praenestini maxima para 
fuere (Liv. XXIII. 19). 

§ 287. The genitive of a substantive with an adjective (numeral, 
participle, pronoun) is either put with a substantive immediately 
by way of description, or is connected with a subject by the verb 
sum, in order to show its nature and properties, its requirements, 
its size and kind (the genitive of quality, the descriptive genitive). 

a. Juvenis mitis ingenii ; vir et consilii magni et virtutis ; civi- 
tates magnae auctoritatis ; plurimarum palmarum vetus gladiator 
(Cie. Rose. Am. 6), an old gladiator, who has obtained many victories. 
Natura humana imbecilla atqve aevi brevi3 est (Sail. Jug. 1). 

b. Re3 magni laboris (which require much labor) ; ho3pes multi 
cibi (Cic. Fam. IX. 26). 

c. Classis trecentarum navium ; fossa centum pedum ; exsilium 
decern annorum ; homo infimi generis ; multi omnium generum 
(Cic. de Or. II. 9), many men of every kind; vir ordinis senatorii ; 
omnes gravioris aetatis (Caes. B. G. III. 16), all men of advanced 
age. Virtus tantarum virium non est (Cic. Tuse. V. 1). Hoc 
non est tanti laboris, qvanti videtur. Classis fuit trecentarum 
navium. (Also, Critognatus magnae auctoritatis in Arvernis 
habitus est (Caes. B. G. VII. 77), passed for an influential man. 
Caesar diversarum partium habebatur (Svct. Jul. 1), it was sup- 
posed that Caesar belonged to the opposite party. Di me finxerunt 
animi pusilli (Hor. Sat. I. 4, 17), have created me pusillanimous.) 

Otis. 1. We must particularly notice the descriptive compounds of the 
genitive modi with a pronoun, which are used altogether as indeclinable 
adjectives : hujusmodi, ejusmodi, illiusmodi, istiusmodi, ejusdem- 
modi, cujusmodi (relat. and intcrrog.), cujuscunqvemodi, cuicui- 
modi, cujusqvemodi; e.g. ejusmodi causa, ejusmodi causae, 6Y& 

Ons. 2. The genitive of quality resembles the ablative of quality 
(§ 272) ; but the genitive denotes more the general nature and kind of 
the subject (of), while the ablative rather puts forward particular quali- 

2o2 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 288 

ties and circumstances belonging to it (icWi). In many instances, these 
two forms of expression are either not at all or very slightly distin- 
guished : e.g. Neqve nionere te audeo, praestanti prudentia virum, 
neque confirmare, niaxinii aninii homiuein (Cic. ad Fam. IV. 8). 
In the older writers (Cicero), the ablative is used of qualities in general 
more frequently than the genitive. But to express the requisites for a 
thing, its size and kind, the genitive alone (not the ablative) is em- 
ployed. See the examples, under b and c. On the other hand, the abla- 
tive only, and not the genitive, is used to express its constitution with 
reference to its external parts : Britanni sunt capillo promisso atqve 
omni parte corporis rasa praeter caput et labrum superius (Cass. 
B. G. V. 14). AVe always say esse bono animo (to be of good 
courage) ; animo forti et erecto, ea mente ut, &c, of the state of 
mind, but maximi aninii homo, of the whole character. {A man of 
genius, of character, homo ingeniosus, gravis.) 

Obs. 3. The genitive and ablative of quality are both generally sub- 
joined to an indefinite appellative noun (as we also say, in English, 
" Hannibal, a general of great ability, 1 ' not, "Hannibal, of great abil- 
ity "'J. Yet single exceptions are met with : Turn T. Manlius Torqva- 
tus, priscae ac nimis durae severitatis, ita locutus fertur (Liv. 
XXII. 60). Agesilaus, annorum octoginta, in Aegyptum pro- 
fectus est (Corn. Ages. 8), an old man of eighty, at the age of 
eighty. 1 

§ 288. Since the genitive is combined with another substantive in 
various significations, it may sometimes happen, if no ambiguity results 
from it, that two genitives may be attached to the same substantive, each 
with its own proper signification : Superiorum dierum Sabini cuncta- 
tio (Coes.B. G. III. 18), the delay of Sabinus during the preceding days ; 
because we say, superiorum dierum cunctatio, the delay of the pre- 
ceding days. Scaevolae dicendi elegantia (Cic. Brut. 44). Labor 
est functio qvaedam vel anirni vel corporis gravioris operis et 
muneris (Id. Tusc. II. 15), the execution by the soul or body of a icork or 
office somewhat difficult. One genitive may be governed by another : e.g. 
Haec fuit causa intermissionis litterarum (Cic. ad Fam. VII. 13), 
Erat majestatis populi Romani prohibere injuriam (Sail. Jug. 14). 
Reminiscere incommodi populi Romani et pristinae civitatis Hel- 
vetiorum (Ca?s. B. G. I. 14) ; but such combinations tend to make the 
style awkward or obscure. 2 

1 [Praestanti sapientia et nobilitate Pythagoras (Cic. Tusc. Disp. TV. 1). Ic- 
cius Remus, summa nobilitate et gratia inter suos (Caes. B. 0. II. 6).] 

2 [The following is an instance of three genitives : Eorum dierum consuetudine itl- 
neris nostri exercitus perspecta (Caes. B. G. II. 17)] 


§ 289. The genitive is employed (as an objective genitive) with 
many adjectives which denote a quality that is directed to ;i certain 
object (transitive adjectives). (Compare § 283 on the objective 
genitive with substantives.) Such adjectives are the following: — 

a. All participles in the present from transitive verbs, when tiny 
stand as pure adjectives, — i.e. when they are not used to signify a rela- 
tion or action at a particular time, but denote a quality in general, — and 
the adjectives in ax formed from transitive verbs : amans reipublicae 
civis (amantior reipublicae, amantissimus reipublicae ; see § 62) ; 
negotii gerens {carrying on a business) ; injuriarum perferens (but 
if an adverb be subjoined, the participle has usually the construction of 
the verb : homo facile injurias perferens) ; patiens laboris atqve 
frigoris ; appetens gloriae ; tenax propositi vir ; tempus edax 
rerum; capacissimus cibi viniqve. 

b. Those adjectives which denote a desire (knowledge) of a thing or 
experience in it, or the reverse (dislike, ignorance, inexperience) : as 
avarus, avidus, cupidus, studiosus (fastidiosus), conscius, insciue, 
nescius, gnarus, ignarus, peritus, imperitus, prudens, rudis, iiisolens 
(insolitus), insvetus, memor, immemor ; and sometimes those which 
denote forethought or want of forethought (providus, diligens, curi- 
osus, incuriosus) : e.g. cupidus gloriae, studiosus litterarum, per- 
itus belli, ignarus rerum omnium, insvetus male audiendi, memor 
beneficii; vir omnis officii diligentissimus (Cic. pro Cael. oO). 1 

Obs. 1. Such is also the construction of consultus in jurisconsultus, 
one acquainted loith law (but also jureconsultus), and certus in the 
phrase certiorem aliqvem facere ; e.g. consilii, voluntatis (but as 
frequently with de). The poets and later writers employ also sum,' 
other adjectives of cognate signification in this way ; e.g. callidus, 
doctus (doctissima fandi, Virg.). 2 

Ons. 2. Conscius is sometimes put according to this role with the 
object in the genitive, and a dative of the person with whom one is privy 
to a thing (according to § 243) : e.g. conscius alicui caedis, mens 
sibi conscia recti, conscius sibi tanti sceleris (Sail. Cat. :H) : some- 
times also with the dative of the thing to which a person is privy : con- 
scius facinori, conscius mendacio alicujus. 

Ons. 3. Rudi3 and prudens arc also used with in ; prudens in jure 
civili. (l\lso rudi3 ad pedestre certamen, inexperienced in tic 
race ; insvetus ad onera portanda.) 

1 [Rudis agminum sponsus (Ilor. 0d. TIT. 2, 0). Imbrium divina avis immi- 
nentum (Id. ibid. 27, 10).] 

2 [But dulces docta mod03 (Hor. Od. III. 9, 10). See § 228, Obs ) 

25-4 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 290 

§ 290. Further, an objective genitive is put — 

c. With those adjectives which denote power over a thing and the 
opposite, as compos, impos, potens, impotens; e.g. compos mentis, 
impotens eqvi regendi. 

d. Those which denote a participation, a guilty concern in any thing, 
and the opposite, as particeps, expers, consors, exsors ; reus, ac- 
cused of a thing ; affinis, manifestus, insons ; e.g. particeps consilii, 
expers periculorum, reus furti (reum furti facio), insons probri, 
affinis rei capitalis. 

Obs. In later writers, noxius, innoxius, and suspectus are also so 
used. Affinis has also the dative. See § 247, b, Obs. 4. Consors is 
also used as a substantive ; consors alicujus (any one's partner) in 
lucris atqve furtis. 1 

e. Those adjectives which denote an abundance or want of any thing 
are put both with the genitive and ablative (§ 268) ; inops and (poet.) 
pauper have the genitive only : inops auxilii, pauper argenti (Hor.) ; 
and plenus is most frequently so constructed : plenus rimarum ; vita 
insidiarum et metus plena. 

Obs. 1. Egenus, indigus, and sterilis are usually found only with 
the genitive. 

Obs. 2. In the same way are constructed with the genitive, prodigus, 
profusus, lavish of (prodigus aeris) ; liberalis, generous with (liberalis 
pecuniae, Sail. Cat. 7) ; parous, sparing (parcissimus somni). 

Obs. 3. In the poets those adjectives and participles whieh denote an 
exemption from any thing, also take the genitive, according to Greek 
usage. See § 268, b, Obs. 2. 

f. Similis and dissimilis govern sometimes the genitive and some- 
times the dative. See § 247, b, Obs. 2. Proprius, peculiar to, has the 
genitive ; e.g. vitium proprium senectutis (rarely the dative). Com- 
munis often has the genitive : e.g. Memoria communis est multarum 
artium. Hoc commune est potentiae cupidorum cum otiosis 
(Cic. Off. I. 21) ; but also the dative : Omni aetati mors est com- 
munis (Id. Cat. M. 19). 

Obs. With the personal and reflective pronouns, communis must 
always be constructed with the dative, as in the following : commune 
mini (tibi, sibi) cum aliqvo. 

g. The poets and later prose-writers (e. g. Tacitus) used many other 
adjectives besides with the genitive, to denote a certain reference to a 
thing, which is otherwise expressed by the ablative (with respect to) or 
by prepositions (de, in) ; e.g. modicus voluptatis (in voluptate), 
atrox odii, integer vitae (vita), maturus aevi, lassus maris ac viae 

1 Expers is found with the ablative (in Sallust), but it is unusual. 

§292 THE GENITIVE. 250 

(with the idea of a certain fulness and satiety), vetus militiae, 
ambiguus futuri (de futuro, with the notion ot ignorQMC€) t dubius 
viae, certus eundi. 1 Animi, in particular, is often put in this way with 
adjectives which denote a certain state of feeling; aeger, anxius, laetus, 
ingens animi. Compare § 296, 6, Obs. o. 2 

§ 291. Those verbs also take a genitive (objective) which Bignifv 
to remember and forget (memini, reminiscor, obliviscor ; very 
rarely, recordor), and those which denote to remind (a person) of 
a thing (admoneo, commoneo, commonefacio) : — 

Semper hujus diei et loci meminero. Oblivisci decbris et 
officii. Catilina admonebat alium egestatis, alium cupiditatis suae 
(Sail. Cat. 21). Omnes tui sceleris et crudelitatis ex ilia oratione 
commonefiunt (Cic. Verr. V. 43) . 3 

Obs. 1. The accusative is often put with those verbs which signify to 
remember and to forget, most frequently with memini, when they denote 
to have a thing in the memory (knowledge of a thing) or the reverse (but 
not to think of a thing, or not to think of it) ; memini numeros, si 
verba tenerem (Virg. B. IX. 45). Oblivisci causam {to forget the 
case, of an advocate) . Antipatrum Sidonium tu probe meministi 
(Cic. de Or. III. 50), you still remember him, you knew him icell. 
Recordor, to remember, think of, almost always governs the accusative ; 
we also find recordor de aliqvo. (Mentionem facio rei and de re.) 

Obs. 2. With admoneo, etc., we also have, instead of the genitive, 
the accusative neuter of a pronoun or numeral adjective (§ 228, <■) ; and 
likewise the preposition de : Unoqvoqve gradu de avaritia tua com- 
menemur (Cic. Verr. I. 59). 

Obs. 3. The impersonal expression, venit mini in mentem, an 
idea strikes me, is put, in the same way as those verbs, with the 
genitive; Venit mini Platonis in mentem, Plato occurs to me. I'nt 
it is also used personally, that which strikes a person being put as the 
subject : Non venit in mentem pugna apud Regillum lacum ? (Liv. 
VIII. 5 ) Venit mini in mentem vereri 

§ 292. The verb misereor (miseresco), to pity; and the imper- 
sonal verbs mi$eret (miserescit, miseretur),piget, poenitet, pudet, 
taedet, pertaesum est, — have the object of the feeling (the person 

1 [Capitis minor (Hor. Od. III. 5, 42). Fessi rerum (Virg. 2En. 1. 178). Felices 
operum (Id. G. I. 277) ] 

2 [Also notus animi (Hor. Od. II. 2, G).j 

8 The genitive with these verbs denotes that tho mind is directed to on object, and is thus 
in combination with it. 

256 LATIN GRAMMAR. . § 293 

or thing which one pities, is ashamed of, &c.) in the genitive. (The 
person who is ashamed, &c., is expressed by the accusative, § 226). 

Miserere laborum! Miseret me fratris. Poenitet me consilii. 
Suae qvemqve fortunae poenitet (Cic), every one is dissatisfied with 
his lot. Hos homines infamiae suae neqve pudet neqve taedet. 
The genitive with pudet also denotes the person before whom the shame 
is felt; Pudet me deorum hominumqve (Liv. III. 19). 

Obs. Instead of the genitive, we find also an infinitive of the action 
which is the object of repentance, shame, &c. Pudet me haec fateri 
With piget, poenitet, pudet, we have sometimes a demonstrative or 
relative pronoun in the neuter as a subject. See § 218, Obs. 2. (Poeni- 
tendus, pudendus. See § 167, Obs.) Miseror, commiseror, to 
bewail, govern the accusative. 

§ 293. With those verbs which signify to accuse, impeach, con- 
vict, condemn, acquit, the name of the crime of which a person is 
accused, &c, is put in the genitive, as with accuse, incuso, insi- 
mulo, arcesso {to charge one before a court of justice) ; postulo, 
ago cum alicjvo (to bring an action against a person for — ) ; ar- 
guo, coarguo, convinco, damno, condemno, absolvo ; e.g. : — 

Accusare aliqvem furti; damnari repetundarum ; convincere 
aliqvem maleficii ; absolvere aliqvem improbitatis. 

Obs. 1. Besides the verbs cited, a few others are also so constructed 
in certain legal formulas : e.g. interrogare aliqvem ambitus (Sail. Cat. 
18), to charge a man with obtaining office corruptly ; judicatus pecuniae, 
condemned in a case relating to money (Liv. IV. 1 4) . We should like- 
wise notice the participle compertus, convicted (of a thing) ; e.g. 
nullius probri compertus. 1 

Obs. 2. The following construction is also used: accusare, postu- 
lare, damnare aliqvem de veneficio, de vi (but not arguo). The 
ablative crimine (ablat. instrum.) is likewise often put with these 
verbs : arcessere aliqvem crimine ambitus ; damnatus est crimine 
repetundarum, ceteris criminibus absolutus (in wliat relates to the 
remaining counts and charges). (Accusari, damnari, absolvi lege 
Cornelia, according to the Cornelian law : absolvi suspicione sceleris, 
to be relieved from the suspicion of crime.) (Accusare inertiam 
adolescentium, to complain of the indolence of young men.) 

Obs. 3. With damno and condemno, the punishment to which a 
person is condemned (that with which he shall atone for his crime), is 
put in the genitive or ablative ; e.g. damnari capitis, pecuniae, or 

1 In the Jurists teneri (furti). 

§ 294 THE GENITIVE. 267 

capita 1 Omnia mortalium opera mortalitate damnata Bunt (Sen. 
Ep. 91). For a definite penalty consisting of money or laud, the ablative 

is always employed : damnari decern millibus, tcrtia parte agri, as 
Avith multo always ; agro pecuniaqve hoste3 multare. (Damnari ad 
bestias, in metalia. Voti damnari.) 

§ 294. When the price for which a thing is bought, sold, or made, 
is stated indefinitely (by an adjective of quantity, or nihilum), the 
price is expressed in the genitive with tanti, qvanti (tantidem, 
qvantivis, qvanticunqve), pluris, minoris ; but in the ablative 
with magno, plurimo, parvo, minimo, nihilo, nonnihilo. 2 With 
those verbs which signify to estimate (duco, facio, habeo, pendo, 
puto, taxo, together with sum signifying to be worth, have a certain 
price), the genitive of all these words is employed, aestimo alone 
having both cases : — 

Qvanti Chrysogonus docet? (Juv. .VII. 176), On what terms does 
Chrysogonus teach ? Frumentum suum qvam plurimo vendere. 
Qvanti oryza empta est ? Parvo (Ilor. Sat. II. 3, 156). Volup- 
tatem virtus minimi facit. Datames unus pluris apud regem 
fiebat qvam omnes aulici (Corn. Dat. 5). Homines sua parvi 
pendere, aliena cupere solent. Parvi sunt foris arma, nisi est 
consilium domi (Cic. Off. I. 22). Magni and magno aestimo 
virtutem. 3 

Obs. 1. The verbs which mean to estimate take also (in common dis- 
course) the genitives flocci, nauci, assis (unius assis), teruncii, with 
a negative, signifying not to value in the least, to esteem not worth ajar- 
thing: Judices rempublicam flocci non faciunt (Cic. ad Fain. IV. 
;3) . (Hujus non facio, I care not that much for it !) Putare, habere 
pro nihilo. 

Obs. 2. Here we may also notice the idioms, aeqvi boniqve (oi 
boni alone) facio aliqvid, boni consulo, to take in good part. 

Obs. 3. The expression tanti est first denotes simply something 
(something good) is worth so much, is of such importance, that one 
ought to do or bear something for its sake ; Tanti non fuit Arsacem 
capere, ut earum rerum, qvae hie gestae sunt, spectaculo careres 
(Cael. Cic. ad Fam. VIII. 14) . Without any definite subject, we liave : 
tanti est, it (the thing spoken of) is worth the trouble ; nihil est tanti, 

1 Damnatusqve longi 
Sisyphus Aeolides laboris (Ilor. 0<1. II. II, 10). 
* Tho genitive of tantus, qvantus, and the comparatives, the ablative of nihilum, 
of the positives and superlatives (as also of the diminutive tantulum). 
3 This genitive is nearly allied to the genitive of quality. 


258 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 296 

it is not worth the trouble. Lastly, it is used of an evil which it is "worth 
while to boar (which one is ready to bear), usually with an infinitive for 
its subject : Est mihi tanti, Qvirites, hujus invidiae tempestatem 
subire, dummodo a vobis belli periculum depellatur (Cic. Cat. II. 
7) ; but also with a substantive : Aut si rescierit (Juno), sunt, o, 
sunt jurgia tanti (Ov. Met. II. 424), then I will bear her brawling. 

§ 295. The impersonal verb interest, it is of importance, points 
out the person or thing to whom a matter is of importance, by the 
genitive or the possessive pronouns mea, tua, sua, nostra, vestra 
(abl. sing. fern.). Refert, in the same signification, has the same 
construction with the pronouns, but rarely with the genitive. 1 

Caesar dicere solebat, non tarn sua qvam reipublicae interesse, 
ut salvus esset (Svet. Jul. 86). Clodii intererat, Milonem perire 
(Cic. pro Mil. 21). Qvid tua id refert? (Ter. Phorm. IV. 5, 11). 
(Refert compositionis, Qvinct. IX. 4, 44, it is of importance for the 
rhetorical arrangement of words.) 

Obs. 1. Ad is generally employed to express that in reference to 
which something is of importance ; Magni ad honorem nostrum 
interest, me qvam primum ad urbem venire (Cic. ad Fam. XVI. 1). 

Obs. 2. The thing which is of importance may be designated by a 
neuter pronoun (so that the verbs do not stand quite impersonally) : 
Qvanti id refert ? Hoc vehementer interest reipublicae ; or by an 
infinitive : Omnium interest recte facere ; but it is most frequently 
expressed by the addition of a clause with the accusative and infinitive, 
or with ut (ne), or in an interrogative form. Of how much importance 
it is, is denoted either by adverbs (multum, plurimum, tantum, 
qvantum, nihil, magnopere, vehementer), or by the genitive of the 
price (magni, parvi, qvanti, &c). 

Obs. 3. The verbs impleo, compleo, egeo, and particularly indigeo, 
are sometimes used with the genitive instead of the ablative. See under 
ablative, § 260, a, Obs., § 261, a, Obs. Concerning the poetical geni- 
tive with verbs which signify to desist, to refrain from, see § 262, Obs. 4. 2 

§ 296. a. The names of towns and small islands of the first and 
second declension singular are put in the genitive, to denote the 
place where a thing is or occurs: — 

Romae esse, Rhodi vivere, Corinthi habitare. (Of other names 
the ablative is used. See § 273, a.) 

1 The origin of this singular construction is unknown. Perhaps the pronoun has a kind 
of signification ; in my direction (in relation to me). 
3 Concerning ergo with the genitive, see § 172, Obs. 5. 


Obs. 1. Sometimes the genitive of larger (Greek) islands is also so 
used : Cietae considere (Virg. Mn. III. 1G2) ; Conon Cypri vixit 
(Corn. Chabr. 3), or (but rarely) of the Greek names of countries in 
us: Chersonesi domum habere (Corn. Milt. 2). Compare § 232, 
Obs. 3 and 4. 

Obs. 2. Such a genitive rarely has an appositive expression iub- 
j >ined, and then the ablative with in is used : Milites Albae consti- 
terunt, in urbe opportuna, munita, propinqva (Cic. Phil. IV. 2). 
In a very few such cases the ablative without in is used : Ve3pasianus 
Corinthi, Achajae urbe, nuntios accepit de Galbae interitu (Tac. 
Hist. IT. I). 1 If urbs or oppidum (insula) with in precedes, the 
name of the town (or island) is in the ablative : Cimon in oppido 
Citio mortuus est (Corn. Cim. 3) ; in insula Samo (Svet. Oct. 
20). (Likewise in ipsa Alexandria, with a pronoun or adjective. We 
also find tota Tarracina, Cic. de Or. II. 59, in all Tarracina, according 
to § 273, c.) 

Obs. 3. This idiom proceeds from the fact that the genitive singular 
of the first and second declension (in i) has a different origin from the 
genitive of the third declension, and at first, in addition to its other 
meanings, conveyed the notion of being in a place. 

b. In the same way are used the genitives domi, at home ; liumi, 
on the ground (to the ground) ; with belli and militiae in conjunc- 
tion with domi : — 

Sedere domi. Parvi sunt foris arma, nisi est consilium domi 
(Cic. Off. I. 22). Humi jacere, prosternere aliqvem humi. P. 
Crassi, L. Caesaris virtus fuerat domi militiaeqve cognita (Cic. 
Tuse. V. 19). Saepe imperatorum sapientia constituta est salus 
civitatis aut belli aut domi (Cic. Brut. 73). (In other connections, 
we have in bello, in militia.) 

Obs. 1. Domi in this signification may be combined with a genitive 
or a possessive pronoun: Marcus Drusus occisus est domi suae. 
Clodius deprehensus est cum veste muliebri domi Caesaris. (Domi 
alienae.) Otherwise it is expressed thus : in domo aliqva ; in domo 
casta; in domo, in the house (not at home). 

Obs. 2. For humi the poets also say humo, in humo. (Always as 
in humo nuda, when an adjective follows.) 

Obs. 3. In the same way animi is employed in expressions which 
denote doubt and anxiety : Exspectando et desiderando pendemus 
animi. Absurde facis, qvi te angas animi (also anirao). Tot 
populos inter spem metumqve suspensos animi habetis (Liv. VIII. 
13). Confusus atqve incertus animi (Id. I. 7). 

1 [Antiochiae, celebri qvondam urbe et copiosa, antecellere omnes inge- 
nii gloria C0ntigit(Cic. pro Arch, poet 3) ] 

260 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 297 

§ 297. a. The same relation which is expressed by the genitive 
is commonly expressed by the possessive pronouns (which repre- 
sent the genitive of the personal) : — 

Pater meus; libri mei; ista domus tua est; comitia tua (which 
concent you) ; rnea causa, for my sake (§ 256) ; nulla tua epistola, 
no letter from you; unis litteris meis; cum magno meo dolore. 
Tuum est videre, qvid agatur. A genitive may therefore stand in 
apposition to a possessive pronoun : e.g. Tuum, hominis simplicis, 
pectus vidimus (Cic. Phil. II. 43). Cui nomen meum absentis 
lionori fuisset, ei meas praesentis preces non putas profuisse? 
(Id. pro Plane. 10.) Mea unius opera respublica salva est (Cic. 
in Pis. 3), by my activity alone. Vestra ipsorum causa. Hi ad 
vestram omnium caedem Romae restiterunt (Cic. Cat. IV. 2). 
The genitives unius, ipsius (ipsorum), in particular, are often so con- 

Obs. The genitives nostrum and vestrum are often put with 
omnium for noster and vester, always indeed when omnium precedes ; 
Voluntati vestrum omnium parui (Cic. de Or. III. 55), your unani- 
mous wish (voluntati vestrae parui). Patria est communis omnium 
nostrum parens (Id. Cat. I. 7). Otherwise but rarely; e.g. splendor 
vestrum for vester (Id. ad Att. VII. 13). 

b. When a personal or reflective pronoun ought to be subjoined 
to a substantive, adjective, or verb as an object in the genitive (ob- 
jective genitive), the genitive neuter singular of the corresponding 
possessive pronoun (mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri : properly, of my 
being, &c.) is used instead of the wanting genitive ; e.g. : — 

Studium nostri, devotion to us. Rogo, ut rationem mei habeatis, 
that you would have regard to me. Habetis ducem memorem vestri, 
oblitum sui (Cic. Cat. IV. 9). Pudet me vestri. Grata mini 
vehementer est memoria nostri tua (Cic. ad Fam. XII. 17), your 
remembrance of me, that you think of me. Multa solet Veritas prae- 
bere vestigia sui (Liv. XL. 54) . 

Obs. 1. With personal names, which contain the idea of an active 
verb, the subjoined genitive may merely denote, with reference to whom 
a person is so named : it is then considered as a possessive genitive, and 
is represented by a possessive pronoun ; e.g. accusator tuus (Cice- 
ronis) . Nosti Calvum, ilium laudatorem meum (Cic. ad Att. 1. 16) . 
But it may also be considered as an objective genitive, the idea of an 
action or operation, of which some one is the object, being put promi- 
nently forward ; e.g. frater meus misit filium ad Caesarem, non 
solum sui deprecatorem, sed etiam accusatorem mei (Cic. ad Att. 
XI. 8), to entreat for himself, to complain of me. Omnis natura est 

§298 THE GENITIVE. 261 

servatrix Bui (Td. Fin. V. 9), strives to prewmve itmff. Willi a few 
other words, too, the genitive may be differently understood, and therefore 
represented by pronouns in different ways : e.g. imago mea, my picture . 
and imago mei, a picture of me (which represents me). On the other 

hand, a possessive pronoun is rarely substituted for a clearly objective 
genitive : e.g. meo desiderio for desiderio mei, from a longing for 
vie ; tua fiducia for fiducia tui (Cic. Verr. V. 08). Habere rationem 
suam (Id. Off. I. 39=sui). 

Ons. 2. The genitives mei, tui, &c., may also be used instead of a 
possessive pronoun, to mark something emphatically, as belonging to the 
nature of a thing : Pressa est tellus gravitate sui (Ov. Met. I. 80), 
by its weight (the weight peculiar to it). Later writers sometimes carry 
this still further. 

c. The partitive genitive of nos, vos, is represented (when a 
number is divided) by nostrum, vestrum : — 

Magna pars nostrum ; multi vestrum ; uterqve nostrum ; qvis 

vestrum ? But if a partition of the human being is spoken of, 

the genitives, mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri, are employed ; e.g. Nostri 
melior pars animus est (Senee. Qv. Nat. I., pr;ef.). 

Ons. Nostrum and vestrum are rarely used objectively for nostri and 
vestri: Cupidus vestrum (Cic. Verr. III. 96). Custos urbis et ves- 
trum (Id. Cat. III. 12), of the town and you, each individual of you. 
To express partition (of a number) with the reflective pronoun, we must 
use ex se or suorum (of this or their people) . 

§ 298. Appendix to Chapter V. a. In such special relations as 
cannot be expressed by the genitive, a substantive, to limit the 
meaning of another substantive, may be connected with it by a pre- 
position : judicium de Volscis ; voluntas totius provinciae erga 
Caesarem. But the beginner must beware of using such construc- 
tions, where the preposition in English only connects one idea with 
the other in a general way ; for, in such cases, the relation is ex- 
pressed in Latin by a possessive or objective genitive; e.g. not 
Livius in proemio ad bellum Punicum, but in proemio belli 

b. The referring of a preposition with its case to a single Bub- 
stantive may sometimes be obscure in Latin, in consequence of the 
want of a definite article and the free position of the words, because 
the definition may be also referred to the verb and the whole predi- 
cate, or it may give a clumsy character to the sentence. In Buch 
cases the construction with a preposition is avoided, lint no am- 
biguity arises, and this construction is most frequently employed. 

262 LATIN GRAMMAR. | 298 

1. When the substantive to which the words refer has already a geni- 
tive, or an adjective or pronoun with it, so that the preposition with its 
case may be attached to the first definition as a second and more accurate 
one, being usually put between the principal substantive and the genitive 
or adjective : Caesaris in Hispania res secundae (Cass. B. C. II. 37) ; 
sextus liber de officiis Hecatonis (Cic. Off. III. 23) ; caedes in 
pace Fidenatium colonorum (Liv. IV. 32) ; omnes ante Socratem 
philosophi (Cic. Acad. I. 4). Ista mini fuit perjucunda a proposita 
oratione digressio (Id. Brut. 85). 

2. Where the substantive and the definition annexed by the 
preposition may, from their signification, be naturally and easily 
combined into one idea, as, for instance, verbal substantives with 
prepositions which are akin to the signification of the verb contained 
in the substantive; substantives which denote a temper of mind, or 
a way of acting, with in, erga, adversus ; names of persons and 
things with de, ex (in certain combinations, a), to denote their 
origin, class, home, place of starting (with de and ex also, in a 
partitive signification), or with cum and sine, to denote that which 
does or does not pertain to or accompany ; names of external objects, 
with their local relations defined by ad and in ; and in some other cases, 
especially where, from the arrangement of the words, the preposition 
points more to the substantive than the verb : Discessio ab omnibus 
iis, qvae sunt bona in vita (Cic. Tusc. I. 34) ; reditus in urbem ; 
aditus ad me (iter ex Hispania, in Macedoniam) ; totius provin- 
ciae voluntas erga Caesarem ; crudelitas in cives ; contumeliae et 
injuriae in magistratum Milesium (Cic. Verr. I. 34) ; auxilium ad- 
versus inimicos ; homo de plebe Romana, de schola ; civis Ro- 
manus a conventu Panormitano; caduceator ab Antiocho (Liv. 
XXXVII. 45) ; litterae a Gadibus ; aliqvis de nostris hominibus 
(Cic. pro Flacco, 4) ; morbus cum imbecillitate ; simulacrum Ce- 
reris cum facibus (Cic. Verr. IV. 49) ; sine ratione animi elatio ; 
lectionem sine delectatione negligo (Id. Tusc. II. 3) ; homo sine 
re, sine fide, sine spe (Id. pro Csel. 32) ; omnia trans Iberum, 
Antiochia ad Sipplum; insulam in lacu Prelio vendere (Cic. 
pro Mil. 27) ; metus insidiarum a meis (Id. Somn. Scip. 3), insidious 
plottings on the part of my friends ; omnis metus a vi atqve ira deo- 

rum sublatus est (Id. N. D. I. 17), all fear in respect to, of . 

Canulejus victoria de patribus {over the patricians) et favore plebis 
ingens erat (Liv. IV. 6). 

Obs. 1. To avoid ambiguity, a suitable participle may be introduced: 
e.g. judicium de Volscis factum ; litterae Gadibus allatae ; insula 
in lacu Prelio sita ; lectio delectatione carens ; sometimes, too, a 
periphrasis with a relative maybe employed: e.g. libri, qvi sunt de 


natura deorum, or, libri, qvoa Cicero de natura deorura scripsit 
In other cases, an adjective is put instead of a preposition with it 
See § 300, Obs. 3. 

Obs. 2. Two connected limiting words, of which one is subordinate to 
the other, cannot be joined to a substantive by prepositions; we, there- 
fore, cannot say, simulacrum Cereris cum facibua in manibua, but 
faces mauibus teneiis. 



§ 299. a. The Vocative is used when a person is called or spoken 
to, and is inserted in the sentence without any connection with the 
rest of the proposition : — 

Vos, o Calliope, precor, aspirate canenti! (Virg. ^En. IX. 685), 
Assist me, Calliope, thou and thy sisters ! 

The interjection o is not inserted in prose, in customary addresses, 
or in calling to a person (Credo ego vos, judices, mirari (Cic). 
Vincere scis, Hannibal ; victoria uti nescis. Adeste, amici !) but 
only in exclamations of surprise, of joy, or of anger : O dii boni, qvid 
est in hominis vita diu (Cic. Cat. Maj. 19). O tenebrae, o lutum, 
o sordes, o paterni generis oblite ! (Id. in Pis. 26). Compare § 236, 
Obs. 1. 

Obs. In the poets, o is often prefixed to the vocative, without any 
particular emphasis. 

b. Limiting words may be added to the word which stands in the 
vocative according to the common rules : — 

Prima dicte mihi summa dicende Camena, Maecenas ! (Ilor. 
Ep. I. 1) thou, Mcecenas ! sung (i.e. whom I have sung) in my first tong, 
and shall sing in my last* 

Obs. 1. In the poets, and in antiquated style, the nominative is some- 
times found instead of the vocative : e.g. Almae filius Majae ! (Ilor. 
Od. I. 2, 43). Vacuas aures mihi, Memmius, adhibe (Lin r. I. USi). 
Vos, o Pompilius sangvis (Hor. A. P. 292). Audi tu, populus Al- 
banus (Liv. I. 24). 

Obs. 2. In some rare instances, a word in apposition in the nomina- 
tive is added to the vocative ; e.g. Hoc tu (audes), succinctus patria 
qvondam, Crispine, papyro ? (Jut. IV. 24). Conversely, we §otne> 
tunes meet with the vocative of a participle or adjective which would 

204 LATIN GRAMMAE. § 300 

be more correctly in the nominative to agree with the subject of the verb ; 
Heu ! terra ignota canibus date praeda Latinis alitibusqve jaces 
(Virg. 2En. IX. 485). 

Obs. 3. In prose addresses, the vocative is usually put after some 

other words in the propasition: Credo ego vos, judices, mirari 

Qvousqve tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra? Yet it may 
be prefixed with a kind of solemn dignity : Rex Bocche! Magna nobis 
laetitia est (Sail. Jug. 102), as also in vehement expressions of feeling: 
O mi Attice, vereor (Cic. ad Att. XIV. 12). 



§ 300. a. An Adjective is either put with a substantive simply 
as an attribute or predicate, to denote a quality in general (vir bo- 
nus, vir est bonus), or it stands in apposition, and denotes, with 
reference to the verb, the state of the substantive during the action ; 
e.g. : — 

Multi eos, qvos vivos coluerunt, mortuos contumelia afficiunt 
(in, their lifetime, after their death). Natura ipsa de immortalitate 
animorum tacita judicat (Cic. Tusc. I. 14). Legati inanes (empty- 
handed) ad regem revertuntur (Id. Verr. IV. 28). Hannibal oc- 
cultus subsistebat (Liv. XXII. 12), secretly halted. With a collective 
substantive, such an apposition is regulated according to the verb : Cu- 
neus nostrum, ut labentem ex eqvo Scipionem vidit, alacres gau- 
dio per totam aciem discurrunt (Liv. XXV. 31) . 

b. Those adjectives, more especially, which denote order and 
succession, are used in apposition in Latin, where in English we 
should use an adverb (qualifying the verb) or a periphrasis with a 
relative clause. 

Hispania postrema omnium provinciarum perdomita est (Liv. 
XXVIII. 12), Spain was reduced to obedience last of all the provinces ; 
or, Of all the provinces, Spain was the last that was reduced to obedience. 
Omnium exterarum nationum princeps Sicilia se ad amicitiam 
populi Romani applicuit (Cic. Verr. II. 1). Dubito, qvid primum, 
qvid medium, qvid extremam ponam. G-ajus qvintus advenit. 
Medius ibam (in the middle). 


c. In the same way are used totus, solus, diver.^us (different 
ways), sublimus (on high), freqveus, proximus, u also prudeii3 
(knowingly), sciens, imprudens, invitus : Philosophiae nos penitoa 
totosqve tradimus (Cic. Tusc. V. 2). Soli hoc contingit sapieiiti 
(only to the wise man). Aqvila sublimis abiit. Roscius erat Ro- 
mae freqvens (Cic. Rose. Am. 6). Consules in provincias diversi 
abiere. Maulius assedit proximus Laelio. Plus hodie boni feci 
imprudens qvam sciens ante hunc diem unqvam (Ter. Hec. X . 2, 
40). Invitus discedo. (Dare alicui pecuniam mutuam.) 

Obs. 1. So, likewise, the relation between the direction of a move- 
ment, an J the place where it occurs, is expressed by the adjectives adver- 
sus, secundus, obliqvus, joined with the name of the place : in adversum 
collem subire (up the hill) ; secundo fiumine navigare ; obliqvo 
nionte decurrere (Liv. VII. 15), obliquely down the mountain. 

Obs. 2. Other adjectives also, which denote relations of time and place, 
are used by the poets in apposition, instead of adverbs : Aeneas se raa- 
tutinus agebat (Virg. iEn. VIII. 465). Gnavus mane forum, ves- 
pertinus pete tectum (Hor. Ep. I. 6, 20). Domesticus otior (Id. Sat. 
I. 6, 128)=domi. 

Obs. 3. It is to be observed, that in not a few cases, where, in Eng- 
lish, a substantive is defined by another substantive with a preposition, 
or a compound substantive is used, the definition is expressed, in Latin, 
by a derivative adjective, which denotes something that stands in a cer- 
tain relation, consists of a certain material, belongs to something, &c. ; 
e.g. filius herilis, tumultus servilis (the rising of the slaves), bellum 
sociale, vincula ferrea, iter maritimum, pedestre, metus rectus 
(Liv. II. 1), awe (entertained) of the king (objective), Hector Naevia- 
nus (the Hector of the poet Nozvius), Hercules Xeuophonteus ; and so 
frequently with proper names. Those adjectives should be particularly 
noticed which express the home, and place of residence : Dio Syracusa- 
nus (of Syracuse), Hermodorus Ephesius, &c. (far less frequently, 
Cn. Magius Cremona, Turnus Herdonius ab Aricia (Liv. I. 50), and 
others) ; also, the place where a thing has happened : clades AUien- 
sis, pugna Cannensis. In some cases, both forms are used : poculum 
aureum and ex auro; pugna Leuctrica and pugna Lacedaemoni- 
orum in Leuctris (Cic. Div. II. 25). Bellum servile and bellum 
servorum. (Conversely, a genitive is sometimes found in Latin, where 
an adjective would be used in English ; as, domicilia hominum, human 

Obs. 4. It is rarely the case that any other adjectives are added to a 
proper name (in prose) than those which serve to discriminate several ol' 
the same name (e.g. Africanus major, minor, Piso Frugi. 
name, magnus Alexander, Liv. VIII. o), or express the native place 

266 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 301 

or residence ; other adjectives can only stand with a common noun put 
in apposition : e.g. Plato, homo sapientissimus, the wise Plato; Capua, 
urbs opulentissima, the wealthy Capua. We find, also, Ilia severa 
Lacedaemon (Cic. Legg. II. 15), with the addition of a pronoun. 
(The poets, on the other hand, allow themselves such expressions as 
docti verba Catonis, doctae Athenae, and the like.) It is also un- 
usual, in Latin prose, to put with common nouns adjectives which are to 
characterize, not one or more individuals, but the whole class. Such ad- 
jectives are generally put with a more comprehensive generic term; 
e.g. columba, animal timidissimum, the timid dove (of doves in 
general) . 

Obs. 5. When a substantive in combination with an adjective de- 
notes a particular kind and class (e.g. navis oneraria), an additional 
characteristic may be added by means of a new adjective ; e.g. navis 
oneraria maxima (Cic. Verr. V. 52), statuae eqvestres inauratae 
(Id. ibid. II. 61), corona aurea exigua (Instead of multae graves 
causae, multa magna incommoda, we must say, multae et graves 
c, multa et magna inc., and so in general, when multus is followed by 
an adjective in the positive that denotes a good or bad quality, or a cer- 
tain degree of importance. But multi fortissimi atqve optimi viri 
(Cic. Fam.V. 17). 

§ 301. Adjectives are sometimes used as substantives in order to 
designate persons or things distinguished by a particular quality. 
With respect to this we may observe : — 

a. The plural of adjectives is often used to designate men of a 
particular class and kind: e.g. docti, the learned; boni, the good; 
omnes boni, all good men (also homines docti, and in certain com- 
binations viri, as viri fortes, viri boni) : the singular, on the con- 
trary, is rarely so used, and only when the context excludes all 
ambiguity ; e.g. : — 

Assentatio non modo amico, sed ne libero qvidem digna est 
(Cic. Lsel. 24). Est prudentis, sustinere impetum benevolentiae 
(Id. ib. 17. Compare § 282, and Obs. 1). Plurimum in faciendo 
interest inter doctum et rudem, non multum in judicando (Id. Or. 
III. 51). 

The nominative and accusative are very rarely so employed. 

Obs. In the philosophical style, however, sapiens (the wise mail), 
is often used substantively. Sometimes, another adjective is subjoined 
to an adjective used substantively ; e.g. nihil insipiente fortunato 
intolerabilius fieri potest (Cic. Lael. 15), a fool favored by fortune. 
Nobilis indoctus (Juven. VIII. 49), an unlearned noble. (Xo man 
of learning, any learned man, are expressed by nemo doctus, qvis- 


qvam doctus, with the substantives nemo and qvisqvam, in th< 
way as nemo Atheniensis, qvisqvam Romanus ; o man of 
laming, homo doctissimus; a true philosopher, homo vere sapiens; 
and thus always, when the degree and character of a quality arc to ]>*■ 

b. The whole class of objects of a certain character is expr< 

in Latin by the neuter plural: bona, what is good {good things) ; 
rnola, what is bad (bonum, a good, something good ; malum, an 
evil, something bad) ; omnia pulchra, every thing beautiful ; multa 
memorabilia, much that is remarkable ; ubi plurima nitent, where 
the greater part is beautiful ; omnia nostra, all that belongs to us. 
Omne pulchrum, every individual thing that is beautiful ; e.g. : — 

Omne supervacuum pleno de pectore manat, Hor. A. P. 337 ; 
but never multum memorabile. (Compare what is said of the pro- 
nouns, § 312, b.) The singular, on the contrary, is made use of when 
an idea is general, and not a whole class of several objects is to be 
understood : e.g. verum, the truth, verum fateri, verum audire, in- 
vestigate veri (but vera nuntiare, to bring true intelligence ; Veritas, 
the quality of being true) ; natura, justi et aeqvi mater, the mother of 
justice and equity ; multum, plurimum, tribuo huic homini. 

Obs. 1. Often, too, the periphrasis with res is made use of; res 
bonae et honestae. With adjectives, ambiguity may result in those 
cases in which the neuter is not distinguished from the other gender*. 
The adjectives of the third declension are not often used in the way last 
mentioned (in the singular), except in the nominative or accusative. 
(Mater justi, but not utilis. Yet Livy says (XLII. 47), Potior 
utilis qvam honesti cura.) 

Obs. 2. Concerning the neuter singular or plural of adjectives, with 
a genitive of the parts of a thing, see § 284, Obs. 5. 

Obs. 3. The neuter of adjectives is sometimes combined with prepo- 
sitions into particular phrases and adverbial expressions : e.g. esse in 
integro, to be undecided, so that one has his hands still free ; de (ex) 
improviso, unexpectedly; de integro, afresh; sine dubio, without 
doubt (doubt, subst. dubitatio) ; particularly with ex, but mostly in 
later writers : e.g. ex facili (== facile), ex affluent! (— affluenter). 

c. Certain adjectives have acquired the full force of inde- 
pendent substantives, their masculine and feminine suggesting in 
general only the idea of a person, the neuter that of a thing, with 
a given quality ; e.g. amicus, inimicus, adversarius, arnica (§ 247, 
b, Obs. 1) bonum, malum, ludicrum, a play ; simile, a Uhneu . 
inane, empty space. With others, on the other hand, a particular 

268 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 303 

substantive was originally understood, which was left out by ellipsis, 
until the adjective gradually came to be used quite independently ; 
e.g. patria (civitas, urbs, terra), fera (bestia). 

Obs. 1. Some adjectives were so frequently used in combination with 
a particular substantive, that the adjective was in course of time used 
alone for the whole idea, but in such a way that the omitted substantive 
was clearly kept in view ; especially in certain combinations and with 
certain verbs which suggested the substantive : e.g. cani (capilli) ; 
frigidam, calidam (aqvam) potare ; primas, secundas (partes) 
agere, actor primarum ; tertiana, qvartana (febris) ; ferina (carne) 
vesci ; dextra, sinistra (manus) ; hiberna, stativa (castra) ; prae- 
texta (toga). Such expressions are to be learned by attentive reading, 
and from the dictionary. 

Obs. 2. (On the whole paragraph.) We should notice as a license 
(chiefly poetical), that in some few instances a substantive personal 
name is used in apposition with (nearly) the meaning of an adjective, and 
consequently with an adverb, qualifying it : Minime largitor dux (Liv. 
VI. 2). Populus late rex (Virg. Aen. I. 21). (Concerning iterum 
tertium consul, see § 220, Obs. 1.) In other cases, where an adverb 
appears to be combined with a substantive, it is merely a conciseness of 
expression which may easily be explained : e.g. Omnes circa populi 
(Liv. XXIV. 3) = omnes qvi circa sunt ; nullo publice emolumento 
(Liv. VI. 39) = qvod ad rempublicam attinet, sine ullo emolu- 

§ 302. In the poets, adjectives in the neuter (accusative), sometimes 
in the plural, are not unfrequently put for adverbs, especially with verbs 
which denote an intransitive and external action that may be observed 
by the senses : e.g. altum dormire, torvum clamare, perfidum 
ridere, insveta rudens, acerba tuens ; turbidum laetari ; nefandum 
furens. Victor eqvus pede terram crebra ferit (Virg. G. III. 499). 
(In prose, sonare, olere peregrinum, to have a foreign sound, savor ; 
§ 223, c, Obs. 2.) 

§ 303. a. When two words (ideas) are compared by means of 
an adjective or adverb, the last word (the second member of the com- 
parison) is combined with the first (the first member of the compari- 
son) by a particle of comparison (qvam, ac, than, as), and it is put 
in the same case if the verb or governing word is common to both 
members. Qvam is used with comparatives (ac only in antiquated 
and poetical style) : — 

Ignoratio futurorum malorum melior est qvam scientia. Ne- 
mini plura beneficia tribuisti qvam mini. Haec res laetitiae 


plus habet qvam molestiae. Hoc est hominis gloriae qvam 
scientiae studiosioris. Cui potius credam, qvam tibi ? Donum 
specie qvam re majus. (Non Apollinis magis verura atqve hoc 
responsum est, Ter. Andr. IV. 2, 14). Titius non tarn acutus 
qvam Sejus est. Titium alia poena affecisti atqve Sejum. 

Ons. 1. Concerning the use of ac, see § 444, b. The member 
put in the same case, even if the sentence be an accusative with an in- 
finitive : Decet nobis cariorem esse patriam qvam nosmetipsoB 
(Cic. Fin. III. 19. Patria nobis carior est qvam nosmetipsi). 

Obs. 2. Sometimes the word qvam with the second member of the 
comparison is put in juxtaposition with the first member before the com- 
parative, to make the contrast more striking: Ex hoc judicari potest, 
virtutis esse, qvam aetatis, cursum celeriorem (Cic. Phil. V. 17). 
Maris subita tempestas qvam ante provisa terret navigautes 
vehementius (Id. Tusc. III. 22). 

b. If the first member is governed by a word which does not also 
belong to the second member of the comparison, a new proposition 
must be formed, with a verb of its own (sum) : — 

Haec verba sunt Varronis, hominis doctioris, qvam fuit Clau- 
dius (Gell. X. 1). Verres argentum reddidit L. Cordio, homini 
non gratiosiori, qvam Cn. Calidius est (Cic. Verr. IV. 20). Hoc 
est Titii, hominis non tarn acuti, qvam Sejus est 

If, however, the first member is an accusative, this case is often 
retained, although the governing word cannot be repeated (attrac- 
tion) : — 

Ego hominem callidiorem vidi neminem qvam Phormionem 
(Ter. Phorm. IV. 2, 1) = qvam Phormio est. Patrem qvum fervet 
maxime, tarn placidum reddo qvam ovem (Ter. Ad. IV. 1. 18) 
= qvam ovis est. Tibi, multi majori, qvam Africanus fuit, me, 
non multo minorem qvam Laelium, et in republica et in amicitia 
adjunctum esse patere (Cic. ad Fain. V. 7) = qvam Laelius fuit 

Obs. 1. The examples under a show that we nun always use the 
same case when the first -member of the comparison is the subject, or 
when the adjective (the adverb in combination with an adjective Off 
participle; e.g. splendidius omatus) does not belong afl an attribute 
or predicate to the first member itself, but to another word. It. on the 
contrary, the adjective or adverb belongs (either alone, or a< pari of ■ 
description; e.g. majoris pretii, splendidius ornatus) to the fir* 
member of the comparison, and this is not the subject, (he governing 
word can very seldom be repeated; e.g. Propemodum justioiibus 

270 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 304 

utimur illis, qvi omnino avocant a philosophia, qvam his (viz. 
utimur, qvi rebus infinitis modum constituunt (Cic. Finn. I. 1). 

Obs. 2. Even if both the members of the comparison are subjects, a 
new proposition is formed with a verb of its own, if a difference of time 
is to be expressed : Pompejus munitior ad custodiendani vitani 
suam erit, qvam Africanus fuit (Cic. ad Q. Fr. II. 3). But such a 
difference of time is not always distinctly expressed. 

§ 304. If in a sentence with the comparative (of an adjective or 
adverb) the first member of the comparison is a nominative or accu- 
sative, the particle of comparison may be omitted and the second 
member put in the ablative (§ 271) : — 

Turpis fuga mortis omni est morte pejus (Cic. Phil. VIII. 10). 
Tullus Hostilius ferocior Romulo fuit (Liv. I. 22). Nihil est 
laudabilius placabilitate et aeqvitate. Qvid nobis duobus labori- 
osius est ? (Cic. pro Mil. 2, = qvis — laboriosior ? Nihil illo 
homine foedius.) Lacrima nihil citius arescit (Rhet. ad Her. II. 
31). Qvem auctorem locupletiorem Platone laudare possumus ? 
(Cic. R. P. I. 10). Cur Sybaris olivum sangvine viperino cautius 
vitat ? (Hor. Od. I. 8, 9) = qvam sangvinem viperinum. 

But qvam is not omitted when the comparative as an adjective does 
not belong to the members of the comparison, but to another word : Tu 
splendidiorem habes villain qvam ego. 

Obs. 1. The omission of qvam after the comparative of an adverb is 
rare in prose. After the comparatives of adjectives the ablative is more 
frequently put in good prose for the nominative and for the subject- 
accusative (the accusative with the infinitive) than for the object-accu- 
sative. Yet the use of the ablative instead of an object-accusative is 
also not unfrequent, and particularly usual with pronouns ; Hoc nihil 
mini gratius facere poteris. It should be especially noticed, that the 
relative pronoun is frequently put in the ablative, governed by a com- 
parative following, and accompanied by a negative, when we should 
employ in English a superlative in apposition : Phidiae simulacra, 
qvibus nihil in illo genere perfectius videmus (Cic. Orat. 8), than 
ichich we see nothing more jj erf ect, i.q. the most perfect we see. Punicum 
bellum, qvo nullum majus Romani gessere (Liv. XXXVIII. 53), 
the greatest the Romans have ever prosecuted, (not maximum quod 
Romani, but perhaps maximum eorum quae Romani). Qvam is 
never used in this construction with the relative. (Pleonastic : Qvid 
hoc tota Sicilia est clarius qvam omnes Segestae matronas et 
virgines convenisse, qvum Diana exportaretur ex oppido ? (Cic. 
Verr. IV. 35). 


Obs. 2. It is a rare license to put the ablative after the eompi 

when the latter stands in any other ease than the nominative and accu- 
sative; Pane egeo, jam mellitis potiore placentis (Hot. Ep. I. In, 
11) = qvam mellitae placentae sunt. 1 

Obs. 3. The poets use this ablative also with alius ; Ne putes alium 
sapiente bonoqve beatum (Ilor. Ep. I. 1G, 20). 

Obs. 4. In order to express that something exceeds what is supposed 
or required, or does not correspond to it, the Latins employ the abla- 
tives spe, exspectatione, opinione, justo, solito, aeqvo, necessario 
before a comparative, either of an adjective or adverb : e.g. Opinione 
omnium majorem animo cepi dolorem {Cic. Brut. 1). Caesar 
opinione celerius venturus esse dicitur (Cic. ad Fam. XIV. 2:;), 
than had been expected. Amnis solito citatior (Liv. XX I II. 1!)). 

§ 305. If a magnitude, which is expressed either by a numeral 
or by a substantive which denotes a measure (e.g. annus, a year ; 
pars dimidia, half; digitus transversus, a finger-breadth ; &c), 
is increased by plus or amplius (more tha?i), or diminished by mi- 
nus (less than), plus, amplius, or minus, with or without qvam, is 
added to the name of the magnitude, without any influence on its 
case, which remains the same which the context would require 
without these comparatives (plus qvam triginta milites, plus tri- 
ginta milites, cum militibus plus qvam triginta, cum militibus 
plus triginta). But if this case be the nominative or accusative 
(intersunt sex millia, habeo decern milites), plus, amplius, or mi- 
nus, maybe put as the nominative or accusative, and take the name 
of the magnitude in the ablative (interest amplius sex millibus, 
habeo plus decern militibus) ; e.g. : — 

a. Caeduntur Hispani nee plus qvam qvattuor millia eflfuge- 
runt (Liv. XXXIX. 31). Zeuxis et Polygnotus non sunt usi plus 
qvam qvattuor coloribus (Cic. Brut. 18). Caesar legem tulit, ne 
praetoriae provinciae plus qvam annum neqve plus qvam bien- 
nium consulares obtinerentur (Cic. Phil. I. 8). 

b. Plus septingenti capti sunt (Liv. XLI. 12). Plus pars dimi- 
dia ex qvinqvaginta millibus hominum caesa est (Id. XX \\ 1. 
40). Apes nunqvam plus unum regem patiuntur (Sen. de ( Kin. 1. 
19). Spatium est non amplius pedum sexcentorum (Csbs. B. <■• 
I. 38). Plus dimidiati mensis cibaria (Cic. Tusc. H. 16). Tribu- 

1 The ablative after a comparative, which belongs to a thirl suh-fantiw, is ■ very nn 
exception; C. Caesar majorem senatu animum habuit (Veil. Man. D 
qvam senatus. 


§ 306 

num plebis plus viginti vulneribus acceptis jacentem moribun- 
dumqve vidistis (Id. pro Sest. 39). Qvinctius tecum plus annum 
vixit (Id. pro Quinet. 12). With a different order: Decern haud 
amplius dierum frumentum (Tac. H. IV. 52. Cum decern haud 
plus millibus militum (Liv. XXVIII. 1). 

c. Catilina initio non amplius duobus millibus militum habuit 
(Sail. Cat. 56). Roscius nunqvam plus triduo Romae fuit (Cic. 
Hose. Am. 27). Inter hostium agmen et nostrum non amplius 
senis millibus passuum intererat (Cass. B. G. I. 15). 

Obs. 1. When amplius, plus, or minus, with a plural, stands for the 
subject with or without qvam, the Yerb is always put in the plural : Am- 
plius sunt sex menses. 

Obs. 2. Plus and magis both signify more, but the former (like am- 
plius) relates to the quantity, the latter to the degree ; the former corre- 
sponds to the comparative of much, the latter to that of very ; magis is, 
conseqently, used as an adverb of comparison with verbs, adjectives, and 
other adverbs. With verbs, however, plus is also used as an adverb (prop- 
erly, to a greater extent, in a greater measure') ; e.g. Vitiosi principes plus 
exemplo qvam peccato nocent (Cic. Legg. III. 14). Fieri non 
potest, ut qvisqvam plus alterum diligat qvam se (Id. Tusc. III. 
29). (In the positive, we rarely find such an expression as multum 
bonus — i.e. multum with an adjective, but more frequently, mul- 
tum utor aliqvo, have much intercourse with a person ; multum me 
litterae consolantur, Cic. ad Att. XIV. 13). To show that a word 
docs not exhaust an idea, plus is always employed : Animus plus 
qvam fraternus. Confitebor eos plus qvam sicarios esse (Cic. 
Phil. II. 13). On the other hand, magis (potius) timeo qvam spero. 
Non magis, non plus signifies as little, when both members of the com- 
parison are negative : Scutum, gladium, galeam in onere nostri mili- 
tes non plus numerant qvam humeros, lacertos, manus (Cic. 
Tusc. II. 16). Non nascitur ex malo bonum, non magis qvam 
ficus ex olea (Sen. Ep. 87) ; but it also denotes in no higher degree, i.e. 
the other as much, when both are affirmed : Jus bonumqve apud vete- 
res non legibus magis qvam natura valebat (Sail. Cat. 9) ; in the 
latter case, however, the word expressing the antithesis is often interposed 
between them. 

0»s. 3. We find (with the measure of the difference in the ablative, 
according to § 270) both Uno plus Etruscorum cecidit (Liv. II. 7), 
one more fell on the side of the Etruscans ; and Una plures tribus legem 
antiqvarunt (Id. V. 30), one tribe more. 

§ 306. With adjectives and adverb?, which denote a measure, 
and take an accusative (according to § 234, a), the simplest way of 


enhancing or diminishing the given measure ii l-v the addition of 

plus, amplius, or minus, with or without qvam, according to the 
preceding paragraph : — 

Umbra non amplius qvattuor pedes longa (I'lin. II <t X.k. Yf. 
39). Nix minus qvattuor pedes alta jacuit (Li v. XXI. 61). Mi- 
nus qvinqve et viginti millibus longe ab Utica copiae aberant 
((Vs. B. C. II. 37). But we may also use. the comparative of the adjec- 
tive or adverb {longer than, four fed, instead of more than four fed long), 
and add the word expressing the measure, either in the accusative, with- 
out qvam, according to § 234, a, or in the ablative, if the adjective 
stands in the nominative or accusative : Digitum non altior unum 
(Lucr. IV. 415). Gallorum copiae non longius millia passuum 
octo aberant (Caes. B. G. V. 53). Palus non latior pedibus qvin- 
qvaginta (Id. ib. VII. 19). (Qvinqvaginta pedibus latior might 
also signify fifty feet broader than something else, according to 
§ 270.) 

Ods. 1. With natus (so many years) old, we say either (according 
to the first form of expression) , natus plus, amplius, minus (qvam) tri- 
ginta annos (rarely in the ablative, plus triginta annis), or (accord- 
ing to the second form), major (minor) qvam triginta annos natus 
(Liv. XLV. 32), or (omitting qvam), major triginta annos natus 
(Cic. pro Rose. Am. 14), or simply major (minor) triginta annis 
(without natus, Cic. pro Rose. Am. 35). x (Distinct from major (mi- 
nor), natu, older (younger) than another, and from grandis natu, 
maximus natu.) 

Obs. 2. Concerning the way in which the degree of difference is ex- 
pressed by the ablative with a comparative, see § 270, with Obs. 1. 

§ 307. A comparison of two qualities, which are found in the 
same subject or action in an unequal degree, is denoted either by 
the positive with magis, or by two comparatives; e.g.: — 

Magis audacter qvam prudenter ; consilium magis honestum 
qvam utile ; L. Aemilii contio fuit verior qvam gratior populo 
(Liv. XXII. 38). Non timeo, ne libentius haec in Clodium 
evomere videar qvam verius (Cic. pro Mil. 29). Bella fortius 
qvam felicius gerere (Liv. V. 43). 

§ 308. The comparative also serves to denote that the quality 
referred to exists in a considerable or too high a degree : — 

1 The following forms of expression are of less frequent occurn-nop : major tripri I 
nis natus; major triginta annis natu; major triginta annorum, with «i>«> 
genitive of quality and the omission of qvam. 


274 LATIN GRAMMAR. §310 

Senectus est natura loqvacior (Cic. Cat. M. 16), rather talkative, 
somewhat talkative. Voluptas, qvum major atqve longior est, omne 
auimi lumen exstingvit (Id. ib. 12). Themistocles minus parenti- 
bus probabatur, qvod liberius vivebat et rem familiarem negligebat 
(Corn. Them. 1). (Aliqvanto, paulo liberius. More definitely, nimis 
lorigus, libere.) 

Oiis. 1. Too great in proportion to something (greater than one could 
expect according to something), is expressed by major qvam pro re 
aliqva: Proelium atrocius qvam pro numero pugnantium (Liv. 
XXI. 29). Too great (and not suitable) for something is sometimes ex- 
pressed by the comparative with the ablative (not qvam) ; Ampliores 
huniano fastigio honores (Svet. Jul. 7G ; otherwise, honores hu- 
manum fastigium excedentes, ultra hum. fastigium exaggerati, and 
the like). 1 Too great (greater) for is expressed by major qvam ut or 
major qvam qvi; e.g. major qvam cui tu nocere possis, too great 
for you to hurt. 

Obs. 2. Isolated irregularities in the use of the comparative are 
met with here and there in certain writers (Sallust, Livy, and espe- 
cially Tacitus) ; e.g. the omission of magis or potius before qvam 
(Veteres Romani in pace beneficiis qvam metu imperium agita- 
bant, Sail. Cat. 9), or the addition of a superfluous magis or potius 
with a comparative (Themistocli optabilius videbatur oblivisci 
posse potius, qvod meminisse nollet, qvam, qvod semel audisset 
vidissetve, meminisse, Cic. de Or. II. 74. Siculi se ab omnibus 
desertos potius qvam abs te defensos esse malunt, Id. Dio. in 
Caec. 6), or the combination of a comparative and a positive (qvanto 
inopina, tanto majora, Tac. Ann. I. G8). 

§ 309. The comparative is used in Latin of the highest degree 
when two only are mentioned : — 

Qvaeritur, ex duobus uter dignior sit, ex pluribus, qvis dignissi- 
mus (Quinct. VII. 4, 21). Similiter faciunt, qvi inter se conten- 
dunt, uter potius rempublicam administret, ut si nautae certent, 
qvis eorum potissimum gubernet (Cic. Off. I. 25), of two rivals. 
Major fratrum melius pugnavit, the eldest of the (two) toothers fought 
the best. 

§ 310. The superlative often denotes not that degree which is 
exclusively the highest (in comparison with all others of a certain 
class), but only a very high degree (really the highest, when the 
whole group, to which the individual is conceived of as belonging, 
is included) : — 

1 r Qvid aeternis minorem consiliis animum fatigasP (Hor. Od. II. 11, 11).] 


Ea tu qvidem mihi carissimus, sed multo eris carior, si bonia 
praeceptis laetabere (Cic. Off. III. ;;:}).' Vir fortissimus ct claria- 
simus L. Sulla. Optime valeo. The exclusive signification il known 
either from the context or from tlie addition of a partitive genitive or a 
preposition (optimus omnium, ex omnibus). 

Obs. 1. If the partitive genitive is of a different gender from tie 
jeet, tlie gender of the superlative should properly be always regulated by 
that of the genitive, because it denotes a single object of I hat clan : Ser- 
vitus omnium malorum postremum est (Cic. Phil. IL 44) J but it is. 
notwithstanding, often regulated by that of the subject : Indus est om- 
nium fluniinum mazimus (Cic. N. D. II. o2). Dulcissime rerum ! 
(Iior. Sat. I. 9, 4). 

Obs. 2. The exclusive signification of the superlative is expressed mora 
strongly by the addition of unus, or unus omnium ; e.g. P. Scaevo- 
lam unum nostrae civitatis et ingenio et justitia praestantissimum 
audeo dicere (Cic. Lad. 1) . Res una omnium difficillima. Miltiades 
et antiqvitate generis et gloria majorum unus omnium maxime 
florebat (Corn. Milt. 1). The superlative (even when not exclusive) is 
increased in force by longe, multo (which is the measure of the difference 
between it and others) ; multo formosissimus. Concerning the super- 
lative with qvisqve, see the Appendix on the pronouns, § 495. 

Obs. 3. In order to express the highest possible degree, eiilu r qvam 
maximus (optimus, etc.), qvantus maximus; with adverbs, qvam 
maxime, qvantum maxime, ut maxime, are combined with possum, 
or we have only (less definitely) qvam maximus, qvam maxime ; 
Jugurtha qvam maximas potest (qvam potest maximas) copias 
armat (Sail. Jug. 48), as many troops as he can. Hannibal, qvantam 
maximam vastitatem potest, caedibus incendiisqve efficit (Li v. 
XXII. 3), the greatest devastation he can. Tanta est inter eos, 
qvanta maxima potest esse, morum studiorumqve distantia (Cic. 
Lael. 20). Caesari te commendavi, ut diligentissime potui (Id. ad 
Fam. VII. 17). — Dicam qvam brevissime. Mihi nihil fait opta- 
biliua, qvam ut qvam gratissimus erga te esse cognoscerer (Cic. 
ad Fam. I. 5). Vendere aliqvid qvam plurimo. 

Obs. 4. We should also notice the way in which comparison ifl ex- 
pressed with the relative : Tarn sum mitis qvam qvi lenissimus (\ iz. 
est; (Cic. pro Sull. 31). Tarn sum amicus reipublicae qvam qvi 
maxime (Id. ad Fam. V. 2). Te semper sic colam et tuebor ut 
qvem diligentissime (sc. colam; Id. ib. XIII. 62). 

1 [Qvum ilia certissima sunt visa argumenta atqve indicia sceleris, ta- 
bellae, signa, manus, deniqve uniuscujusqve confessio, turn multo ilia cer- 
tiora, color, oculi, vultus, taciturnitas (Cic. in Cat. ill. 5) ] 

276 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 312 

§ 311. The superlatives which denote an order and sequence 
according to time and place (primus, postrenms, ultimxis, novissi- 
nms, sununus, infimus, imus, intimus, extremus), as well as the 
adjective medius, are often combined with a substantive, in order 
to denote that part of the thing which the adjective specifies; 
e.g.: — 

Vere primo, at the beginning of spring : extremo anno ; ad sum- 
mam aqvam appropinqvare, the surface of the water; summus 
1110113 a Labieno tenebatur, the summit of the mountain ; ex intima 
philosophia, from the innermost part of philosophy ; in media urbe, 
per medium mare, in the middle of the town, through the middle of the 
sea. (Particularly in expressing time and place in the ablative or with 
prepositions. Also reliqva, cetera Graecia, the rest of Greece.) 

Ons. Medius is also used (like a superlative) with a partitive geni- 
tive : Locum medium regionum earum delegerant, qvas Svevi 
obtinent (Cass. B. G. IV. 19). (Poetically, locus medius juguli et 
lacerti, instead of inter jugulum et lacertum, Ov. Met. VI. 409). 



§ 312. a. If a demonstrative pronoun stands alone, but refers 
to a substantive going before, it agrees with it in gender and num- 
ber as an adjective. If it refers to several connected substantives, 
the gender is determined according to the rule laid down in § 214, 
b and c. 

Mater et pater — ii ; honores et imperia — ea ; ira et avaritia — 
eae or ea. Bonus et fortis civis ita justitiae honestatiqve ad- 
iiaerescet, ut, dum ea conservet, qvamvis graviter offendat (Cic. 
Off. I. 25), these virtues. 

If a demonstrative pronoun designates some object not previously 
named, while the character and name of the object are definitely 
understood, it agrees in gender with the object understood: — 

Hie (eqvus) celerior est; haec (avis) pulchriores colores 
habet. If the thing be understood indefinitely and without any partic- 
ular name, the neuter is emplojed ; Hoc, qvod tu manu tenes, cupio 
scire, qvid sit. 


b. If a demonstrative pronoun, which does Dot refer to any indi- 
vidual substantive, denotes something that comprehends a plurality 
(e.g. the contents of a speech, a scries of circumstances), it is put 

in the neuter plural (like adjectives, § 301, b) : — 

Ea, qvae pater tuus dicit, vera sunt. Haec omnia scio. Post- 
qvam haec rex animadvertit, constituit abire. Qvae narras, mini 
non placent (i.q. ea, qvae narras). (Hoc, this one circumstance.) 
The same holds of the relative pronoun, where it is used (copulative!?) 
instead of the demonstrative ; Qvae qvum ita sint, since then tin 
{since the circumstances are so). (But of a single thing; Qvod qvum 
ita sit.) 

§ 313. If a demonstrative pronoun is first put indefinitely as a 
subject or object (that, this), and then connected with a substantive 
by sum, or a verb that signifies to name or esteem, the pronoun 
takes the gender and number of the substantive (attraction) : — 

Romae fanum Dianae populi Latini cum populo Romano 
fecerunt. Ea erat confessio, caput rerum Romam esse (Liv. I. 
45). Haec mea est patria (Cic. Legg. II. 2). Eas divitias, earn 
bonam famam magnamqve nobilitatem putabant (Sail. Cat. 7). 
Cum ducibus ipsis, non cum comitatu confligant. Illam enim 
fortasse virtutem nonnulli putabunt, hanc vero iniqvitatem 
omnes (Cic. pro Balb. 27). (Non amicitiae tales, sed conjura- 
tiones putandae sunt, Id. Off. III. 10, a thing of that kind {such a 
thing) is not to be regarded, &c. Nullam virtutem nisi malitiam 
putant, Id. Legg. I. 18, they consider nothing to be virtue) 

Obs. The deviations from this are rare, and are generally the result 
of a particular effort, either to express a thing entirely indefinite (in the 
neuter: Nee sopor illud erat, Virg. JEn. III. 17.')), or to secure the 
more distinct conception of a person, which person is then described by 
means of a neuter substantive; Haec (Alia tua) est solatium, qvo 
reficiare (Sen. ad Heir. 17). 

§ 314. It may also be noticed, that Latin -writers sometime! OM a 
demonstrative pronoun (or a relative instead) in agreement with sub- 
stantives, in a suggestive sense, instead of adding that which is su!_ r .L r e<tc(l 
in the genitive case. The substantives- in such cases usually denote an 
emo'.ion of the mind: e.g. hie dolor, this pain ; instead of dolor hujus 
rei, pain on account of this thing. Cassivellaunus essedarios ex 
silvis emittebat et magno cum periculo nostronim eqvitum cum 
iis confligebat, atqve hoc metu {by the alarm thus occasioned) latius 
vagari prohibebat (Cies. B. G. V. 19). Sed haec qvidem est per- 
facilis et perexpedita defensio (Cic. de Finn. 111. 11, i.q. hujus 
rei). (Haec similitudo, something like this.) 



Obs. Concerning the employment of a superfluous demonstrative 
pronoun after parenthetical sentences, and with the particle qvidem, 
see § 489. 

315. a. The relative pronoun corresponds in gender and num- 
ber to the substantive (or word used substantively) to which it 
refers. If it refers to several words, it is put in the plural, although 
each of them may be in the singular : if the words are of different 
gender, the rule in § 214, b, is followed ; e.g. : — 

Grandes natu matres et parvuli liberi, qvorum utrorumqve 
aetas misericordiam nostram reqvirit (Cic. Verr. V. 49). Otium 
atqve divitiae, qvae prima mortales putant (Sail. Cat. 36). Eae 
fruges atqve fructus, qvos terra gignit (Cic. N. D. II. 11 ; qvos 
being referred to the nearest word). In conformity also with § 214, c, 
a neuter relative may be subjoined to the names of several inanimate 
objects of the same gender (masc. or fern.) : Fortunam nemo ab in- 
constantia et temeritate sejunget, qvae (which qualities) digna 
certe non sunt deo (Cic. N. D. III. 21). (Summa et doctoris 
auctoritas est et urbis, qvorum alter te scientia augere potest, 
altera exemplis, Id. Off. I. 1, according to § 214, 6, Obs.) 

Obs. 1. If a common and a proper name of different genders are com- 
bined, e.g. flumen Rhenus, the relative may agree with either : flumen 
Rhenus, qvi agrum Helvetiorum a Germanis dividit (Ca?s. B. G. I. 
2). Ad flumen Scaldem, qvod influit in Mosam (Id. ib. YI. 

Obs. 2. The substantive to which a relative pronoun refers is some- 
times repeated for the sake of perspicuity or emphasis, or even quite 
superfluously : Erant omnino itinera duo, qvibus itineribus domo 
exire poterant (Ca?s. B. G. I. 6). Tantrum bellum, tarn diuturnum 
tarn longe lateqve dispersum, qvo bello omnes gentes ac nationes 
premebantur (Cic. pro Leg. Man. 12). (Illius temporis mihi venit 
in mentem, qvo die, citato reo, mini dicendum sit, Id. Div. in Czec. 
13). ' 

b. A relative which refers, not to a single word, but to the w T hole 
predicate or the entire contepts of a proposition, is put in the 
neuter : — 

Sapientes soli, qvod est proprium divitiarum, contenti sunt 
rebus suis (Cic. Par. Yl. 3). In this case, id qvod is often used for 

1 [In the following example of this kind the relative precedes the demonstrative clause: 
TJt, qvae religio C. Mario, clarissimo viro, non fuerat, qvo minus C. Glau- 
ciam, de qvo nihil nomination erat decretum, praetorem occideret. ea nos 
religion e in privato P. Lentulo puniendo liberaremur (Cic. in Cat. m. 6;., 


qvod : Si a vobis, id qvod non spero, deserar, taraen animo non 
deficiam (Id. Rose. Am. 4). 1 The relative proposition u usuallv 
inserted before the predicate to which it refers. 

C. The attraction spoken of in § 313, between a demonstrative em- 
ployed indefinitely, and the substantive following, holds good also with 
the relative ; Qvae apud alios iracundia dicitur, ea in imperio 
superbia atqve crudelitas appellatur (Sail. Cat. 51, what among 
others — ). 

§ 31 G. If a relative which refers to a substantive going before 
has another substantive connected with it by means of the verb 
sum, or one of the verbs which signify to name, to esteem, the num- 
ber and gender of the relative may be accommodated either to the 
substantive which precedes, or that which follows: — 

Darius ad eum locum, qvem Amanicas Pylas vocant, pervenit 
(Curt. III. 20). Tliebae ipsae, qvod Boeotiae caput est, in magno 
tumultu erant (Liv. XLII. 44). 2 The last is done when an observa- 
tion is appended to a word already defined (a definite person or thing) : 
Cn. Fompejo, qvod imperii populi Romani lumen fuit, exstincto, 
interfectus est patris simillimus films (Cie. Phil. V. 14). Justa 
gloria, qvi est fructus verae virtutis honestissimus (Id. in Pis. 24). 
If, on the contrary, the idea is only defined by the relative clause, the 
relative, for the most part, agrees with the preceding word ; Flumen 
qvod appellatur Tamesis (Caes. B. G. V. 11), a river, the river. 

Obs. In some few instances, the relative, even in the circumstances 
just described, agrees with the word which follows: e.g. Animal hoc 
providum, acutum, plenum rationis et consilii, qvem vocamus 
hominem (Cie. Legg. I. 7). (Ex perturbationibus morbi con- 
ficiuntur, qvae vocant illi wo/jtuxa, Id. Tuse. IV. 10, and Alterum 
est cohibere motus animi turbatos, qvos Graeci ftctfty nominant, 
Id. Off. II. 5.) 

§ 317. In the construction of a pronoun, more regard is sometimes 
had to the sense of the word to which it refers than to its grammatical 

a. A relative often agrees with the personal pronoun which U em- 
bodied in a possessive, the genitive of the personal pronoun being 
represented by the possessive : Vestra, qvi cum summa integiitate 

1 [Magna, id qvod necesse erat accidere, perturbatio facta es: 
IV. 29).] 

2 [Ea, qvae secuta eat, hieme, qvi fuit annus Cn. Pornpejo, M Crasao 
Coss. (Csea. B. G. IV. 1).] 

280 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 313 

vixistis, hoc maxime interest (Cic. pro Sail. 28). Vestra consilia 
accusantur, qvi mihi summum honoreni et maximum negotium 
imposuistis (Sail. Jug. 85). 

b. Sometimes a pronoun in the plural follows a substantive in the 
singular, the thought being extended to a number of individual objects : 
Constituerant, ut eo signo cetera multitudo conjurationis suum 
qvisqve negotium exseqveretur. Ea (sc. negotia) divisa hoc 
modo dicebantur, &c. (Sail. Cat. 43) . L. Cantilius, scriba ponti- 
ficis, qvos (sc. scribas pontificum) nunc minores pontifices appel- 
lant (Liv. XXIT. 57). 

c. After collective substantives in the singular, the relative sometimes 
follows in the plural, having reference to the several individuals : Caesar 
eqvitatum omnem, qvem ex omni provincia coactum habebat, 
praemittit, qvi videant, qvas in partes hostes iter faciant (Caes. 
B. G. I. 15). (But not in an explanatory parenthesis.) Ex eo genere 
and ex eo numero are often followed by the relative in the plural, and 
in the gender of the individual persons or things mentioned : TJnus ex 
eo numero, qvi ad caedem parati erant (Sail. Jug. 35). Amicitia 
est ex eo genere, qvae prosunt (Cic. Finn. III. 21). 

d. To a figurative appellation of a man, in which the natural gender is 
departed from, the relative is often added in the natural gender, the 
figure being dropped : Duo importuna prodigia, qvos improbitas 
tribuno plebis constrictos addixerat (Cic. pro Sest. 17). 

Obs. 1. Other deviations from the general rule are only inaccuracies 
of language ; e.g. Vejens bellum ortum est, qvibus Sabini arma con- 
junxerant (Liv. II. 53), as if he had said bellum cum Vejentibus. 

Obs. 2. Here it may also be observed, that after a demonstrative or 
indefinite pronoun unde may be put instead of a qvo (qva) and a 
qvibus, and qvo instead of ad qvem (qvam, qvod) and ad qvos 
(qvas, qvae) : e.g. is, unde petitur, the person from wJwm a tiling is 
{judicially) demanded, the defendant. Erat nemo, unde discerem 
(Cic. Cat. M. 4) Homo et domi nobilis et apud eos, qvo se con- 
tulit, gratiosus (Id. Verr. IV. 18). So likewise qva sometimes stands 
for per qvae, qvos : e.g. ex his oppidis, qva ducebantur (Id. Verr. 
V. 26) ; and ubi for in qvo. 

§ 318. The relative pronoun may be the subject or object of the 
proposition which is formed with it, or may stand in any other rela- 
tion to it, and take the form or case which indicates its relation. 

The relative pronoun represents the three persons ; and if it is 
the subject, the verb agrees in person with the relative : — 

Vos, qvi affuistis, testes esse poteritis, you, who were present. 


On the other hand, — 

Ii nostrum, or ii vestrum, qvi affuerunt, teBtes esse possunt 

After is also, as a predicate noun agreeing with a subject of the 
first or second person, the relative takes the same person : — 
Non is sum, qvi glorier, one who boasts. 

§319. An indefinite substantive, which the relative proposition 
defines, is sometimes drawn into the relative proposition, taking the 
same case with the relative : the relative proposition then precedes 
the demonstrative : — 

Qvae cupiditates a natura proficiscuntur, facile explentur sine 
ulla injuria (Cic. Finn. I. 16), i.q. eae cupiditates, qvae. Ad 
Caesarem qvam misi epistolam, ejus exemplum fugit me tibi 
mittere (Cic. ad Att. XIII. 51, i.q. eju3 epistolae qvam) . In qvem 
primum Heneti Trojaniqve egressi sunt locum, Troja vocatur 
(Liv. I. 1). 

Ons. The poets do this also where the relative proposition follows 
the demonstrative, or at any rate the demonstrative pronoun : Poeta id 
sibi negoti credidit solum dari, Populo ut placerent, qvas fecisset 
fabulas (Ter. Andr. prol. 3). Illi, scripta qvibus comoedia prisca 
viris est, hoc stabant, hoc sunt imitandi (Hor. Sat. I. 10, 10). 
Qvis non malarum, qvas amor curas habet, Haec inter oblivis- 
citur (Id. Ep. 2, 37, i.q. malarum curarum, qvas — ). It is a still 
greater irregularity, when a substantive that should stand in the nomina- 
tive takes the case of the relative, and yet retains its place before it : 
Urbem, qvam statuo, vestra est (Virg. JEn. I. 573), for urbs, 

§ 320. When an antecedent noun with its relative clause is, in 
idea and form, new to the main proposition, and qualifies the same, 
or a single word of the same, after the manner of a noun in appo- 
sition in English, it is almost always drawn into the relative 
clause : — 

Peregrinum frumentum, qvae sola alimenta ex insperato for- 
tuna dedit, ab ore rapitur (Liv. II. oo), the only nourishment which. 
Sant6nes non longe a Tolosatium finibus absunt, qvae civitas est 
in provincia (Caes. B. G. I. 10). Firmi et constantes amici 
eligendi sunt, cujus generis est magna penuria (Cic. Lai. 1 
class which is very rare. (We rarely find a construction like the follow- 
ing: Dictator dictus est Q. Servilius Priscus, vir, cujus piovi- 
dentiam in republica multi3 aliis tempestatibus ante experta 
civitas erat, Liv. IV. 46). 

282 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 321 

Obs. If a relative proposition is annexed to a superlative, to show with 
what limitation the superlative must be understood, the adjective is placed 
in the relative proposition : Themistocles noctu de servis suis, qvem 
habuit fidelissimum, ad Xerxem misit (Corn. Them. 4) , the most faith- 
ful that he had. Agamemnon Dianae devoverat, qvod in suo regno 
pulcherrimum natum esset illo anno (Cic. Off. III. 25) , the most beau- 
tiful thing that should be bom. M. Popillius in tumulo, qvem prox- 
inmm castris Gallorum capere potuit, vallum ducere coepit (Liv. 
VII. 23) . Qvanta maxima potest celeritate, with the greatest speed 
he can, § 310, Obs. 3. At other times, too, when a relative proposition 
has a special reference to the adjective connected with a substantive, the 
adjective may be drawn into the relative proposition : P. Scipioni ex 
multis diebus, qvos in vita celeberrimos laetissimosqve vidit, ille 
dies clarissimus fuit (Cic. Lsel. 3). (Where we employ the super- 
lative in apposition in English, the comparative with a negation is used 
in Latin, according to § 304, Obs. 1.) 

§ 321. If the relative pronoun refers to a demonstrative which 
stands alone, the latter is often put after the relative proposition : — 

Male se res habet, qvum, qvod virtute effici debet, id tentatur 
pecunia (Cic. Off. II. 6). 

It is often entirely omitted when no emphasis is laid upon it, 
mostly when it is a nominative or an accusative, especially when 
the relative stands in the same case in which the demonstrative 
would have stood : — 

Maximum ornamentum amicitiae tollit, qvi ex ea tollit vere- 
cundiam (Cic. Lsel. 22). Atilium sua manu spargentem semen, 
qvi missi erant, convenerunt (Id. Rose. Am. 18). Qvem neqve 
gloria neqve pericula excitant, frustra hortere (Sail. Cat. 58), it 
were in vain to urge him. Inter omnes philosophos constat, qvi 
unam habeat, omnes habere virtutes (Cic. Off. II. 10 ; eum, the 
subject, being omitted). Minime miror, qvi insanire occipiunt ex 
injuria (Ter. Ad. II. 1, 43, eos omitted). Haud facile emergunt, 
qvorum virtutibus obstat res angusta domi (Juv. III. 164). The 
same omission of the demonstrative pronoun takes place where the sub- 
stantive is drawn into the relative proposition according to § 319 ; see 
there the first and third example. Qvae prima innocentis mini de- 
fensio oblata est, suscepi (Cic. pro Sull. 33). 

Obs. In the other cases, which are not so easily supplied from the 
context, the demonstrative is sometimes left out, if it would have to 
stand in the same case as the relative : Qvibus bestiis erat is cibus, 
ut aliu3 generis bestiis vescerentur, aut vires natura dedit aut 


celeritatem (Cic, X. D. II. 48) ; Piso parum erat, a qvibus debu- 
erat, adjutus (Id. Phil. I. 4, i.q. ab iis, a qvibus) ; otherwi 
seldom: e.g. in the dative in certain legal expressions (Ejus pecuniae 
qvi volet, petitio esto = ei, qvi volet) ; or where qvi approaches to 
the signification of siqvis : Xerxes praemium proposuit, qvi novam 
voluptatem invenisset (Cic. Tusc. V. 7). If the demonstrative ii 
emphatic (to give prominence to a particular person, thing, or class), it 
can never be omitted ; A me ii contenderunt, qvi apud me et ami- 
citia et dignitate plurimum possunt (Cie. Hose. Am. 1). 

§ 322. The nominative or accusative of an indefinite pronoun 
(one, some one, something) is left out before the relative, if persons 
or things of some particular nature or destination are spoken of in 
the most general terms ; eg.: — 

Sunt, qvi ita dicant. Non est facile reperire, qvi haec credant. 
Habeo, qvod dicam, something to sarj. Misi, qvi viderent, some, to 
see. But sunt qvidam, qvi, there are certain persons who (compare 
§§ 363 and 365). 

§ 323. a. If two relative propositions are combined and referred 
to the same word, and if the relative which they contain is in dif- 
ferent cases (qvem rex delegerat et qvi populo gratus erat), the 
second relative is sometimes omitted and supplied from the first, 
but only in the nominative and accusative : — 

Eamne rationem seqvare, qva tecum ipse et cum tui3 utare, 
profiteri autem et in medium proferre non audeas? (Cic. Finn. 
II. 23), but which you do not venture. Bocchus cum peditibus, 
qvos Volux, filius ejus, adduxerat, neqve in priore pugna affuerant 
(i.q. et qvi in pr. p. non affuerant), postremam Romanorum aciem 
invadunt (Sail. Jug. 101). 

b. Sometimes, if the relative ought to stand first in the nominative 
and then in some other case, the demonstrative is takes the place of the 
second relative ; Omnes turn fere, qvi nee extra hanc urbem vii- 
erant, nee eos aliqva barbaries domestica infuscaverat, recte 
loqvebantur (Cie. Brut. 74). 

Ous. 1. If the demonstrative and relative are governed by the same 
preposition, and the same verh is understood in the relative proposition 
which is expressed in the demonstrative, the preposition may be omitted 
before the relative : In eadem causa (position) sumus qva vos. Me 
tuae litterae nunqvam in tantam spem induxerunt, qvantam 
aliorum (Cic. ad Att. III. 19). 

Obs. 2. If a relative which refers to a demonstrative pronoun (with- 
out a substantive) ought properly to be governed by an infinitive 

284 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 324 

supplied from the verb in the leading proposition, and put in the accusa- 
tive, it is sometimes (bv attraction) put in the case of the demonstrative; 
e.g. Raptim, qvibus qvisqve poterat, elatis, penates tectaqve 
relinqventes exibant (Liv. I. 29), i.q. elatis iis, qvae qvisqve 
poterat efferre. 

§ 324. a. Talis, tantus, and tot, are followed in comparisons by the 
corresponding relative adjectives qvalis, qvantus, qvot ; of which qvalis 
and qvantus, in gender and number, agree either with the same sub- 
stantive : Nemo ab dis immortalibus tot et tantas res tacitus 
opt are ausus est, qvot et qvantas di immortales ad Fompejum 
detulerunt (Cic. pro Leg. Man. 16) ; or with another substantive 
which is compared with the first in character or magnitude : Non habet 
tantam pecuniam, qvantos sumptus facit. Amicum habere talem 
volunt, qvales ipsi esse non possunt (Cic. Lad. 22) . (Tantundem, 
qvantum: Voluntatem municipii tantidem, qvanti fidem suam 
fecit, Id. Rose. Am. 39.) 

b. Qvi agrees with the demonstrative idem in gender and number, 
but its case will be the same or different, according to its construction 
in the relative proposition : Iidem abeunt, qvi venerant (Cic. Finn. 
IV. 3), they go away just as they came. Eandem Romani causam 
belli cum Boccho habent qvam cum Jugurtha (Sail. Jug. 81). 
Pisander eodem, qvo Alcibiades, sensu erat (Corn. Ale. 5). In 
eadem sum sententia, qvae tibi placet (qvam tibi semper placuisse 
scio) . If qvi is to stand in the same case as idem, and have the same 
verb repeated or understood, ac may be substituted for qvi: Est 
animus erga te idem ac fuit (Ter. Heaut. II. 2, 24) = qvi fuit 
Rs iisdem rebus argumenta sumpsi, ac tu ( = ex qvibus tu) . 





§ 325. A Proposition is either an independent and leading propo- 
sition, which is asserted simply by itself: e.g. Titius currit ; or a 
subordinate proposition, which is not asserted by itself, but appended 
to another proposition, in order to complete and define the whole 
of it or some particular word in it : Titius currit, ut sudet. The 
leading proposition is sometimes incomplete without the addition 
of the subordinate : e.g. Sunt qvi haec dicant. Nun sum tarn 
imprudens qvam tu putas. 

A leading proposition may have several which are subordinate : 
Qvum hostes appropinqvarent, imperator pontem interscindi 
jussit, ut eos transitu prohiberet. A subordinate proposition may 
again have another subordinate proposition attached to it ; e.g. Labo- 
randum est in juventute, ut, qvum senectus advenerit, honeste 
otio frui possimus. 

A main proposition with its subordinate proposition (or proposi- 
tions) forms a compound proposition, which, like a hading propo- 
sition standing alone, has a complete sense, at which the discourse 
can break ofF. 

§ 326. Subordinate propositions are connected with the leading 
proposition, either by a conjunction (conjunctional proposition*) : 
e.g. Haec scio, qvia adfui ; or by a relative (pronoun or adverb) 
(relative propositions) : e.g. Omnes, qvi adfuerunt, haec sciunt ; 
or by an interrogative word (pronoun, adverb, or particle), (depend- 
ent interrogative propositions) : e.g. Qvaero, unde haec scias ; or in 
a peculiar form with the verb in the infinitive (in/iniltvt 
tions, the accusative with the infinitive) : e.g. intelligis, me haec 

286 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 327 

Obs. 1. The relative subordinate propositions explain or define an 
idea of the leading proposition, but may, themselves, also express the 
same idea (by a periphrasis). The other subordinate propositions rep- 
resent either the subject of the leading proposition (subjective proposi- 
tions) : e.g. Qvod domum emisti, gratum mini est; or the object 
of the verb, or of some other word in the leading proposition (objec- 
tive propositions): e.g. Video te currere; operam dabo, ut res 
perficiatur ; or they denote different circumstances connected with it, so 
that they stand in relations similar to those which are expressed by the 
ablative of a substantive or by prepositions. But the difference of the 
grammatical form corresponds only in part to this division. The infini- 
tive propositions represent either a subject or an object (§§ 394-398, a), 
the dependent interrogative propositions an object ; in other cases, an 
object is represented by a conjunctional proposition (§ 371-376). One 
kind of conjunctional propositions (with qvod to denote an existing rela- 
tion, § 398, b) may either represent a subject or object, or be used in 
pointing out a circumstance (in eo qvod, in that) . The rest of the con- 
junctional subordinate propositions, which express circumstances, are 
divided according to the different ideas, in relation to which they define 
the leading proposition, into final (denoting a purpose), consecutive 
(denoting a consequence), causal, conditional, concessive, temporal, and 
modal (propositions of time and mood), and comparative propositions, 
which are denoted by particular conjunctions. In so far as the temporal 
and modal conjunctions are relative adverbs of time and mood (qvam, 
of degree), the temporal and modal propositions have an affinity to the 

Obs. 2. When a conjunctional proposition, containing a reason, con- 
trast (although), concession, time, or condition, naturally precedes the 
main proposition, it is called the protasis, and the main proposition is 
denominated the apodosis. 

Obs. 3. Many propositions refer by means of (demonstrative) ad- 
verbs to other propositions, of which they express the reason, conse- 
quence, &c, but are stated entirely independently as leading propositions ; 
e.g. propositions with nam, itaqve, &c. 

§ 327. A relative proposition often contains not merely a peri- 
phrasis or a remark simply subjoined, but stands in a relation to 
the leading proposition, which is otherwise expressed by conjunc- 
tions, denoting the design (who was to = that he), the reason 
(who = since he), &c. This is expressed by the mood of the verb. 
See § 383 and the following. 

Obs. Concerning the use of the relative instead of the demonstrative 
to connect a proposition with that which precedes it, see, in the chapter 


on the combinations of propositions, § 448. Concerning other peculiari- 
ties in the construction of relative propositions, see §§ 445 and 446. 

§ T28. Several propositions may be arranged one after the other, 
without standing in the relation of leading and subordinate propo- 
sitions, by the aid of copulative, disjunctive, or antithetical conjunc- 
tions, and sometimes even without a conjunction (co-ordinate propo- 
sitions) : — 

Et rnihi consilium tuum placet et pater id vehementer probat. 
Mihi consilium tuum placet, sed pater id improbat. (Ego con- 
silium probo, pater improbat.) (Neqve cur tu hoc consilium tarn 
vehementer probes, neqve cur pater tantopere improbet, in- 
telligo. The co-ordinate propositions arc, therefore, either all leading 
propositions, or all subordinate propositions of one leading propOi 

§ 329. The proposition is conceived and expressed by the speaker 
in different ways with reference to the actual existence of the thing 
stated. Its contents are either stated as something that actually is 
or takes place : e.g. Titius currit ; or as the will of the speaker : 
e.g. curre, Titi ; or only as a conception : e.g. Titius currit, ut 
sudet. (It is not said that Titius perspires, but his perspiring is 
only conceived of 4 and expressed as a design.) 

The different ways in which a proposition is conceived, and be- 
sides this the relation of the subordinate to the leading proposition, 
are denoted in Latin by the three personal and definite moods, the 
Indicative, Imperative, and Subjunctive, in which the verb is re- 
ferred to a definite subject (oratio finita). The relation of the 
subordinate proposition may also in some cases be expressed in 
Latin by using the verb in the indefinite form, the infinitive (oratio 

Obs. By means of the participle, the substance of a subordinate 
proposition is expressed as a quality of the subject of the leading propo- 

§ 330. Subordinate propositions, when co-ordinate with each other, 
stand in the same relation to the leading proposition, and have the 
same mood (but not always the same tense). 

Obs. 1. In one single case, however, two subordinate propositions in 
combination have different moods, because, their contents are differently 
conceived (non qvod — sed qvia). See § 357, b. 

288 LATIN GRAMMAR. §332 

Obs. 2. Of two leading propositions which are combined, the one may 
sometimes be asserted unconditionally (in the indicative), the other 
doubtingly and hypothetically, or by way of concession (in the subjunc- 
tive) : e.g. neqve nego neqve affirmare ausim. Neqve divelli a 
Catilina possunt et pereant sane, qvoniam sunt ita multi, ut eos 
career capere non possit (Cic. in Cat. II. 10). 



§ 331. The Indicative mood is that in which a thing is simply 
asserted (affirmatively or negatively) or a question simply asked. 
It is therefore used in all propositions, both leading and subordinate, 
where no particular rules require another mood: — 

Pater venit. Pater non venit. Num pater veniet? Qvando ve- 
nies? Haec etsi nota sunt, commemorari tamen debent, qvod ad 
summam rei pertinent. Qvod domum emisti, gratum mini est. 
Qvoniam tibi placet, desistam. 

Obs. An independent {direct) question is one which constitutes an 
independent leading proposition. It expresses a wish that the whole 
proposition thus interrogatively expressed should Either be confirmed 
(as a matter of fact) or denied (Venitne pater ? ) , or that a single idea, 
expressed by an interrogative pronoun or adverb, should be defined. 
(Concerning the interrogative particles, see §§ 450-453. Quite distinct 
from this is the indirect or dependent question, which forms a subordi- 
nate proposition, denoting the object of a proposition or idea ; e.g. qvae- 
sivi, num pater venisset. See § 356. 

§ 332. It is to be particularly noticed, that in a conditional sen- 
tence (in which a thing is or is not, in case another thing is or is 
not) both propositions (the leading proposition which is qualified, 
and the subordinate which expresses the qualification) are put in 
the indicative, if the condition (that a thing is or is not, in case 
another thing is or is not) is expressed simply ; i.e. without any 
qualification of its meaning: — 

Si Deus mundum creavit, conservat etiam. Nisi hoc ita est, 
frustra laboramus. Si nullum jam ante consilium de morte Sex. 
Roscii inieras, hie nuntiu3 ad te minime omnium pertinebat 
(Cic. Rose. Am. 34). Si nihil aliud fecerunt, satis praemii ha- 

§ 334 Tin-: in dm ■ vtivi: iKL 

<)i:s. Such a sentence denotes <ml\ that mi.K - 
obtains between the two propoaitiom ; but m I 
truth of their contents, when taken singly. IK. i mi i 
Uined when it i- said thai a thing holds equally good under d Q 
conditions, which is expressed In .sive — sive : Mala c io est 

contra deos disputaudi, sive ex animo id fit sivc simulate 
N. D. II. 67). Hoc loco libeutissime utor, sivc qvid m 
cogito, oive aliqvid scribo aut lego (Cic. Lcgg. 11. 1). 

§ 883. The thing asserted is either simply referred to one of the 
three leading tenses, the present, past, or future, or stated (i 
ately, relatively) with reference to a certain past or future point <»f 
time, as being at that time present (contemporary with it). <»r past, 

or future (praesens in praeterito, praeteritum in praeterito, fu- 
turum in praeterito ; praesens in futuro, praeteritum in futuro, 
futurnm in futuro). These relations of time are expressed partly 
by the simple tenses of the verbs (and by the passive compoundl 
which correspond to the simple active forms), partly by • peri- 
phrasis by means of the future participle and sum, as follows: — 

Present. Pebi I i tore. 

scribo scripsi scribam 

In Praeterito. scribebam, scripseram, scripturua eram ( fui ) 

I was writing (at that time). J had writ- J was {at that (> 

U n. the point 

In Futuro. scribam, scripsero, / scripturua ero, / shall 

1 shall (then) write. shall han (then) I"- ON tht 

written, writing. 

Besides these a future tiling is designated at now at hand (and 
referred to the present) in a particular way, by the periphrasis 
scripturus sum. 

§ 334. The Present declares that which now IS, comprising 
what happens and exists at every time : e.^. Deus mundum CDI1- 
Bervat; and what is thought of as present, such as ..pinion- ; 

expressions in hooks, winch are still extant : e*g< Zeno alitor judi- 
cat. Praeclare hunc locum Cicero tractat in libris de natura 
deorum. Sometimes the present is used instead of the | 

narrations. See § 336. 

Obs. The presenl ia often used of that which hat endured 

time, and still continues : Tertium jam annum hie suinus. Ai.- 
num jam audis Ciatippum (Cic. Off. 1.1): CflpeeisHy with j.uiuhu 


290 LATIN GRAMMAR. §335 

and jamdudum: Jamdiu ignord, qvid agaa (Cic. ad Fam. VII. 9). 
In bonis hominibus ea, qvam jamdudum tractamus, stabilitas 
amicitiae confirmari potest (Id. Lsel. 22). 

§ 335. a. The Perfect is used in Latin in relating and giving 
information of past occurrences both in continuous history and iso- 
lated notices of events (die historical perfect 1 ) : — 

Caesar Galliam subegit. Hlo anno duae res memorabiles ac- 
ciderunt. Hostes qvum Romanorum trepidationem animadver- 
tissent, subito procurrerunt et ordines perturbarunt. L. Lucullus 
multos annos Asiae provinciae praefuit (Cic. Acad. II. 1). Qvum 
(at the time when) hoc proelium factum est, Caesar aberat. 

b. The perfect is also used to express a thing as done and com- 
pleted, presenting a contrast to the present moment, at which the 
thing is no longer spoken of as continuing (the perfect absolute, 2 
definite): e.g. Pater jam venit (is already come). Is mos usqve 
ad hoc tempus permansit. Fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium (Virg. iEn. 
II: 325), Ilium has been, i.q. is no more. (Perii ! it is all over 
with me.) 

Obs. 1. If a thing be spoken of that is repeatedly or customarily 
done, the perfect is used in subordinate propositions, which express 
time, condition, or place (after qvum, qvoties, simulac, si, ubi, and 
indefinite relative expressions), if the action of the subordinate is to be 
supposed as antecedent to that of the leading proposition. (In Eng- 
lish, the present is generally used.) Qvum ad villain veni, hoc 
ipsum, nihil agere, me delectat (Cic. de Or. II. 16), in English, 
when I come. Qvum fortuna reflavit, affligimur (Id. Off. II. 6). 
Si ad luxuriam etiam libidinum intemperantia accessit, duplex 
malum est (Id. ib. I. 34). Qvocunqve aspexisti, ut furiae, sic tuae 
tibi occurrunt injuriae (Id. Par. 2). 3 (If the leading proposition is in 
the preterite (imperfect) , the subordinate is put in the pluperfect. See 
§ 338, a, Obs.) 

Obs. 2. Concerning the perfect after postqvam, and similar particles, 
see § 338, &, 

Obs. 3. The perfect is sometimes found in the poets (in imitation of 
the Greek aorist), instead of the present, to express a thing that is custom- 
arily done (and has already often taken place) : Rege incolumi mens 

* In Greek the aorist is used in this signification. 
2 This is the same as the Greek perfect. 

a i n books the future perfect is sometimes improperly substituted for the perfect ; e.g. 
accesserit for accessit. 


omnibus una est ; amisso rupere fidem constructaqve mella di- 
ripuere ipsae (Virg. Georg. IV. 212), of the beet. 

Obs, 4. On tlio use of the perfects odi, memini, novi, in the signifi- 

cation of the present, see the Rules for the lnlle dun of Word , 
and § 142. (Svevi, consvevi, / am accustomed.) 

§ 33G. In lively, connected narrative, past events are often spoken 

of as present, the present tense being employed instead of the per- 
fect (the historical present) : — 

Ubi id Verres audivit, Didorum ad se vocavit ac pocula popos- 
cit. Ille respondet, se Lilybaei non habere, Melitae reliqvisse. 
Turn iste continuo mittit homines certos Melitam; scribit ad 
qvosdam Melitenses, ut ea vasa perqvirant (Cic. Verr. IV 
Exspectabant omnes, qvo tandem Verre3 progressurns esset, 
qvum repente proripi hominem ac deligari jubet (Id. ib. V. 62). 

Obs. 1. The poets sometimes use the historieal present somewhat 
strangely in noticing a single event, and in relative propositions : Tu 
prima furentem his, germana, malis oneras atqve objicis hosti 
(Virg. JEn. II. 548), for onerasti and objecisti. Cratera aiitiqvum 
(tibi dabo), qvem dat Sidonia Dido (Id. ib. IX. 2GG), for dedit. 

Obs. 2. When the participle dum denotes what happens while some- 
thing else happens, and especially what happens, because something else 
happens (being occasioned by it), it is usually constructed with the present, 
although the action be past, and the perfect (sometimes the pluperfe i ) 
used in the leading proposition : Dum haec in colloqvio geruntur. 
Caesari nuntiatum est, eqvites Ariovisti propius accedere (Cm*, 
B. G. I. 4G). Dum obseqvor adolescentibus, me senem esse 
oblitus sum (Cic. de Or. II. 4). Ita mulier dum pauca mancipia 
retinere vult, fortunas omnes perdidit (Id. l)iv. in Csbc. 17). 
Dirm elephanti trajiciuntur, interim Hannibal eqvites qvingentos 
ad castra Romana miserat speculatum (Liv. XXI. 29). Vet the 
perfect may also be used (of an action), or the imperfect (of a condi- 
tion. See § 337) : Dum Aristo et Pyrrho in una virtute sic omnia 
esse voluerunt, ut earn rerum selectione exspoliarent, virtutem 
ipsam sustulerunt (Cic. Finn. II. 13). Dum Sulla in aliis rebus 
erat occupatus, erant interea qvi suis vulneribus mederentur (Id. 
Rose. Am. 32). When dum signifies as loin/ as, it never has the pn >- 
ent, except of actually present time; Hoc feci, dum licuit (Cic. PhlL 
III. 13). 

§ 337. The Imperfect (praesens in praeterito) is used when we 
transfer ourselves in idea into a past time, and describe what was 
then present. It is therefore employed of states existing at a partieu- 

292 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 337 

lar time, or actions which were taking place at a given time (still going 
on and not yet completed, while something else was happening), or 
of that which was customary at a certain time (with a certain per- 
son or thing), or was often repeated. (On the other hand, it is not 
used of isolated occurrences or in general historical statements of 
what formerly took place, or went on in a certain way, even in 
speaking of a thing that continued for a long time). Q,vo tempore 
Philippus Graeciam evertit (an occurrence) ; etiam turn Athenae 
gloria litterarum et artium florebant (condition at the time speci- 
fied ; but Athenae multa secula litterarum et artium gloria flo- 
ruerunt (notice of a fact) ; Caesar consilium mutavit (relation of 
a fact) ; videbat enim, nihil tarn exiguis copiis confiei posse 
(representation of his views at the time ; vidit enim would signify 
for he came to the conclusion). 

Regulus Carthaginem rediit neqve eum caritas patriae retinuit 
(notice of what did, and did not happen). Neqve ignorabat (i.e. at 
the time when he was returning, &c), se ad exqvisita supplicia profi- 
cisci, sed jusjurandum conservandum putabat (Cic. Off. III. 27). 
Qvum Verres ad aliqvod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usqve 
in cubiculum deferebatur (Cic. Verr. V. 11). Romae qvotannis 
bini consules creabantur (custom ; but qvamdiu Roma libera fuit, 
semper bini consules fuerunt, notice of a fact) . Archy tas nullam 
capitaliorem pestem qvam voluptatem corporis dicebat a natura 
datam (Cic. Cat. M. 12) ; also, dicere solebat ; on the contrary, di- 
cere solitus est, had a habit of saying. 1 In Graecia musici floru- 
erunt, discebantqve id omnes (Id. Tusc. I. 2) , and it toas the custom 
that all learned music. Dicebat melius qvam scripsit Hortensius 
(Id. Or. 38), H. spoke better, i.q. was accustomed to speak better, than he 
has written, than he shows himself in his written speeches. On the other 
hand, qvam scribebat, than he was accustomed to write. Janua heri 
tres nor as patuit, but heri, qvum praeterii, janua patebat. Pu- 
tavi, I have thought, or / adopted the opinion ; putabam, I was of 

Obs. 1. An action that was on the point of happening at a certain 
time (futurum in praeterito) is sometimes represented, by the imperfect, 
as already begun and proceeding ; Hujus deditionis ipse, qvi dedeba- 
tur, svasor et auctor fuit (Cic. Off. III. 30), who was thereby deliv- 
ered up, whose surrender was in question. The imperfect, when applied 

1 [The beginner will do well to notice, that the imperfect indicative in this sense is some- 
times expressed in English by the auxiliary would, which is never to be translated by the sub- 
junctive in Latin : Socrates would say, Socrates dicebat, or dicere solebat ] 


to a thing that is spoken of as happening in time past, and not 
pletely finished, may sometime! be rendered, in English, by beam to: 

Constitit utrumqve agmen et proelio sese expediebant (Liv. XXL 
46). Themistocli qvidam pollicitus est, se arteni ei memoriae, 
qvae turn primum proferebatur, traditurum (Cic Acid. II. 1). 

Obs. 2. Connected examples of the use and interchange of the per- 
fect, the historical present, the imperfect, and the historical infinitive 
(according to § 392), in narrative and description, may he seen, in ( lie, 
Verr. IV. 18; and in Livy, III. 06-08. 

§ 338. a. The Pluperfect (praeteritum inpraeterito) is used of 
that which had already happened at a certain time past, or at the 
time when a certain action now past took place. 

Dixerat hoc ille, qvum puer nuntiavit, venire ad eum Laelium 
(Cic. R. P. I. 12). Qvum ego ilium vidi, jam consilium mutave- 

Obs. With leading propositions in the imperfect of customary and 
repeated action, those subordinate propositions are put in the pluper- 
fect which are in the perfect when the leading proposition is in the pro- 
cut, according to § 335, b, Obs. 1 : Qvum ver esse coeperat, Verres 
dabat se labori atqve itineribus (Cic. Verr. V. 10). Alcibiades, 
simul ac se remiserat, luxuriosus, libidinosus, intemperans repe- 
riebatur (Corn. Ale. 1). Si a perseqvendo hostes deterrere ne- 
qviverant, disjectos ab tergo circumveniebant (Sail. Jug, 60). 
(Compare § 359, on the subjunctive, in such subordinate proposi- 

b. When it is stated that two actions immediately followed each 
other, the perfect is used after the conjunctions posteaqvam or 
postqvam, ubi, ut, simul atqve or ac (or simply simul), ut primum, 
qvum primum, as soon as ; inasmuch as we merely des ig nate both 
actions as past, without expressing their mutual relation by the 
verb : — 

Posteaqvam victoria constitute est ab armisqve recessimus, 
erat Roscius Romae freqvens (Cic luxe. Am. 6). Pompejus, ut 
eqvitatum suum pulsum vidit, acie excessit (Civs. B. C [11.94). 
Simulac primum Verri occasio visa est, consulem deseruit 
Verr. I. 13). 

Obs. 1. Postqvam is put with the pluperfect when it is intended to 
denote, not something that ensued immediately, but a transaction that 
occurred after the lapse of some time: e.g. P. Africanus, pOSteaqTUXI 
bis consul et censor fuerat, L. Cottam in judicium vocavit 

294 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 339 

Div. in Cacc. 21) ; especially when a definite interval is specified ; e.g. 
Hannibal anno tertio postqvam domo profugerat, in Africam venit 
(Corn. Hann. 8). Post diem qvintum, qvam (§ 276, Obs. 6) bar- 
bari iterum male pugnaverant, legati a Boccho veniunt (Sail. 
Jug. 102) Otherwise, postqvam is rarely put with the pluperfect, — 
very rarely with the pluperfect subjunctive. 1 

Obs. 2. Postqvam, ubi, and ut are often put with the imperfect 
to show a state of things that had come on, — to shoic that some- 
thing occurred, or was accustomed to occur : Postqvam Eros e scena 
non modo sibilis, sed etiam convicio explodebatur, confugit in 
Roscii domum et disciplinam (Cic. Rose. Com. 11), he was hissed 
off as often as he came on the stage) . Postqvam id difficilius visum 
est, neqve facultas perficiendi dabatur, ad Pompejum transierunt 
(Caes. B. C. III. 60), they found it difficult (a single fact), and there 
was no opportunity (state of things) . 

Obs. 3. When ubi and simulac are used of a repeated action, they 
take the pluperfect. See the Obs. on a. 

Obs. 4. After the particles mentioned in paragraph b, the historical 
present (§ 336) may also be employed, if the action is conceived of as 
prolonged during the occurrence of the other action ; Postqvam per- 
fugae murum arietibus feriri vident, aurum atqve argentum 
domum regiam comportant (Sail. Jug. 76). 

Obs. 5. The particles anteqvam and priusqvam, before, and dum, 
donee, until, are used with the perfect indicative, not with the pluperfect: 
Anteqvam tuas legi litteras, honiinem ire cupiebam (Cic. ad Att. 
II. 7), often expressed in English, before I had read your letter. His- 
pala non ante adolescentem dimisit, qvam fidem dedit, ab his 
sacris se temperaturum (Liv. XXXIX. 10). De comitiis, donee 
rediit Marcellus, silentium fuit (Liv. XXIII. 31). 2 (Concerning the 
subjunctive with these particles, see the following chapter, § 360.) 

Obs. 6. The pluperfect fueram sometimes stands in the poets, and in 
a few instances in other writers, instead of the imperfect eram: Nee 
satis id fuerat ; stultus qvoqve carmina feci (Ov. ex Pont. III. 3, 
37). In some other verbs, from some peculiarity of signification, the 
pluperfect may seem to be used instead of the imperfect: e.g. super- 
fueram, I had remained over ; consveveram, I had accustomed myself . 

§ 339. The Future (simple) denotes both a future action in gen- 
eral, and also that which will take place at a certain time to come 
(praesens in futuro) : Veniet pater. Illo tempore respublica 

* The pluperfect indie, occurs Sail. Jug. 44 ; subjunctive, Cic. pro Leg. Man. 4. 
2 [(Petilini non ante expugnati sunt qvam vires ad ferenda anna dee- 
rant. Liv. XXIII. 30, of a state of things which had come on).] 


florebit. (The distinction therefore which existi between kb 
feet and imperfect as to the past, is not made with reeeHiJOti to the 


Ons. 1. In English, the expression of the future is commonly omitted 
in subordinate propositions, if it is found in the leading proposition ; but 
this omission may not take place in Latin : Natuxam siseqvemur ducem 
numqvam aberrabimus (Cic. Off. I. ^8), in English, If we follow. 
Profecto beati erimus, qvum, corporibua relictis, cupiditatum 
erimus expertes (Id. Tusc. I. 11)). Hoc dum erimus in terris, 
erit caelesti vitae simile (Id. ib. I. 31). (Qvi adipisci veram 
gloriam volet, justitiae fungatur officiis (Id. Olf. If. 13) ; when: the 
futurity is indicated in the leading proposition by the exhortation.) 1 In 
English, too, the present is often used instead of the future in assur- 
ances and conjectures (e.g. he is coming in three days), a mode of 
speaking which is not usual in Latin, except where an action is referred 
to that is already partially commenced : Tuemini castra et defendite 
diligenter, si qvid durius acciderit; ego reliqvas portas circumeo 
et castrorum praesidia confirmo (Caes. B. C. III. 94). 

Obs. 2. Yet the present is used in Latin in some cases where we 
might expect the future : — 

a. When one asks one's self what one must do or think (on the 
instant) : Qvid ago? Imusne sessum? (Cic. de Or. III. 5). Stantes 
plaudebant in re ficta ; qvid arbitramur in vera facturos fuisse ? 
(Id. Lasl. 7). 

b. With dum, until, when a waiting (waiting for) is expressed : Ex- 
specto dum ille venit (Ter. Eun. I. 2, 12G). Ego in Arcano 
opperior, dum ista cognosco (Cic. ad Att. X. 8). 

c. Usually with anteqvam and priusqvam, when it is said that 
something will happen before something else : Anteqvam pro L. 
Murena dicere instituo, pro me ipso pauca dicam (Cie. pro Mur. 
1). Sine (pennit), priusqvam amplexum accipio, sciam, ad hostem 
an ad filium venerim (Liv. II. 40). But also Anteqvam de re- 
publica dicam ea qvae dicenda hoc tempore arbitror, exponam 
breviter consilium profectionis meae (Cie. Phil. I. 1). (' 
something has happened, is expressed by the future perfect.) 

1 [This rule, however, is not adhered to by the poets, where the present Ifl met with iu such 
combinations, especially after ubi jam, quum jam : — 

(Libra ubi) medium luci atqve urabris jam dividit orbem, 

Exercete, viri, tauros (Virg. G. I. 210). 

Hoc etiam emenso quum jam decedit Olympo, 

Profuerit meminisse magis (Id. ibid. 400). 

Ipsa ego te, medios cum Sol accenderit aestus, 

Cum sitiuut herbae, et pecori jam gratior umbra est, 

In secreta senis ducam (id. <J. IV. 401).] 

296 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 349 

§ 340. By the Future Perfect (praeteritum in future) a future 
action is designated as already completed at a given future time : — 

Qvum tu haec leges, ego ilium fortasse convenero (Cic. ad Att. 
IX. 15), I shall "perhaps have spoken with him. Hie prius se indicant, 
qvam ego argentmn confecero (Ter. Heaut. III. 3, 23), will have 
betrayed himself before I have procure/! the money. Si (ubi) istuc 
venero, rein tibi exponam. Melius morati erimus, qvum di- 
dicerimu3, qvid natura desideret (Cic. Fin. I. 19). De Cartnagine 
vereri non ante desinam, qvam illam excisam esse cognovero (Id. 
Cat. M. 6) . Si plane occidimus ego omnibus meis exitio fuero (Id. 
ad Q. Fr. I. 4), J shall have been ; of the future result of what is past. 

Obs. 1. In English, it is often not expressly asserted in the sub- 
ordinate propositions, that one action precedes another, and the present 
is therefore frequently used where the future perfect must be employed in 
Latin; e.g. When I come to you, I will — . In Latin, the present may 
stand in a conditional proposition, although the leading proposition has 
the future, if an action that takes place precisely at the present moment 
is pointed out as the condition of a future result: e.g. Perficietur 
bellum, si urgemus obsessos (Liv. V. 4). Moriere virgis, nisi 
signum traditur (Cic. Yerr. IY. 39). (If the action of the subordinate 
proposition is contemporary with that of the leading proposition, the 
simple future is made use of. See § 339, Obs. 1.) 

Obs. 2. If the future perfect stands both in the leading and subordi- 
nate propositions, it is intended to indicate that one action will be com- 
pleted at the same time with the other : Qvi Antonium oppresserit, is 
bellum confecerit (Cic. ad Fam. X. 19). Vicerit enim Caesar, si 
consul factus orit (Id. ad Att. YII. 15). Pergratum mibi feceris, 
si de amicitia disputaris (Id. Lsel. 4). (Tolle hanc opinionem ; 
luctum sustuleris, Id. Tusc. I. 13). By the use of the perfect in the 
leading proposition, that which is certain and secure is represented as if 
it had already taken place : Si Brutus conservatus erit, vicimus (Cic. 
ad Fam. XII. G). 

Obs. 3. In order to indicate more forcibly that the will (the power) 
precedes the action, si voluero (potuero, licuerit, placuerit) is some- 
times put, when si volam (potero, &c.) might also be employed; e.g. 
Plato, si modo interpretari potuero, his fere verbis utitur (Cic. 
Legg. II. 18). 

Obs. 4. In some few instances, the meaning of the future perfect 
approaches that of the simple future ; e.g. in specifying a future result 
(what will have happened) : Multum ad ea, qvae qvaerimus, tua 
ista explicatio profecerit (Cie. Finn. III. 4) ; or in signifying what 
will happen while something else takes place, or what will soon be done : 
Tu invita mulieres; ego accivero pueros (Cic. ad Att. Y. 1). 


Clamor et primus impetus castra ceperit (Lit. XXV. 88), (The 

comic writers, especially Plautus, carry this still farther,) We ihould 
particularly notice the use of videro (videris, &c.) of a thin- w hi. h is 
postponed to another time, or left to another's consideration: Qvae 
fuerit causa, mox videro (Cic. Finn. I. 10). Recte secusne, alias 
viderimus (Id. Ac. II. 44). Sed de hoc tu ipse videris (Id. de Or. 
I. 58), you yourself may look to this. Sitne malum dolor necne, 
Stoici viderint (Id. Tusc. II. 18). (Of odero and memiuero, sec 
§ 161.) 

§ 341. In order to express what is future with reference to a 
given time, the Latin writers employ (in the active) the future par- 
ticiple with such tenses of the verb sum as the signification re- 
quires ; (periphrastic conjugation, § 116). 

This participle with the present sum (futurum in praesenti) is 
distinguished from the simple future by pointing out the future 
action as something which the subject is just on the point of doing, 
or now already resolved to do : — 

Qvum apes jam evolaturae sunt, consonant vehementer (Varr. 
R. R. III. 16). Bellum scripturus sum, qvod populus Romanus 
cum Jugurtha gessit (Sail. Jug. 5). Qvid timeam, si aut non 
miser post mortem aut etiam beatus futurus sum (Cic, Cat. M. 19). 
Sin una est interiturus animus cum corpore, vos tamen me- 
moriam nostri pie inviolateqvc servabitis (Id. ib. 22). Facite, 
qvod vobis libet ; daturus non sum amplius (Id. Verr. II. 29). 

Obs. This form is always used in specifying the condition of an action 
which is to take place : Me igitur ipsum ames oportet, si veri amici 
futuri sumus (Cic. Finn. II. 26), if we are to be true friends. Res- 
persas manus sangvine paterno judices videant oportet, si tantum 
facinus (parricidium) credituri sunt (Id. pro Rose. Am. 24). 

§ 342. a. The part. fut. with fui (futurum in praeterlto abso- 
lutum) denotes that something was future (contemplated) at a time 
past : — 

Vos cum Mandonio et Indibili consilia communicastis et arma 
consociaturi fuistis (Liv. XXVIII. 28), were on the point of. Si illo 
die RSestius occisus esset, fuistisne ad arma ituri ? (Cic. pro Seat. 
38), were you prepared tol 

b. The part. fut. with eram (futurum in praeterito) signifies n bat 
was future and contemplated at a certain definite time, and by tins 
means points out a situation, disposition, destination, &o, as i 
at that time : — 

298 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 344 

Profecturus eram ad te, qvum ad me frater tuus venit. Sicut 
Campani Capuam, Tuscis adeinptam, sic Jubellius et ejus milites 
Rhegium habituri perpetuam sedem erant (Liv. XXVIII. 28), 
thought of retaining. Ibi rex mansurus erat, si ire perrexisset (Cic. 
Div.'l. 15). 

Oiis. The participle with fueram may denote what was in contempla- 
tion before a certain time: Aemilius Faulus Delphis inchoatas in 
vestibulo columnas, qvibus imposituri statuas regis Persei fue- 
rant, suis statuis victor destinavit (Liv. XLV. 27) ; but it is used by 
the poets in precisely the same sense as with eram. 

§ 343. The participle with ero (futurum in futuro) denotes that 
something will be in contemplation at a certain future time: — 

Orator eorum, apud qvos aliqvid aget (at a certain time is already 
speaking), aut acturus erit (shall have to speak), mentes sensusqve 
degustet oportet (Cic. de Or. I. 52). Attentos faciemus auditores, 
si demonstrabimus, ea qvae dicturi erimus (ichat we shall be on the 
point of saying), magna, nova, incredibilia esse (Id. de Inv. I. 16). 

Obs. In the passive, which has no participle with a future significa- 
tion, we must express those relations of time which in the active are 
denoted by the part, fut., with sum, by giving a different turn to the 
sentence; e.g. by the impersonal est in eo, ut; Erat in eo, ut urbs 
caperetur, was on the point of being taken. 

§ 344. The combination of the perf. part, with sum, which forms 
the perfect passive, may sometimes denote the condition in which a 
thing now is in consequence of a previous action; e.g. navis 
egregie armata est (present of the accomplished condition). The 
corresponding form for the imperfect is the same which otherwise 
denotes the pluperfect : Naves Hannibalis egregie armatae erant. 
With fui a perfect is formed, which denotes that a thing has been 
(for some time) in a certain condition : Bis deinde post Numae 
regnum Janns clausns fuit (Liv. I. 19). Leges, qvum qvae latae 
sunt, turn vero qvae promulgatae fuerunt (Cic. pro Sest. 25), 
both those which were brought forward, and those which remained 
(for some time) posted up for public inspection. It is incorrect to 
use this form for the customary perfect (of an action). 1 

1 [In many such passages fuit may be considered as a verb denoting existence, rather than 
the logical copula: Literal monumentum monumentoque statua superim, 
posita fuit, qvam statuam tempestate dijectam nuper vidimus ipsi (Liv. 
XXXVIII. 5(3) There was at I.iternum a monument and a statue placed upon it, &c. The 
distinction is expressed in German by the two auxiliaries werden and seyn, but cannot 
always be clearly marked in English.] 


Ons. 1. The part. perf. with fueram properly denofc pond- 

ing with the combination with fui) the pluperfect of ;i condition: e.g. 
Arma, qvae fixain parietibus fuerant, humi inventa sunt (ClC. I>i\. 
I. 34) ; but it is also used instead of the usual pluperfect of the action : 
e.g. Locrenses qvidam circumventi Rhegiumqve abstracti fuerant 
(Liv. XXIX. C). In the same way, amatus ero and fuero are used in 
the future perfect with the same meaning, but the first is to be preferred. 

Obs. 2. The beginner must beware of using the Latin perf. past, of a 
thing that is still taking place and going forward, although in English 
the verb to be is used with the participle as an adjective. The king is 
loved is expressed by rex amatur. 

§ 345. The epistolary style in Latin lias this peculiarity, that the 
writer often has in his eye the time when the letter will be read, 
and therefore, instead of the present and perfect, uses the imperfect 
and pluperfect, where the receiver would use these tenses, in report- 
ing the substance of the letter, while referring it back to the time 
of writing : — 

Nihil habebam, qvod scriberem; neqve enim novi qvidqvam 
audieram et ad tuas omnes epistolas rescripseram pridie ; erat 
tamen rumor, comitia dilatum iri (Cic. ad Att. IX. 10. The re- 
ceiver of the letter would repeat this as follows : Turn, qvum Cicero 
hanc epistolam scripsit, nihil habebat, qvod scriberet; neqve 
enim novi qvidqvam audierat et ad omnes nieas epistolas rescrip- 
serat pridie ; erat tamen rumor, &c.) 

On the contrary, every thing which is said in general terms, and 
without particular reference to the time of composing the letter, 
must be put in the usual tense : — 

Ego te maximi et feci semper et facio. Pridie Idus Februarias 
haec scripsi ante lucem (simply of the letter written thus far. which 
was afterwards continued ; the receiver would say : Haec Cicero 
scripsit ante lucem) ; eo die eram coenaturus apud Pomponium 
(Cic. ad Q. Fr. II. 3). The other form, too, is frequently nut 
when it might have been adopted. 

300 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 347 



§ 346. In the subjunctive a thing is asserted simply as an idea 
conceived in the mind, so that the speaker does not at the same time 
declare it as actually existing; e.g. curro, ut sudeni. In some kinds 
of subordinate propositions the subjunctive is also used of a thing 
which the speaker asserts as existing, in order to show that it is 
not considered by itself, but as a subordinate member of another 
leading idea ; e.g. ita cucurri, ut vehementer sudarem. 1 In the 
leading proposition the subjunctive may be referred to two princi- 
pal kinds ; the hypothetical, by which a thing not actually existing 
is asserted by way of assumption ; and the optative, by which a 
thing is expressed as our wish or will. 

Obs. In English, we often use the auxiliary verbs may, can, must, 
would, should, to express that which in Latin is denoted by the sub- 
junctive. In such cases, therefore, the beginner must beware of using 
possum, licet, debeo, oportet, volo, which are only employed when a 
power, a permission, a duty, a wish is actually intended (rogavi, ut 
abiret, that he would go away, to go away. He must also avoid using 
the future (or the futurum in praeterito) contrary to Latin usage. 
See on this subject, § 378, b, in the following chapter. 

§ 347. a. The subjunctive is used in sentences conditional of that 
(the apodosis, § 326, Obs. 3) which is noticed as not' actual fact, 
both in the leading proposition of that which does not hold good, 
but would hold good on a certain supposition, and in the subordi- 
nate (the protasis), with si, nisi, ni, si non, etiamsi, of the sup- 
position which is assumed in the statement, but declared not actually 
to hold good. (Compare § 332.) 

b. That which woidd take place now or at a future time, or (con- 
trary to the actual fact) is supposed as taking place, is expressed by 
the imperfect ; what would have taken place at a previous time, or 
of which it is assumed that it has taken place, by the pluperfect : — 

1 This last use of the subjunctive originated from the first and proper use, in consequence 
of the form being transferred from such subordinate propositions as express a simple concep- 
tion (e.g. propositions expressing a purpose) to others which assert something actually ex- 
isting (e.g. propositions expressing a result), because they agreed with the first in being con- 
ceived of as depending on the leading proposition, and necessary to complete its signification. 
But whiie the subjunctive was so transferred and applied in some cases, in others, on the con- 
trary, it was not bo. 


Sapientia non expeteretur, si nihil efficeret Si scirem, dicerem. 
Si scisseni, in qvo periculo esses, statim ad te advolassem. Si 
Metelli fidei diffisus essem, judicem eum non retinuissem (( i.-. 
Verr. A. I. 10). Nunqvam Hercules ad deos abisset, nisi earn 
sibi viam virtute munivisset (Id. Tusc. I. 11). Si Roscius haa 
inimicitias cavere potuisset, viveret (Cic, Rose. Am. ()), hr would 
be still living. Necassem jam te verberibus, nisi iratus essem (Id. 
It. 1\ I. 38), if I had not been angry. 

The present subjunctive is employed when a condition that is 
still possible is assumed as occurring now or at sonic future time, 
while it is at the same time intimated that it will not actually 
occur : — 

Me dies, vox latera deficiant, si hoc nunc vociferari velim (Cic. 
Verr. II. 21), which I can, but do not intend. Ego, si Scipionis 
desiderio me moveri negem, mentiar (Id. Licl. 3). (In English, 
the imperfect is often used in this ease : If I were to deny it, I should 
speak an untruth.) 

Obs. 1. The present is also often used instead of the imperfect of a 
thing which is no longer possible, and where there is no reference to the 
future, by a turn of rhetoric, where a thing is represented as if it might 
still take place: Tu si hie sis, aliter sentias (Tor. Andr. II. 1, 10), 
put yourself a moment in my situation, you will then think othcncisc. 
Haec si patria tecum loqvatur, nonne impetrare debeat? (Cic 
Cat. I. 8). (The present must in this case be used both in the leading 
and subordinate propositions.) 

Obs. 2. In the same way, the imperfect is sometimes put instead of 
the pluperfect either in both propositions, or in the subordinate prop vi- 
rion, or (most rarely of all) in the leading proposition alone : Cur igitur 
et Camillus doleret, si haec post trecentos fere et qvinqvaginta 
aanos eventura putaret, et ego doleam, si ad decern millia an- 
norum gentem aliqvam urbe nostra potituram putem ? (( lie, Tusc. 
I. 37). Num tu igitur Opimium, si turn esses (suppose you had lic<<l 
at that time) temerarium civem aut crudelem putares? (Id. Phil. 
VIII. 4). Non tam facile opes Carthaginis concidissent, nisi illud 
receptaculum classibus nostris pateret (Id. Verr. II. 1). Persas, 
Indos, aliasqve si Alexander adjunxisset gentes, impedimentnm 
majus qvam auxilium traheret (Liv. IX. 19). Such an imperfect, 
however, can only be put in the subordinate proposition (but i> by 
no means always employed) when the action denoted l>y it is not 
sidered as one that has happened and been completed before the Other, 
but as accompanying it and continuing along with it. or lometill 
occurring repeatedly : Haec si reipublicae causa faceres, in ven- 

302 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 348 

dendis decumis essent pronuntiata, qvia tua causa faciebas, 
imprudentia praetermissum erat (Cic. Verr. III. 20). The imper- 
fect is found in the leading proposition, or in both propositions (but not 
always), when one may imagine a repetition of the thing asserted (e.g. 
in attempts), or a continuing state (but not of a single event, which 
would have happened or not happened) . 

Obs. 3. The poets sometimes use the present subjunctive even instead 
of the pluperfect of a thing that would have happened at a previous 
time : Spatia si plura supersint, transeat (Diores) elapsus prior 
(Virg. JEn. Y. 325). 

Obs. 4. When the conditional statement of the protasis is contrary to 
a coming reality, the futurum in praet. (essem with the future part.) 
is used ; Paterer ni misericordia in perniciem casura esset (Sail. 
Jug. 31, from in perniciem cadet) [if pity were not going to result in 
ruin, as it is] . On the periphrasis casurus fuerim for cecidissem in 
the ajjodosis, see § 381. 

c. Sometimes the supposition, which does not actually hold good, 
but on which the assertion is made, is not expressly indicated by a 
conditional clause, but pointed out in another way, or supplied from 
the context : — 

HIo tempore aliter sensisses. Qvod mea causa faceres, idem 
rogo, ut amici mei causa facias. Neqve agricultura neqve frugum 
fructuumqve reliqvorum perceptio et conservatio sine hominum 
opera ulla esse potuisset (Cic. Off. II. 3), if human labor had not 
been applied. Magnitudo animi, remota a communitate conjunc- 
tioneqve humana, feritas sit qvaedam et immanitas (Id. ib. I. 44), 
separated, sc. in case it were separated. Ludificari enim aperte et 
calumniari sciens non videatur (Id. Rose. Am. 20), for he would (in 
the case mentioned, which is only assumed) not appear, &c. Si un- 
qvam visus tibi sum in republica fortis, certe me in ilia causa 
admiratus esses (Id. ad Att. I. 16), viz. si affuisses. 

§ 348. Sometimes, however, a proposition limited by a condition 
is put in the indicative, although it is shown by the subjunctive in 
the proposition containing the condition, that the latter is not actu- 
ally fulfilled. This is done when the apodosis may be in a manner 
conceived of as independent of the protasis and valid in itself, either 
from brevity in the expression of the idea (ellipsis), or rhetorical 
liveliness in the diction. Such turns of speech are the follow- 

a. By a periphrasis with the part. fut. and fui or eram (futurum in 
praeterito, see § 342), it is shown what a person was actually ready 


to do in a certain rase (that did not OCCWr) : Sitribuni me triumphare 
prohiberent, Furium et Aemilium testes citaturus fui rem in a mo 
gestamm (Liv. XXXVIII. 47). Illi ipsi aratores, qvi n 
serant, relicturi omnes agros erant, nisi ad eos Metellus Roma 
litteras misisset (Cic. Verr. III. 52). Here, the indicative tj ofooyj 

b. The indicative is sometimes put to express that part of an action 
of which it may be said that it actually has taken place (or ii taking 
place), while the condition applies to the completion and effect oi' the 
whole : Pons sublicius iter paene hostibus dedit, ni unus vir fuis- 
set (Liv. II. 10. Compare Obs. 2). Multa me dehortantur a 
vobis, ni studium reipublicae superet (Sail. Jug. 81). So the im- 
pert". indie, is put of a thing which was on the point of happening, and, 
on a certain condition, would have been completely effected : Si per L. 
Metellum licitum esset, matres illorum, uxores, sorores veniebant 
(Cic. Verr. V. 49). Sometimes also of a thing which has partly occ ur red 
already in the present time : Admonebat me res, ut hoc qvoqve 
loco interitum eloqventiae deplorarem, ni vererer, ne de me ipso 
aliqvid viderer qveri (Cic. Off. II. 19). 

c. The imperfect indicative is often used of a thing which, in a cer- 
tain case which does not actually hold, would, at the present time, 
be right and proper, or possible (debebam, decebat, oportebat, pote- 
ram, or eram with a gerundive or neuter adjective), as if to show the 
duty and obligation or possibility more unconditionally (especially when 
the idea of a thing which is otherwise and generally right is applied to 
a particular case) : Contumeliis eum onerasti, qvem patris loco, si 
ulla in te pietas esset, colere debebas (Cic. Phil. II. 88). Si vic- 
toria, praeda, laus dubia essent, tamen omnes bonos reipublicae 
subvenire decebat (Sail. Jug. 85). Si Romae Cn. Pompejus pri- 
vatus esset hoc tempore, tamen ad tantum bellum is erat deli- 
gendus (Cic. pro Leg. Man. 17). Si mihi nee stipendia omnia 
emerita essent necdum aetas vacationem daret, tamen aeqvum 
erat me dimitti (Liv. XLII. 34). Si tales nos natura genuisset, 
ut earn ipsam intueri et perspicere possemus, haud erat sane, qvod 
qvisqvam rationem ac doctrinam reqvireret (Cic. Tote 111. 1). 
Poterat utrumqve praeclare (fieri), si esset fides, si gravitas in 
hominibus consularibus (Cic. ad Fam. I. 7). (But alao: Haec si 
diceret, tamen ignosci non oporteret, Cic. Verr. I. 27, (specially in 
opposition to something unconditional : Cluentio ignoscere debebitis, 
qvod haec a me dici patiatur ; mihi ignoscere non deberetis, si 
tacerem, Cic. pro Cluent. G.) In the same way. the perfect indicative 
is used of past time, instead of the pluperfect subjunctive: Debmsti, 
Vatini, etiamsi falso venisses in suspicionem P. Sestio, tamen mihi 

304 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 348 

ignoscere (Cic. in Vat. 1). Si ita Milo putasset, optabilius ei fuit 
dare jugulum P. Clodio qvam jugulari a vobis (Id. pro Mil. 11). 
Deleri totus exercitus potuit, si fugientes persecuti victores 
essent (Liv. XXXII. 12). (Qvid facere potuissem, nisi turn con- 
sul fuissem ? Consul autem esse qvi potui, nisi eum vitae cursum 
tenuissem a pueritia, per qvem pervenirem ad honorem aniplissi- 
murn ? Cic. R. P. I. 6.) 

Obs. When it is declared, without a condition, what might or ought 
to happen, or have happened, but does not happen, with possum, 
debeo, oportet, decet, convenit, licet, or sum with a gerundive, or 
sum with such adjectives as aeqvum, melius, utilius, par, satis (satius 
est), &c, the imperfect indicative is commonly used to represent present 
time, to describe that which does not happen, and the perfect and 
pluperfect indicative to represent the past : Perturbationes animorum 
poteram morbos appellare ; sed non conveniret ad omnia (Cic. 
Finn. III. 10) . Ne ad rempublicam qvidem accedunt nisi coacti ; 
aeqvius autem erat id voluntate fieri (Id. Off. I. 9). Oculorum 
fallacissimo sensu Chaldaei judicant ea, qvae ratione atqve animo 
videre debebant (Id. Div. II. 43). * Aut non suscipi bellum opor- 
tuit, aut geri pro dignitate populi Romani oportet (Liv. V. 4). 
Illud potius praecipiendum fuit, ut diligentiam adhiberemus in 
amicitiis comparandis (Cic. Lsel. 16). Frohiberi melius fuit im- 
pediriqve, ne Cinna tot summos viros interficeret, qvam ipsum 
aliqvando poenas dare (Id. N. D. III. 33). Qvanto melius fuerat, 
promissum patris non esse servatum (Id. Off. III. 25). Catilina 
erupit e senatu triumphans gaudio, qvem omnino vivum illinc 
exire non oportuerat (Id. pro Mur. 25). (Non modo unius patri- 
monium, sed urbes et regna celeriter tanta neqvitia devorare potu- 
isset (Id. Phil. II. 27), with the accessory signification, supposing it had 
had towns and kingdoms.) So, likewise, that which might yet happen, and 
its character, are expressed by the present indie. : Possum perseqvi 
multa oblectamenta rerum rusticarum ; sed ea ipsa qvae dixi, 
sentio fuisse longiora (Cic. Cat. M. 1G). Longum est enumerare, 
dicer e, &c, it would be tedious. (Possim, si velim. § 347, b.) 

d. A thing which might have occurred on a certain condition is repre- 
sented, by a rhetorical emphasis of expression, as if it had already 
occurred, in order to show how near it was : Perierat imperium, si 
Fabius tantum ausus esset, qvantum ira svadebat (Sen. de Ir. I. 
11) ; particularly in the poets : Me truncus illapsus cerebro sustule- 
rat, nisi Faunus ictum levasset (Hor. Od. II. 17, 27). 

1 In the editions of Latin authors debeam is sometimes put incorrectly instead of debe- 

§ 348 THE SUB J UN (TH 

Obs. By the poets, and some later pro>e-wr 
eram is sometimes used in a qualified proposition entirely in 1 1 > • 

of essem; Solus eram, si uon saevus adesset Amor (Ov. Am. I. 
6, 31). 

e. Sometimes that which would happen in a possible assumed cs 
"ratiance with the real fact) is simply stated as something that will h 

(fut. indie, for pres. subj.) ; Dies deficiet, si velim paupertatis cau- 
sam defendere (Cic. Tusc. V. 85). 

Obs. 1. AVhat might almost have happened is expressed, in Latin, by 
the pen. indie, with prope or paene (as a thing thai has been rery netfr 

happening) ; Prope oblitus sum, qvod maxime fuit scribendum 
(Csel. ap. Cic. ad Fam. VIII. 11). 

Obs. 2. Sometimes, a conditional proposition belongs immediately to 
an infinitive, governed by the verb of the leading proposition, and i 
that reason alone, put in the subjunctive (according to § 369), without 
any influence on the leading proposition, which stands unconditionally 
in the indicative ; Sapiens non dubitat, si ita melius sit, migrare de 
vita (Cic. Finn. I. 19). In this way, nisi and si non with the sub- 
junctive often follow non possum with the infinitive : e.g. nee boiiitas 
nee liberalitas nee comitas esse potest, si haec non per se expetan- 
tur (Cic. Off. III. 33) . Caesar munitiones prohibere non poterat, 
nisi praelio decertare vellet (Cses. B. C. III. 41). The Barae holds 
of other conditional propositions, which do not contain a condition apply- 
ing to the leading proposition, but complete an idea contained in it, which 
has the force of an infinitive or otherwise dependent proposition, so that 
the conditional clause belongs to the oratio obliqva (§ 369) : 
Metallus Centuripinis, nisi statuas Verris restituissent, graviter 
minatur (Cic. Verr. IT. G7 = minatur, se iis malum daturum, nisi 

. Minatur is stated absolutely without any condition). Nulla 

major occurrebat res, qvam si optiniarum artium vias traderem 
meis civibus (Cic. de Div. II. 1 ; i.q. nullam rem putabam niajorem 
esse). Sometimes, lor the sake of brevity, a conditional proposition, 
in the subjunctive, is attached to a leading proposition which is expr 
unconditionally ; Memini numeros, si verba tenerem (Virg. Due. IX. 
45) = et possem canere si. 

Obs. 3. When we have a conditional proposition in the indie 
expressing the conditional relation simply and without any 
signification, tiie leading proposition may stand in the subjuncti ■■ • 
some other reason; e.g. because it contains a wish or a demand or a 
question with a negative signification, to indicate what i> to happen 
(§ 351, § 353), or because it is a dependent q u estio n (>i 356 
stare non possunt, corruant (Cic. Cat. II. 1<»). Ncn total 
qvamobrem, si vivere honeste non possunt, perire turpitcr v 




(Id. ib. II. 10). We should particularly remark the use of an indica- 
tive conditional proposition in connection with a wish or curse in solemn 
protestations and oaths: Ne vivam, si scio (Cic. ad Att. IV. 16). 
Peream, nisi sollicitus sum (Id. ad Fam. XV. 9). 

§ 349. The subjunctive is used in all propositions annexed by 
particles of comparison, which state something that does not actu- 
ally exist, but is only assumed for the sake of comparison (as if; 
hypothetical propositions of comparison) : — 

Sed qvid ego his testibus utor, qvasi res dubia aut obscura 
sit? (Cic. Div. in Caec. 4). Me juvat, velut si ipse in parte laboris 
ac periculi fuerim, ad finem belli Punici pervenisse (Liv. XXXI. 
1). Parvi primo ortu sic jacent, tanqvam omnino sine ammo 
sint (Cic. Finn. V. 15) . (Concerning the particles used, in such proposi- 
tions, see § 444, a, Obs. 1, and b.) 

Obs. In English, the imperfect and pluperfect are required to ex- 
press what is thus merely assumed ; but, in Latin, the subordinate is 
regulated by the leading proposition, and has the imperfect or pluperfect 
only when the leading proposition belongs to past time. But the imper- 
fect is used in expressing comparison with a thing which would hold 
good in another case, not actually occurring ; At accusat C. Cor- 
nelii films, idemqve valere debet, ac si pater indicaret (Cic. pro 
Sull. 18). 

§ 350. a. The subjunctive is used of that which does not actually 
take place, but which, with an indefinite subject assumed for the 
occasion, might take place, and would do so if the attempt were 
made (conjunctivus potentialis). Such a subject is expressed by 
an indefinite or interrogative pronoun, or by a relative periphrastic 
clause (also in the subjunctive) : — 

Credat qvispiam (one might believe). Dicat (dixerit) aliqvis 
some one might here say) . Qvis credat ? Qvis eum diligat, qvem 
metuat? (Who could love a person whom he hated? Qvis diligit, Who 
loves?) Qvis neget, cum illo actum esse praeclare ? (Cic. Lael. 3. 
Qvis negabit, who will deny?) Qvi videret, urbem captam diceret 
(Id. Verr. IV. 23), would have said. Poterat Sextilius impune ne- 
gare ; qvis enim redargueret? (Id. Finn. II. 17), who could have 
refuted him ? Of a thing which is now possible, the present or future 
perfect (as a hypothetical future, without its proper signification, see 
§ 380) is used in this way ; of past time, the imperfect. 

Obs. Concerning the use of the second person of the verb in propo- 
sitions of this kind, see § 370. 


b. "With definite subjects also, a thing which easily can and will 
happen when there is an occasion for it, is modestly and cautiously 
expressed in the subjunctive, most frequently in the first person, to 
denote that to which one is inclined. In the active the future per- 
fect is here generally used (without its usual signification) : — 

Haud facile dixerim, utrum sit melius. Hoc sine ulla dubita- 
tione confirmaverim (/ might affirm, if I he occasion shun hi . 
eloqventiam esse rem unam omnium difficillimam (Cic. Brut. (i). 
At non historia cesserim Graecis, nee opponere Thucydidi Sal- 
lustium verear (Quinct. X. 1, 101). Themistocles nihil dixerit, in 
qvo Areopagum adjuverit (Cic. Off'. I. 22), icitl not easily be able to 
adduce any thing. 

Obs. 1. We should particularly notice the following subjunctives of 
this class : velim, nolim, malim, by which a wish is modestly ex- 
pressed (I could wish, could wish not, would rather) : e.g. velim dica3 ; 
velim ex te scire ; nolim te discedere. A wish, which one would en- 
tertain under other circumstances, but which cannot now be fulfilled, is 
expressed by vellem, nollem, mallem: e.g. Vellem adesse posset 
Panaetius (Cic. Tusc. I. 33). Nollem factum. (Vellet, he could hare 
ivished) . 

Ons. 2. Such a subjunctive may also be employed in a subordinate 
proposition, with a conjunction which is otherwise constructed with the 
indicative : Etsi eum, qvi profiteri ausus sit, perscripturum se res 
omnes Romanas, in partibus singulis fatigari minime conveniat 
{would be highly unbecoming) , tamen provideo animo, qvicqvid pro- 
gredior, in vastiorem me altitudinem invehi (Liv. XXXI. 1). 
Camillus, qvamqvam exercitum assvetum imperio, qvi in Volscis 
erat, mallet, nihil recusavit (Liv. VI. 9. The simple antithesis would 
have to be expressed by etsi and qvamqvam with the indicative, § 361, 
Obs. 2). 

Obs. 3. A conjecture respecting a thing which is actually the fact is 
not expressed by the subjunctive, except with the particle forsitan, it may 
be that, which, in the best writers, is almost always put with that mood ; 
e.g. Concedo; forsitan aliqvis aliqvando ejusmodi qvippiam fece- 
rit (Cic. Verr. II. 32). 

§ 351. a. The subjunctive is used to express a wish, and (in the 
first person plural) mutual incitement or encouragement (the opta* 
tire) : — 

Valeant cives mei, sint incolumes, sint beati (Cic. pro Mil. M). 
Ne vivam, si tibi concedo, ut ejus rei cupidior sis, qvam ego sum 
(Cic. ad Fam. VII. 23). Vivas et originis hujus gaudla louga 

308 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 351 

feras (Juv. VIII. 46). Imitemur majores nostros! Memineri- 
mus, etiam adversus infimos justitiam esse servandam (Cic. Off. 
I. 13). 

b. The subjunctive is sometimes used instead of the imperative 
in commands and prohibitions. See what is said on this subject in 
treating of the imperative, Chapter V. 

Obs. 1. With the subjunctive thus used, the negation is expressed by 
ne, not non. See § 456. Wishes are expressed still more strongly by 
the addition of the particle utinam (utinam ne) : e.g. Utinam ego 
tertius vobis amicus adscriberer (Cic. Tusc. V. 22 ; the imperfect 
being used of a thing which cannot happen). Utinam ne Phormioni id 
svadere in mentem incidisset (Ter. Phorm. I. 3, 5). Utinam is, in 
some rare instances, employed with a non following, which is closely 
annexed to the verb : Haec ad te die natali meo scripsi, qvo utinam 
susceptus non essem (Cic. ad Att. XI. 9). The expression o, si (with 
the subjunctive) is elliptical ; O mihi praeteritos referat si Juppiter 
annos (Virg. ^n. VIII. 560). 

Obs. 2. By the particles dum, dummodo, or modo alone (modo 
ut), if only, jwovided that (dum ne, dummodo ne, modo ne), a wish 
or demand is annexed to a proposition by w r ay of condition or limita- 
tion ; Oderint, dum metuant. Gallia aeqvo animo omnes belli 
patitur injurias, dummodo repellat periculum servitutis (Cic. Phil. 
XII. 4) . Omnia postposui, dummodo praeceptis patris parerem, 
(Cic. Fil. ad Fam. XVI. 21). Celeriter ad comitia tibi veniendum 
censeo, dummodo ne qvid haec festinatio imminuat ejus gloriae 
qvam consecuti sumus (Cic. ad Fam. X. 25). Manent ingenia 
senibus, modo permaneat studium et industria (Id. Cat. M. ?). 
Concede, ut Verres impune haec emerit, modo ut bona ratione 
emerit (Cic. Verr. IV. 5). 

Obs. 3. The beginner may observe that an exhortation is often ex- 
pressed, in Latin, by a question with qvin, ichy ?iot? Qvin imus? 
Qvin taces ? Qvin tu urges occasionem istam ? (Cic. ad Fam. 
VII. 8). 

Obs. 4. In the imperfect and pluperfect, the subjunctive is used, in 
an advisory or imperative sense, of a thing which ought to have been 
done, as distinguished from that which, according to a previous state- 
ment, has actually been done : Curio causam Transpadanorum 
aeqvam esse dicebat ; semper autem addebat, Vincat utilitas rei- 
publicae! Potius diceret (he shoidd rather have said), non esse 
aeqvam, qvia non esset utilis reipublicae, qvam qvum non utilem 
diceret, esse aeqvam fateretur (Cic. Off. III. 22). Saltern aliqvid 
de pondere detraxisset (Id. Finn. IV. 20), he shoidd, at least, have 


deducted . Frumentum ne emisses (Tel. Voir. III. 81) , you should 

not hacc bought any wheat. 

Obs. 5. Concerning the subjunctive in the continued oratio obliqva, 
for the imperative of the oratio recta, see § 404. 

§ 352. A permission, and an assumption or admission of a lhin« 
that is not actually so, or which one leaves undecided and will not 
contend about, are expressed by the subjunctive: 

Fruatur sane Gabinius hoc solatio (Cic. Prow. Cons. 7), Id 
Gabinius keep this comfort if he will. Vendat aedes vir bonus 
propter aliqva vitia, qvae ceteri ignorent ; pestilentes sint et 
habeantur salubres; male materiatae sint, ruinosae; sed hoc 
praeter dominum nemo sciat; qvaero, si haec emptoribus non 
dixerit, num injuste fecerit (Cic. Off. III. 13). Malus civis, 
improbus consul, seditiosus homo Carbo fuit. Fuerit aliis (sup- 
pose he has been so to others) ; tibi qvando esse coepit? (Id. Verr. I. 
14). Ne sint in senectute vires (Id. Cat. M. II.), let us assume thai 
age has no powers. 

§ 353. The subjunctive is used in inquiries as to what is (or 
was) to be done, what shall be, or should have been done, especially 
when it is intended to indicate that something will not be done (has 
not been done) : Qvid faciam ? ( What am I to do ? i.q. J can do 

Utrum superbiam Verris prius commemorem an crudelitatem ? 
(Cic. Verr. I. 47) ; Quam te memorem, virgo ? (Virg. 2En. I. 327), 
What shall I call you ? Qvid hoc nomine faciatis ? aut ad qvam 
spem tarn importunum animal reservetis ? (Cic. Verr. I. 16). 
Qvid faceret aliud ? (Cic. de Or. III. 23), What else was he to do) 
Haec qvum viderem, qvid agerem, judices ? Coutenderem contra 
tribunum plebis privatus armis ? (Cic. pro Sest. 19). Qvid 
enumerem artium multitudinem, sine qvibus vita omnino nulla 
esse potest? (Id. Off. If. 4) = non enumerabo. Cur plura com- 
memorem? (But, Cur haec commemoro? of a thing which one u 
already actually doing.) Qvidni meminerim? (Cic. de Or. II. G7), 
Why should I not remember') (negation of non memini). Also in 
questions expressive of disapprobation, by which a thing is described M 
not to be thought of: Qvaeso, qvid istuc consilii est? Illius stul- 
titia victa ex urbe rus tu habitatum migres ? (Tcr. I Ice. IV. 2. 
IS), should you — ? Ego te videre noluerim ? (Cic. ad Q. Fr. 1 
Can you suppose that I was unwilling to see you ? 

Obs. In questions relating to something that is not to be thought DI, 
an elliptical expression with ut is also used : Egoue ut te interpellem ? 

310 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 356 

(Cic. Tusc. II. 18) = Fierine potest, ut, &c. Qvanqvam qvid 
loqvor ? Te ut ulla res frangat ? Tu ut unqvam te corrigas ? (Id. 
Cat. I. 9.) 

§ 354. The subjunctive is employed in all propositions that 
denote the object of a preceding verb or expression {objective pro~ 
positions, object-clauses), and are connected with it by the particles 
ut, that ; ne, ut ne, ut non, qvin, qvominus, that not : — 

Sol efficit ut omnia floreant. Verres rogat et orat Dolabellam, 
ut ad Neronem proficiscatur (Cic. Verr. I. 29). Precor, ne me 
deseras. Vix me contineo, qvin iuvolem in ilium (Ter. Eun. V. 
2, 20). Mos est homiuum, ut nolint eundem pluribus rebus 
excellere (Id. Brut. 21). 

Ons. When and with what particle such propositions are to be formed 
is shown in the appendix to this chapter. In some particular cases the 
particle may be omitted. See § 372, b, Obs. 4 ; § 373, Obs. 1 ; § 375, «, 
Obs. 1. 

§ 355. The subjunctive is used in all subordinate propositions, 
which are subjoined to another proposition, to express its purpose 
or end, or its result, and are connected with it by the particles ut, 
in order that ; ue (ut ne), that not ; qyo, that so much ; ut, so that ; 
ut non, so that not ; qvin, that not {without). The subjunctive is 
likewise put after ut (ut non) in the signification although (even 
suppose that), and nedum, much less ; e.g. : — 

Legum omnes servi sumus, ut liberi esse possimus. Haec 
ideo ad te scribo, ne me oblitum esse mandatorum tuorum putes. 
Ager non sernel aratur, sed novatur et iteratur, quo meliores fetus 
possit et grandiores edere (Cic. de Or. II. 30). Verres Siciliam 
ita vexavit et perdidit, ut restitui in antiqvum statum nullo modo 
possit (Id. Verr. A. I. 4). In virtute multi sunt adscensus; ut (.so 
that) is gloria maxime excellat, qvi virtute plurimum praestet (Id. 
pro Plane. 25). Nunqvam accedo, qvin abs te abeam doctior 
(Ter. Eun. IV. 7, 21). Ut desint vires, tamen est laudanda vol- 
untas (Ov. ex Pont. III. 4, 79). Vix in ipsis tectis frigus vitatur, 
nedum in mari sit facile abesse ab injuria temporis (of the season ; 
Cic. ad Fain. XVI. 8). 

Obs. Concerning some peculiarities in the combination of these propo- 
sitions, and in the use of the conjunctions, see Chap. IX. § 440 ; con- 
cerning ne and ut ne, § 456 with Obs. 3. 

§ 356. In the subjunctive are put all dependent interrogative 
propositions ; i.e. all propositions which are connected with another 


proposition by an interrogative pronoun or adverb, or by an Inter- 
rogative particle, in order to designate the object of a verb, of t 
phrase, or of a single adjective or substantive ; — 

Qvaesivi ex puero qvid faceret, ubi fuisset. Incertum est, qvid 
qvaeqve nox aut dies ferat. Difficile dictu est, utrum hostes 
magis Pompeji virtutem pugnantes timuerint an mansvetudinem 
victi dilexerint (Cic. pro Leg. Man. 14). Doleam, necne doleam, 
nihil interest (Id. Tusc. II. 12). Vides, ut (how) alta stet nive 
candidum Soracte (Ilor. Od. I. 9, 1). Valetudo sustentatur 
notitia sui corporis et observatione, qvae res prodesse soleant 
aut obesse (Cic. Off. II. 24). l 

Obs. 1. Concerning the interrogative particles, see §§ 451-453. The 
beginner must avoid confounding dependent questions with those relative 
clauses which in English begin with what ( = that, which) ; e.g. / give 
what I have, do, qvae habeo; I said what I knew (repeated alt I knar), 
dixi, qvae sciebam. Dico, qvod sentio, / say what I think, i.e. 
what I say is my real opinion; dicam, qvid sentiam, / shall, tell what 
I think, i.e. / shall state what my opinion is. 

Obs. 2. In dependent questions about a thing which is to happen, the 
notion is to is frequently not expressed by a separate word : Vos hoc 
tempore earn potestatem habetis, ut statuatis, utrum nos semper 
miseri lugeamus (are to mourn), an aliqvando per vestram vir- 
tutem sapientiamqve recreemur (Cic. pro Mil. 2). Non satis 
constabat, qvid agerent (Caes. B. G. III. 14), they did nut rightly 
know what they were to do. 

Obs. 3. In the oldest poets (Plautus and Terence) a dependent inter- 
rogative proposition sometimes stands in the indicative : e.g. si nunc 
memorare velim, qvam fideli animo et benigno in illam fui, vere 
possum (Ter. Hec. III. 5, 21); in the later poets (Horace, Virgil) 
this is rare, in prose quite inadmissible. Sometimes a direct question is 
put after die or qvaero, where an indirect one might have been em- 
ployed : Pic, qvaeso ; Num te ilia terrent, triceps Cerberus, Cocy ti 
fremitus, travectio Acherontis ? (Cic. Tnsc. I. 5). Here it may also 
be observed, that the expression nescio qvis (nescio qvomodo, nescio 
qvo pacto, nescio unde, &c.) is often inserted in a proposition that is 
not interrogative, by way of parenthesis, or as a remark exclusively 
applying to a single word : minime assentior iis, qvi istam nescio 
qvam indolentiam magnopere laudant (Cic. Tnsc. III. 6), that — 
how shall I term it 7 — insensibility to pain. Licuit esse otioso 
Themistocli, licuit Epaminondae, licuit etiam mini; sed, nescio 
qvomodo, inhaeret in mentibus qvasi seculorum qvoddam au- 
gurium futurorum (Id. Tusc. I. 15). 

1 Quid agis P Quid agam P (sc. quaeris). Male. 



Obs. 4. Concerning the mood of interrogative propositions in the 
oratio obliqva, see § 405. 

§ 357. a. Subordinate propositions, which specify a cause and a 
reason (by means of the particles qvod and qvia, because), or an 
occasion (by means of the particles qvoniam, qvando, since), are 
usually put in the indicative (if the speaker adduces the actual 
reason, the, actual occasion, according to his own views) ; but in 
the subjunctive, if the reason (or occasion) is given according to 
the views of another party, who is represented as the agent in the 
main proposition : — 

Aristides nonne ob earn causam expulsus est patria, qvod 
praeter modum Justus esset? (Cic. Tusc. V. 36), because he was too 
just in the opinion of his fellow-citizens ? Bene majores accubitionem 
epularem amicorum, qvia vitae conjunctionem haberet, con- 
vivium nominaverunt (Id. Cat. M. 13) ; in this passage the imperfect 
also shows, that the reason alleged is agreeable to the view taken by the 

Sometimes such a subjunctive is employed where the indicative 
might also have been made use of, because the reason assigned is 
assumed by the speaker himself also as the real one : — 

Romani tamen, qvia consules ad id locorum (hitherto) prospere 
rem gererent, minus his cladibus commovebantur (Liv. XXV. 22) , 
because they saw that the consuls were successful. 

On this account qvod (but not qvia), with a subjunctive, is used 
after verbs which signify praise, blame, complaint, surprise, where we 
give the reason as the assertion of another : Laudat Panaetius Afri- 
canum, qvod fuerit abstinens (Cic. Off. II. 22). Socrates accu- 
satus est, qvod corrumperet juventutem et novas superstitiones 
introduceret (Quinct. IV. 4, 5). But if the speaker himself designates 
something that is an actual fact as the ground of the complaint, &c, the 
indicative is employed : Qvod spiratis, qvod vocem mittitis, qvod 
formam hominum habetis, iudignantur (Liv. IV. 3). 

Obs. 1. The speaker may also express the reason of his own actions 
in the subjunctive as if according to the views of another party, if he states 
how the matter formei dy appeared to him, without expressly confirming 
this view now : Mini semper Academiae consvetudo de omnibus 
rebus in contrarias partes disserendi non ob earn causam solum 
placuit, qvod aliter non posset, qvid in qvaqve re verisimile esset, 
inveniri, sed etiam qvod esset ea maxima dicendi exercitatio 
(Cic. Tusc. II. 3). 


Obs. 2. Sometimes qvod is put with the subjunctive r.f a vcvl) of 
ing or tMnkihg, although not the circumstance that SOBM OM said or 
thought a thing, but the substance of what was said or thought, con- 
veys the reason. as given by another: Qvum Hannibalis pen 
exisset e castris, rediit paullo post, qvod se oblitrum nescio qvid 
diceret (Cic. Off. I. 13), because, as he taid, he had forgotten 
thing. Multi praetores qvaestores et legatos suos de provincia 
decedere jusserunt, qvod eorum culpa se minus commode audire 
arbitrarentur (Id. Verr. III. 58). 

b. The subjunctive is employed, where it is intended to denote 
that the reason alleged is not the real and actual one : — 

Nemo oratorem admiratus est, qvod Latine loqveretur (( ic. de 
Or. III. 14). In this way, particularly non qvod (non ideo qvod 
non eo qvod) or non qvia is put with the subjunctive, followed bv sed 
qvod (qvia), introducing the true motive : Pugiles in jactandi3 caes- 
tibus ingemiscunt, non qvod doleant animove succumbant, sed 
qvia profundenda voce omne corpus intenditur venitqve plaga ve- 
hementior (Cic. Tuse. II. 23). (Jactatum in condicionibus neqvic- 
qvam de Tarqviniis in regnum restituendis, magis qvia id negare 
Porsena neqviverat Tarqviniis, qvam qvod negatum iri sibi ab 
Romanis ignoraret (Liv. II. 13) =non qvod — ignoraret, sed qvia 
— neqviverat). There arc a few exceptions : non qvia nasus nullus 
illis erat (Hor. Sat. II. 2, 90). 

Obs. For non qvod (non qvia), non qvo, not that, is also em- 
ployed : De consilio meo ad te, non qvo celandus esses, nihil 
scripsi antea, sed qvia communicatio consilii qvasi quaedam 
videtur esse efflagitatio ad coeundam societam vel periculi vel 

laboris (Cic. ad Fam. V. 19). (Also non qvo , sed ut or sed ne.) 

For non qvod (qvo) non, we find also non qvin; e.g. non tarn ut 
prosim causis, elaborare soleo, qvam ne qvid obsim ; non qvin 
enitendum sit in utroqve, sed tamen multo est turpius oratori 
nocuisse videri causae qvam non profuisse (Cic. de Or. II. 72). 

§ 358. The subjunctive is put after the particle qvum, when it 
denotes the occasion {since, qvum causal), or (with imperfecta and 
pluperfects) the succession and order of events in historical narra- 
tion {when) : — 

Qvum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio 
ipsa monet amicitias comparare (Cic. Finn. I 20), Dionysius 
qvum in communibus suggestis consistere non auderet, contion ui 
ex turri alta solebat (Id. Tusc, V. 26). Epaminondas qvum vicis- 
set Lacedaemonios apud Mantineam atqve ipse gravi vulnere 

314 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 358 

exanimari se videret, qvaesivit, salvusne esset clipeus (Id. 
Finn. II. 30). 

If, on the other hand, an action is only referred to a certain time, 
so that qvum signifies when, with a present or future, or at the time 
when, the indicative is employed ; though in speaking of past time 
the imperfect subjunctive is likewise admissible: — 

Qvi injuriam non propulsat, qvum potest, injuste facit (Cic. Off. 
III. 18) . Qvum inimici nostri venire dicentur, turn in Epirum ibo 
(Id. ad Fam. XIV. 3). Res, qvum haec scribebam, erat in extre- 
mum adducta discrimen (Id. ib. XII. 6). Dionysius ea, qvae con- 
cupierat, ne turn qvidem, qvum omnia se posse censebat, conse- 
qvebatur (Id. Tuse. V. 20). Qvum Caesar in Galliam venit, 
alterius Gallorum factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Se- 
qvani (Cses. B. G. VI. 12). Zenonem, qvum Athenis essem, 
audiebam freqventer (Cic. N". D. I. 21). C. Caesar turn, qvum 
maxime furor arderet Antonii, firmissimum exercitum compara- 
vit (Id. Phil. III. 2). Qvanto facilius abire fuit hosti, qvum 
procul abessemus, qvam nunc, qvum in cervicibus sumus (Liv. 
XLIV. 39). With the other conjunctions of time, which denote the 
succession of actions, the indicative is made use of. See § 338, b. 

Obs. 1. The indicative is also used when qvum (qvum interim) 
connects an event with a time and circumstances previously mentioned : 
Jam ver appetebat, qvum Hannibal ex hibernis mo vet (Liv. XXII. 
1) . Jam scalis egressi milites prope summa ceperant, qvum oppi- 
dani concurrunt, lapides, ignem, alia praeterea tela ingerunt (Sail. 
Jug. GO). Piso ultimas Hadriani maris oras petivit, qvum interim 
Dyrrachii milites domum, in qva eum esse arbitrabantur, obsidere 
coeperunt (Cic. in Pis. 38). (So likewise, Nondum centum et decern 
anni sunt, qvum de pecuniis repetundis a L. Pisone lata lex est 
(Id. Off. II. 21), it is not yet one hundred and ten years, since a 
law .) 

Obs. 2. Qvum signifying inasmuch as stands with the indicative in 
the present and perfect : Concedo tibi, ut ea praetereas, qvae, qvum 
taces, nulla esse concedis (Cic. Rose. Am. 19), inasmuch as you are 
silent, by being silent. Praeclare facis, qvum Caepionis et Luculli 
memoriam tenes (Id. Finn. III. 2) ; but with the subjunctive in the 
imperfect : Munatius Plancus qvotidie meam potentiam criminaba- 
tur, qvum diceret, senatum, qvod ego vellem, decernere (Cic. pro 
Mil. 5). After laudo, gratulor, gratias ago, gratia est, qvum is 
found with the indicative in the same sense as qvod, that, because; e.g. 
Gratulor tibi, qvum tantum vales apud Dolabellam (Cic. ad Fam. 
IX. 14). 

§359 THE SUBJUNCTI\ 815 


OBS. 8. Qvum usually has the subjunctive when Ii mrpiTMOi a kind 
of comparison, and especially a contrast, between the contents of the 
leading proposition ami the subordinate ( while <>it ih< other hand, u >■> 

although) ; Hoc ipso tempore, qvum omnia gymnasia pkilosophi 
teneant, tamen eoruni auditores discum audire qvam philoso- 
phum malunt (Cic. de Or. II. , r >). Hence also with qvum — t> 
well — as, when each member has its own veil), the fn>t is often put in 
the subjunctive, to express a kind of comparison (between the general 
and the particular case, the earlier and the later, &C.) ; e.g. Qvum mul- 
tae res in philosophia neqvaqvam satis adhuc explicatae sint, turn 
perdifficilis et perobscura qvaestio est de natura deorum 
N. D. I. 1). Sex. Roscius qvum ornni tempore nobilitatis fautor 
fuisset, turn hoc tumultu proximo praeter ceteros in ea vicinitate 
earn partem causamqve defendit (Id. Rose. Am. (>). If only the 
connection between the two is to be expressed, the indicative is used : 
Qvum ipsam cognitionem juris augurii conseqvi cupio, turn me- 
hercule tuis incredibiliter studiis delector (Cic ad Fam. III. D). 

OiiS. 4. We always have the subjunctive in audivi (auditum est) 
ex eo, qvum diceret, I have heard him say. So also the subjunctive is 
almost always found used after the phrase : Fuit (erit) tempus (illud 
tempus, dies), qvum, there icas once a time, there vill come a time, when 
(such a time that) ; also after the simple expression, fuit, qvum : II- 
lucescet aliqvando ille dies, qvum tu fortissimi viri magnitudinem 
animi desideres (Cic. pro Mil. 2(1). Fuit, qvum mihi qvoqve ini- 
tium reqviescendi fore justum arbitrarer (Id. de Or. I. 1). 

§ 359. AVhen an action that is often repeated (every time that, as qfU n 
as) is expressed by qvum, or other conjunctions (ubi, postqvam, qvo- 
ties, si), or by indefinite relative words (qvicunqve, ubicunqve, qvo- 
cunqve, in qvamcunqve partem, ut qvisqve, according as- each), 
with the verb in the imperfect or (more frequently, according to $ 338, 
a, Obs.) in the pluperfect, the older writers (Cicero, Ca-sar, SalluM) com- 
monly use the indicative; others, again, give the preference to tin 

junctivc : Qvum ver esse coeperat, Verres dabat se labori atqve 
itineribus (Cic. Verr. V. 10). Qvamcunqve in partem eqvites 
impetum fecerant, hostes loco cedere cogebantur ((as. B. C II. 
41 ) . Numidae si a perseqvendo hostes deterrere neqviverant, dis- 

jectos a tergo aut lateribus circumveniebant ; sin opportunior 
fugae collis qvam campi fuerant, Numidarum eqvi facile evadebant 

(Sail. Jug. 50). Qvemcunqve lictor jussu consulis prehendisset, 
tribunus mitti jubebat (Liv. III. 11). Qvum (wry time i 

jus duci debitorem vidissent, convolabant (Id. II. 27). Id fecialia 
ubi dixisset, hastam in fines eorum mittebat (Li 

316 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 36vi 

§ 360. The conjunctions dum, donee, and qvoad, signifying until, 
with priusqvam and anteqyam, are (according to the most regular 
usage) constructed with the indicative, when an action is simply 
expressed that has actually commenced or is commencing (a), but 
with the subjunctive, if a design is at the same time intimated (until 
something can be done), or an action which has not actually com- 
menced (before something can be done, i.e. so that it is not done 
(b). Yet the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive are also em- 
ployed in simply indicating a point of time and an action which has 
really taken place (especially with anteqvam, priusqvam, in the 
historical style (c) : the subjunctive is also found with anteqvam 
and priusqvam, in speaking of a thing which usually happens 
before something else happens (d). 

a. De comitiis, donee rediit Marcellus, silentium fuit (Liv. 
XXIII. 31). Haud desinam, donee perfecero (Tor. Phorm. IL 3, 
72). Milo in senatu fuit eo die, qvoad senatus dimissus est (Cic. 
pro Mil. 10). Mecum deserta qverebar, dum me jucundis lapsam 
sopor impulit alis (Prop. I. 3, 43). ' Non in hac re sola fuit ejus- 
modi, sed, anteqvam ego in Siciliam veni, in maximis rebus ac 
plurimis (Cic. Verr. II. 47). Non defatigabor anteqvam illorum 
ancipites vias rationesqve percepero (Id. de Or. III. 3G). Epami- 
nondas non prius bellare destitit, qvam urbem Lacedaemoniorum 
obsidione clausit (Corn. Epam. 8). 

b. Iratis subtrahendi sunt ii, in qvos impetum conantur facere, 
dum se ipsi colligant (Cic. Tusc. IV. 3G), until they (that they may) 
compose themselves. 2 Numidae, priusqvam ex castris subveniretur 
in proximos colles discedunt (Sail. Jug. 54). Anteqvam homines 
nefarii de meo adventu audire potuissent, in Macedoniam per- 
rexi (Cic. pro Plane. 41). 

c. Trepidationis aliqvantum elephanti. edebant, donee qvietem 
ipse timor fecisset (Liv. XXI. 28). Faucis ante diebus, qvam 
Syracusae caperentur, Otacilius in Africam transmisit (Id. XXV. 
31). 3 

d. Tragoedi qvotidie, anteqvam pronuncient, vocem cubantes 
sensim excitant (Cic. de Or. I. 59). Tempestas minatur ante- 
qvam surgat (Sen. Ep. 103). 

Obs. 1. Concerning exspecto dum, opperior dum, with a present, 
see § 339, Obs. 2. Exspectare dum, with the subjunctive, answers 

1 Dum is but rarely used in this signification; (usqve ad emu finem, dum, Cic. 
Terr. Act. I. G). 

2 Ilere dum is employed, not donee, to indicate design. 

8 Non ante (prius) . . . quam always takes the perfect indicative. 

§ 361 T 1 1 1 : SUBJUNCIH 

Dearly to the English to expert, that (with the indicative, t<> trait, U 
Exspectas fortasse, dum dicat, Patietur, perferet ( ( U . 7 ) . 

Nolite exspectare, dum omnes obeam oratione mea civitates (I<1. 
Verr. II. 51). (Also exspecto, ut: Nisi forte exspectatis, ut ilia 
diluam, qvae Erucius de rebus commenticiis objecit. Id, 
Am. 29.) 

Obs. 2. Dum and donee may also be conttructed with die 
junctive in the signification 80 long OX, when a design is 6Xp 
Ioiil:, while, — i.e. that something may be done in the mean time) \ Die 
inseqventi qvievere milites, dum praefectu3 urbis vires inspicerct. 
(Otherwise, they always take the indicative: Ti. Gracchus, P. P., tam- 
diu laudabitur, dum memoria rerum Ronianarum maiiebit, ( lie. < MF. 
II. 12.) 

Obs. 3. Concerning anteqvam and priusqvam with the preset 
§ 339, Obs. 2. The present indicative is put with these conjunctions 
even to express a thing that one wishes to prevent, that must not happen : 
Dabo operam, ut istuc veniam anteqvam ex amnio tuo effluo 
ad Fam. VII. 14). 

Obs. 4. When ante, citius, or prius qvam is used, to denote what i< 
impossible, or what is to be warded off at any cost, it is followed by the 
subjunctive (since the action is considered as not taking place) : Ante 
leves pascentur in aethere cervi, qvam nostro illius labatur pec- 
tore vultus (Virg. B. I. 59). (Zeno Magnetas dixit in corpora 
sva citius per furorem saevituros, qvam ut Romanam amicitiam 
violarent, Liv. XXXY. 31.) So, likewise, alter potius qvam; Pri- 
vabo potius Lucullum debito testimonio qvam id cum mea laude 
communicem (Cic. Acad. II. 1). 

§ 3G1. The subjunctive i.s annexed to the particle qvamvis, 
though ever so much {how much soever), and to licet, although (prop- 
erly the verb licet, with an ellipsis of ut) : — 

Qvod turpe est, id, qvamvis occultetur, tamen honestum fieri 
nullo modo potest (Cic. Oil'. [II. 1 9) . Improbitas, licet adversario 
molesta sit, judici invisa est (Quinct. VI. 1, 15). 

Obs, 1. Qvamvis properly signifies however much you »/•///, and the 
subjunctive by itself expresses the concession: Let it be concealed 
(§ 352). Qvantumvis is used in the same way: Ista, qvantnmvis 
exigua sint, in majus excedunt (Sen. Ep. 86). Licet i^ ran ! 
by good writers quite as a conjunction, but commonK as a \<rl> with i 
permissive signification (may) : Fremant omnes, licet qvod 

sentio (Cie. de Or. i. 11), they may all exclaim against it. 

will, &C. 



Obs. 2. The contrast between what is asserted and something else, 
that actually does (or did) take place, is expressed by qvanqvam or 
etsi (more strongly, tametsi) with the indicative : Romani qvanqvam 
itinere et proelio fessi erant, tamen Metello instruct! obviam 
procedunt (Sail. Jug. 53). Caesar, etsi nondum eorum consilia 
cognoverat, tamen fore id, qvod accidit, suspicabatur (Cses. B. G. 
IV. 31). Tametsi vicisse debeo, tamen de meo jure decedam 
(Oic. pro Rose. Am. 27) ; (they take the subjunctive only when there is 
some other reason for it ; e.g. according to § 350, b, Obs. 2, or accord- 
ing to §§ 369, 370). By etsi and (more frequently) etiamsi as condi- 
tional particles, it is expressed that a thing takes place even in a certain 
case, and under a certain condition. The indicative is employed (ac- 
cording to § 332), when the condition is simply expressed (without being 
negatived) : Viri boni multa ob earn causam faciunt, qvod decet, 
etsi nullum consecuturum emolumentum vident (Cic. Finn. II. 14). 
Qvod crebro aliqvis videt, non miratur, etiamsi, cur fiat, nescit 
(Cic. Div. II. 22) ; the subjunctive, when it is stated that the condition 
does not obtain : Etiamsi mors oppetenda esset, domi atqve in patria 
mallem, qvam in externis atqve alienis locis (Cic. ad Fam. IV. 7). 
Cur Siculi te defensorem habere nolint, etiamsi taceant, satis 
dicunt; verum non tacent (Cic. Div. in Caec. G. Dicunt in the in- 
dicative, according to § 348, b), they declare it by their way of acting, 
suppose even that they were silent. 

Obs. 3. The poets and later writers use qvamvis with the indicative 
for qvamqvam, although (of a thing which actually does take place), or 
etiamsi, even if; Pollio amat nostram, qvamvis est rustica, Musam 
(Virg. B. III. 84), which is very rare in the older prose-writers. On the 
other hand, they use qvanqvam with the subjunctive, instead of the indica- 
tive : Nee vero Alcidem me sum laetatus euntem accepisse lacu, nee 
Thesea Pirithoumqve, dis qvanqvam geniti essent (Virg. JEn. VI. 
394) . Qvinctius, qvamqvam moveretur his vocibus, manu tamen 
abnuit, qvicqvam opis in se esse (Liv. XXXVI. 34). 

§ 3G2. a. Relative propositions (whether introduced by the rela- 
tive pronoun or a relative adverb) take the indicative when they 
simply give a more precise but actually true definition of an idea 
of the leading proposition, or when they, by a periphrasis, which is 
equivalent to a simple noun, describe and specify an idea, concern- 
ing which some statement is made ; e.g. : — 

Demosthenes, qvi Athenis versabatur, clarissimus orator fuit. 
Ubi talia impune fiunt, vita omnium in periculo est. Num alii 
oratores probantur a multitudine, alii ab iis, qvi intelligunt (Cic. 
Brut. 49), by connoisseurs. 


The indicative is also employed in proposition! beginning with 
an indefinite relative pronoun (§ 87) or adverb, which describe to 
idea (by periphrasis), but leave it iudeflnite M far U any individual 

person or thing, or the extent of its application, is concerned : — 

Qvoscunqve de te qveri audivi, qvacunqve potui ratione, pla- 
cavi (Cie. ad Q. Fr. I. 2). P. Lentulus, qvidqvid habuit (whatever 
ability he possessed) , qvantumcunqve fuit, id totum habuit c i 
plina (Id. Brut. 77). Patria est, ubicunqve est bene (Id. T 
37). Sed qvoqvo modo illud se habet, haec qverela vestra nihil 
valet (Id. pro Lig. 7). Utrum (whichever of the two, it u indifferent 
whether it be one or the other) ostendere potest, vincat necesse est 
(Id. pro Tull. § 28). 

Obs. We must notice, as an exception to this rule, that certain writers 
use the subjunctive after indefinite relatives, in order to express a re- 
peated action. See § 359. 

b. But in various cases the relative proposition takes the sub- 
junctive, to denote either a mere conception of the mind (a thing 
not actually existing), or a particular relation between the contents 
of the relative proposition and the leading proposition. (Hence :i 
relative with the subjunctive often has the same signification, which 
is expressed more definitely by means of a conjunction.) 

§ 363. a. The subjunctive is employed, when the relative; propo- 
sition expresses a design connected with the action mentioned in the 
leading proposition (who is to = that he, qvi = ut is) or a destina- 
tion which a thing has (something that may, something to — ) : — 

Clusini legatos Romam, qvi auxilium a senatu peterent, mi- 
sere (Liv. V. 35). Misi ad Antonium, qvi hoc ei diceret (( 8c. PhiL 

I. 5), one who ivas to . Homini natura rationem dedit, qva 

regerentur animi appetitus (Id. N. D. II. 12), Sunt multi, qvi 
eripiunt aliis, qvod aliis largiantur (Id. Off. I. 14), who take Jrom 
some to give to others. Germani neqve Druides habent, qvi rebus 
divinis praesint, neqve sacrifices student (('as. B. (J. VI. L'l). 
Haec habui, de amicitia qvae dicerem (Cic. L«L 27), this wot irlmt 
I had to say. Habes, qvod agas et qvo te oblectes (something 
and amuse yourself with) . Non habet, unde solvat (ht hat not the 
means of paying) . Dedi ei, ubi habitaret (a j>l<ic< to live in). Compare 

b. It should be particularly remarked, that the relative with the 
subjunctive is put after the adjectives dignus, indignus, idoneus, 
and sometimes after aptus, to express that of which a pen 
worthy, or for which he is qualified : — 

320 LATIN GRAMMAR. §364 

Digna res est, qvam diu multumqve consideremus (qvae diu 
multumqve consideretur) . Homines scelerati indigni mi hi vide- 
bantur, qvorum causam agerem. Gajus non satis idoneus visus 
est, cui tantum negotium committeretur. Nulla mi hi videbatur 
aptior persona, qvae de senectute loqveretur, qvam Catonis (Cic. 
Lael. 1). 

Obs. 1 . The poets and later prose- writers construct these adjectives also 
■with the infinitive (of the active or passive voice, as the connection may 
require) : Lyricorum Horatius fere solus legi dignus est (Quinct. 
X. 1, 9C) = qvi legatur. Pons rivo dare nomen idoneus (Hor. Ep. 
I. 16, 12) = qvi det (Dignus, ut (Liv.) is very rare.) 

Obs. 2. From non (nihil) habeo (nihil est, non est) qvod (I have 
nothing to , there is nothing to ), we must distinguish the ex- 
pression non habeo, I do not know, with, a dependent question ; De 
pueris qvid agam, non habeo (Cic. ad Att. VII. 19). 

Obs. 3. Here we may also notice the subjunctive, which is employed 
after the particles cur, qvamobrem, qvare, when causa, ratio, argu- 
mentum, or a phrase of similar import, precedes (the reason for which 
one is to reason to ). See § 372, 6, Obs. 6. 

§ 364. The subjunctive is employed in relative propositions, 
which give a more complete idea of a certain quality and show how- 
it operates, so that crvi has the meaning of ut after talis (one who, 
i. q. such a one that) : — 

Innocentia est affectio talis animi, qvae noceat nemini (Cic. 
Tusc. III. 8) . Nulla acies humani ingenii tanta est, qvae penetrare 
in coelum possit (Id. Ac. II. 39). Qvis potest esse tarn aversus a 
vero, qvi neget, haec omnia, qvae videmus, deorum immortalium 
potestate administrari (Id. Cat. III. 9). Ego is sum, qvi nihil 
unqvam mea potius qvam meorum civium causa fecerim (Id. ad 
Fam. V. 21). (Also: Non is es, Catilina, ut te unqvam pudor a 
turpitudine revocarit, Cic. Cat. I. 9 C ) L. Pinarius erat vir acer et 
qvi nihil in fide Siculorum reponeret (Liv. XXIV. 37). Syracu- 
sani, homines periti, qvi etiam occulta suspicari possent, habe- 
bant rationem qvotidie piratarum, qvi securi ferirentur (Cic. Verr. 
V. 28) . Nunc dicis aliqvid, qvod ad rem pertineat (Cic. Rose. Am. 

18), something of such a nature, that it . Num. qvidqvam potest 

eximium esse in ea natura, qvae nihil nee actura sit unqvam 

neqve agat neqve egerit? (Id. N. D. I. 41), a being, that , a 

being of such a kind, that . In enodandis nominibus vos Stoici, 

qvod miserandum sit, laboratis (Id. ib. III. 24), to a pitiable degree. 
(So also after a comparative : Campani majora deliqverant, qvam qvi- 
bus ignosci posset. See § 308, Obs. 1.) 


Obs. 1. Such a relative proposition il connected either with .1 (UtBOn- 
strativc word, which denotes a quality (e.g. talis, tantus, ejuamodi, is) 
or with a substantive of a generic signification (e.g. (i being wkieh t or 
aUqvid, qvod), or witli an adjective characteristic, t.» define it more pre- 
cisely. This subjunctive is sometimes also used in relative proposition! 
which do not complete a conception already presented, 1) .t which contain 
a description themselves (by periphrasis), when we wish to exj 
general idea of a person or thing of a particular nature, constitution, or 
quality, and, at the same time, to draw attention to the bearings of this 
nature or quality on the statement in the main proposition; Hoc non 
erat ejus, qvi innumerabiles mundos mente peragravisset (Cic. 

Finn. II. 31), was not becoming for a man, who , such a man, as. 

Qvi ex ipso audissent, qvum palam multis audientibus loqvere- 
tur, nefaria qvaedam ad me pertulerunt (Cic. ad Att. XI. 8), /"/- 

sons who , such persons, as. Qvi audiveraiit would mean those 

who , the particular persons who. At ille nescio qvi, qvi in scho- 
lia nominari solet, mille et octoginta stadia qvod abesset, videbat 
(Cic. Ac. II. 25), tilings which were distant, such things as were. Qvod 
aberat would signify some particular thing which was distant. 

Obs. 2. In a similar way, the subjunctive is used in relative proposi- 
tions, which restrict to a certain defined class something that is stated in 
general terms ; particularly, Avith qvi qvidem (at least, who) and qvi 
modo (who onhj = if he only) : Ex oratoribus Atticis antiqvissimi 
sunt, qvorum qvidem scripta constent (so far, at least, as their writ- 
ings are to be relied on as authentic), Pericles et Alcibiades (Cic. de 
Or. II. 22) . Xenocrates unus, qvi deos esse diceret, divinationem 
funditus sustulit (Id. dc Div. I. 3). Servus est nemo, qvi modo 
tolerabili condicione sit servitutis, qvi non audaciam civium per- 
horrescat (Id. Cat. IV. 8). Qvod sciam, qvod meminerim, to far 
as I know, remember = qvantum scio. Pergratum mini feceris, si 
eum, qvod sine molestia tua fiat, juveris (Id. ad Earn. XIII. 
far as it can be done without inconvenience to yourself . (But we also 
find, with the same signification, Qvae tibi mandavi, velim cures, 
qvod sine tua molestia facere poteris, Id. ad Att. I. •>. ) 

§ 365. After a general assertion, that there is or is not something 
of which a certain relative proposition may be asserted (something 
of such a kind that the latter maybe asserted of it), the relative 
proposition takes the subjunctive; thus the subjunctive stands after 
the expressions est, qvi ; sunt, reperiuntur, non desunt, qvi ; ex- 
stitit, exstiterunt, exortus est, qvi (exortus est philosophus, qvi ) \ 
habeo, qvi (one who) ; est, ubi (there arc places where) ; nemo est, 

qvi; nihil est, qvod (qvis est, qvi ?), &c ; e.g. : — 


322 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 365 

Sunt, qvi discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem 
(Cic. Tusc. I. 9). Fuere, qvi crederent, M. Crassum non 
ignarum Catiliuae consilii fuisse (Sail. Cat. 17). In omnibus 
seculis pauciores viri reperti sunt, qvi suas cupiditates, qvam 
qvi nostrum copias vincerent (Cic. ad Fam. XV. 4). Nemo 
est orator, qvi se Demosthenis similem esse nolit (Id. de Opt. 
Gen. Or. 2). Qvod ex majore parte unamqvemqve rem appellari 
dicunt, est, ubi id valeat (Id. Tusc. V. 8), there are cases, in which 

. Est qvatenus amicitiae dari venia possit (Id. Lnel. 17), there 

is a point up to which . Nullas accipio litteras, qvas non statim 

ad te mittam. 

Obs. 1. The poets frequently use the indicative after such of these 
expressions as are affirmative ; e.g. est (sunt), qvi (not after the nega- 
tive, such as nemo est, qvi) : Sunt, qvos curriculo pulverem Olym- 
picum collegisse juvat (Hor. Od. I. 1, 3). Interdum rectum vulgus 
videt ; est, ubi peccat (Id. Ep. II. 1, 63). In good prose- writers, such 
examples are rare (Sunt, qvi ita dicunt, imperia Pisonis superba 
barbaros neqvivisse pati, Sail. Cat. 19), except where a definitive 
pronoun or adjective of number is appended to the affirmative clause ; 
as, sunt multi (sunt multi homines), &c. ; for, in this case, the 
indicative is used as well as the subjunctive : Sunt multi, qvi eripiunt 
aliis, qvod aliis largiantur (Cic. Off. I. 14) . Nonnulli sunt in hoc 
ordine, qvi aut ea, qvae imminent, non videant, aut ea, qvae 
vident, dissimulent (Id. in Cat. I. 12). Duo tempora incide- 
runt, qvibus aliqvid contra Caesarem Pompejo svaserim (Id. Phil. 
II. 10). 

Obs. 2. If a relative proposition belongs to a negative antece- 
dent, of which something definite is predicated (as, nothing is a good), 
it may stand in the indicative, as being subjoined as a mere defini- 
tion : e.g. Nihil bonum est, qvod non eum, qvi id possidet, melio- 
rem facit (Cic. Par. I. 4, nothing, that does not make its possessor 
better, is a good) ; or it may be appended in the subjunctive in the man- 
ner above mentioned : Nihil bonum est, qvod non eum, qvi id pos- 
sideat, meliorem faciat, nothing is a good, there is no good which would 
not make its possessor better. Nemo rex Persarum potest esse, qvi 
non ante Magorum disciplinam perceperit (Cic. de Div. I. 41). 

Obs. 3. For qvi non after nemo est, qvod non after nihil est, 
qvin (is, id) may likewise be employed (§ 440, Obs. 3). Where a 
definite case must necessarily be expressed (as it nearly always must, 
if the relative would have been in the accusative), either is must be 
inserted, or (which is to be preferred) the relative retained (qvem non, 
qvod non). 

§ 367 Tin: BUBJUNCm 

§ 3GG. Relative propositions are put in the Subjunctive, win n 
they are intended to express the reason of the Leading proportion, 
so that qvi approaches to the signification of qvum is. (Von au- 
to do it, as lie who can do it, i.q. since you ran <lo it.) 

Caninius fuit mirifica vigilantia, qvi suo toto consulatu somnum 
non viderit (Cic. ad Fain. VII. 80). Miseret tui me, qvi lmnc 
tantum hominem facias inimicum tibi (Ter. Bun. IV. 7, 82). Ut 
cubitum discessimus (when we were </une to bed) me, qvi ad multam 
noctem vigilassem, artior qvam solebat somnus complexus est 
(Cic. Somn. Scip. 1). O fortunate adolescens, qvi tuae virtutis 
Homerum praeconem inveneris (Id. pro Arch. 10). 

Obs. 1. In many cases, the choice rests with the speaker, whether he 
will expressly show, by the use of the subjunctive, that the relative propo- 
sition contains the reason, or whether he will simply add it in the indica- 
tive as an explanation. Thus, it may be said : Habeo senectuti 
magnam gratiam, qvae mihi sermonis aviditatem auxit, potionis 
et cibi sustulit (Cic. Cat. M. 14) ; but he might also have said: auze- 
rit — sustulerit {since it has, because it has). 

Obs. 2. The assigning of the reason is strengthened by the expres- 
sions utpote qvi, ut qvi (as one who) or praesertim qvi ' (especially 
as one who, i.q. especially as he), which are constructed with the sub- 
junctive. Qvippe qvi (properly signifying certainly, as our. who , 

certainly, since he ) is constructed both with the subjunctive and, in 

some writers (Sallust, Livy), with the indicative: Solis candor illus- 
trior est qvam ullius ignis, qvippe qvi immenso mundo tarn longe 
lateqve colluceat (Cic. N. D. II. 15). Animus fortuna non eget, 
qvippe qvae probitatem, industriam, aliasqve artes bonas neqve 
dare neqve eripere cuiqvam potest (Sail. Jug. 1). 

Obs. 3. The subjunctive is likewise employed in relative propositions, 
which contain an antithesis to the leading proposition (compare what is 
said of qvum, § 358, Obs. 3) : Ego, qvi (although J) sero ac leviter 
Graecas litteras attigissem, tamen, qvum in Ciliciam proficiscens 
Athenas venissem, complures ibi dies sum commoratus (Cic do 
Or. I. 18). Nosmetipsi, qvi Lycurgei (strict as Ljfewrgus) a prin- 
cipio fuissemus, qvotidie demitigamur (Id. ad Att. 1. 1. ). 

§ 3G7. A relative proposition constituting a periphrasis may be 
put in the subjunctive with an hypothetical declaration of what will 
happen in case the existence of such a person or thing ;i- thai indi- 
cated in the periphrasis should be assumed ; e«g. : — 

1 [Praesertim qui nos non pugnando, sed tacendo auperaro potueruut 

(Cic. iu Cat. III. 9) ] 

3-4 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 369 

Haec et innumerabilia ex eodem genere qvi videat, nonne 
cogatur confiteri deos esse (Cic. N. D. If. 4), if any one sees this, will 
he not be compelled f Qvi — videt, nonne cogitur ? is not he who 

sees this compelled? See § 350, a. 

§ 368. Relative propositions stand in the subjunctive, when they 
form constituent parts of an expression (of a thought, resolution, 
&c.), which is mentioned in the leading proposition as the expres- 
sion of another party, and do not contain an idea which the speaker 
himself declares as his own : — 

Socrates exsecrari eum solebat, qvi primus utilitatem a jure 

sejunxisset (Cic. Legg. I. 12), who had first ; whom Socrates 

himself thought of as the author of this separation. Nemo extulit 
eum verbis, qvi ita dixisset, ut qvi adessent, intelligerent, qvid 
diceret (Id. de Or. III. 14), him, who (i.q. any one, because he), accord- 
ing to his view, had so spoken . Paetus omnes libros, qvos fra- 

ter suus reliqvisset, mini donavit (Id. ad Att. II. 1), ivhich his 
brother might have left; which his brother, as he believed, had left. 
With a different sense, it would be: qvos frater ejus reliqvit, ichich 
his brother left. In Hispaniis prorogatum veteribus praetoribus 
imperium, cum exercitibus, qvos haberent (Liv. XL. 18 ; expressed 
as a part of the senatusconsultum.) 

Obs. The thought mentioned in the leading proposition may be the 
speaker's own, if it be presented as one that he entertained at some other 
time : Occurrebant (/ called to mind) colles campiqve et Tiberis 
et hoc coelum, sub qvo natus educatusqve essem (Liv. V. 54) . 
Sometimes, there is only a slight difference between a relative proposi- 
tion giving a part of another person's thought (in the subjunctive) and 
the same proposition giving the speaker's own thought (in the indica- 
tive) ; e.g. Majores natu nil rectum putant, nisi qvod sibi placue- 
rit, or nisi qvod ipsis placuit. (The subjunctive shows that they are 
conscious of the process of thought which determines their judgment. 
Compare § 490, c, Obs. 3, respecting sui and suus.) 1 

§ 3G9. As in relative propositions (§ 368), so also the subjunctive 
is used in other subordinate propositions, which supplement the 
thought of the leading proposition, and are, so to speak, parts of it. 
Thus, for instance, in conditional propositions : Rex praemium pro- 
positi! (praemium propositum est) si qvis hostem occidisset (§ 348, 

1 Alius alia causa allata, qvam sibi ad proficiscendum necessariam esse 
diceret, petebat,ut sibiCaesaris voluntate discedere liceret(Caes. B. o. I. 39). 
Diceret stands in the nubjunctive instead of qvae — necesoaria esset(lhe reason which, 
as he said, compelled him). See § 357, a, Obs. 2. 

§ 369 IS1 SUBJUNCm 

Obs. 8. Compart what is said of sanaai pro] 157, ^/.) 

The subjunctive ifl for the same reason need in all Bobordtaai 
positions (whether relative or connected by conjunctions), irhich 
.•uf added to complete an idea expressed by an infinitive, or a propo- 
sition standing in the subjunctive, or in the accusative with the 
infinitive, the contents of which subordinate proposition ai 
by the speaker not simply as an actual fart, but oni tlStitu- 

ent part of the idea stated in the infinitive or subjunctive (oratio 
Obliqva, indirect discourse). If, on the ether hand, a nan irk Of 
explanation by the speaker himself (which may he omitted without 
prejudice to the leading idea) or a description of something that 
actually exists independently of the contents of the main proposi- 
tion is introduced into the midst of a subjunctive or infinitive pro- 
position, the indicative is employed. 

a. Potentis est facere qvod velit. (Homo poteii3 facit qvod 
vult.) Non dubitavi id a te petere, qvod mihi esset omnium 
maximum maxiraeqve necessarium (Cic. ad Fain. II. 6. Id a te 
peto, qvod mihi est maximum.) Qvod me admones, ut me inte- 
grum, qvoad possim, servem, gratum est (Id. ad Att. VI i 
Serva te integrum, qvoad poteris). Rogavit, ut, qvoniam sibi 
vivo non subvenisset, mortem suam ne inultam esse pateretur 
(Id. Div. I. 27. Qvoniam mihi vivo non subvenisti, mortem meain 
ne inultam esse passus sis). In Hortensio memoria fuit tanta, 
ut, qvae secum commentatus esset, ea sine scripto verbis eisdem 
redderet, qvibus cogitavisset (Id. Brut. 88. Hortensius, qvae 
secum erat commentatus, ea verbis eisdem reddebat, qvibus 
cogitaverat). Mos est Athenis, laudari in concione eos, qvi sint 
in proeliis interfecti (Id. Or. 44). Si luce qvoqve canes latrent, 
qvum deos salutatum aliqvi venerint, crura iis suflringantur, qvod 
acres sint etiam turn, qvum suspicio nulla sit (Id. Rose, hm 
The actual occurrence would he thus expressed : canes latrant, qvum 
deos salutatum aliqvi venerunt, and, crura iis siiftringuntnr, qvod 
acres sunt etiam turn, qvum suspicio nulla est). Et earum re- 
rum, qvibus abundaremus, exportatio, et earum, qvibus egeremus. 
invectio nulla esset, nisi his muneribus homines fungerentur (Id. 
Oil". II. ;5. Earum rerum, qvibus abundamus, exportatio nulla est 
The excess and deficiency also form a part of the bvpothi 

/tad a superabundance of any thing % it could not be exported ). 

b. Apud Hypanam fluvium, qvi ab Europae parts in Poi: 
influit (observation of the narrator himself), Aiistoteles ait, bestio- 
las qvasdam nasci, qvae unum diem vivant (pari of the ai 
Aristotle (Id. Tuse. I. 89). Qvis potest esse tarn aversua a vera 

326 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 369 

qvi neget, haec omnia, qvae videmus (the whole of this visible uni- 
verse), deorum immortalium potestate administrari (Cic. in Cat. 
III. 9). 

Obs. 1. In many cases, a relative clause may either contain an inde- 
pendent idea, or describe an existing class of persons or things, or sim- 
ply give some part of a thought to which reference has already been 
made : Eloqvendi vis efficit, ut ea, qvae ignoramus, discere, et ea, 
qvae scimus, alios docere possimus (Cic. N. D. II. 59). Here ea, 
qvae ignoramus and ea, qvae scimus are designated as two existing 
classes of objects ; but it might also have been expressed : ut ea, quae 
ignoremus, discere, et ea, qvae sciamus, alios docere possimus, 
what may be unknown, or known to us. If, when the leading proposi- 
tion is in the perfect, a general idea is expressed in such a subordinate 
proposition not in the present, but in the imperfect, it is thereby shown 
to be a part of the thought in the main proposition, and dependent on 
it: Rex parari ea jussit, qvae ad bellum necessaria essent; but, 
rex arma, tela, machinas, ceteraqve, qvae in bello necessaria sunt, 
parari jussit 

Obs. 2. The historians not unfrequently use the indicative irregu- 
larly in relative circumlocutions and definitions, which are yet naturally 
or necessarily to be understood as parts of a thought quoted as another's : 
e.g. Scaptius infit, annum se tertium et octogesium agere, et in eo 
agro, de qvo agitur ; militasse (Liv. IH. 71. In eo agro, de qvo 
agitur, militavi). C. Mario magna atqve mirabilia portendi harus- 
pex dixerat; proinde, qvae animo agitabat, fretus dis ageret (Sail. 
Jug. 63. Proinde, qvae animo agitas, fretus dis age!) In other 
authors, the indicative is rarely retained in such propositions : Tertia 
est sententia, ut, quanti quisque se ipse facit, tanti fiat ab amicis 
(Cic. Lael. 1G). 

Obs. 3. It may be especially noticed, that the particle dum is often 
put, by the poets and later writers, with the historical present (§ 336, 
Obs. 2) in the indicative, though the proposition is a part of another 
person's thought, which is expressed in the infinitive : Die, hospes, 
Spartae, nos te hie vidisse jacentes, dum Sanctis patriae legibus 
obseqvimur (Cic. poet. Tusc. 1.42). (More accurately : Video, dum 
breviter voluerim dicere, dictum esse a me paullo obscurius, Cic. 
deOr. I. 41.) 

Obs. 4. Sometimes a second subordinate proposition is, for the sake of 
stating a circumstance more fully, added 1o a subjunctive clause which 
is a part neither of another's thought, nor of a general idea expressed 
by the infinitive, but a clause, for instance, expressing time or cause with 
qvum. In such cases, the added subordinate clause is not unfre- 
quently in the subjunctive, although the substance of it might have been 

§ 370 Tin: BUBJUNCTH 

expressed in tin- indicatw De his rebus 

disputatum est qvondam in Hortensii villa, qvae est ad B I 
qvuni eo postridie venissemus, qvam apud Catuluni fuisbeimm 
(Cic. Aca.l. 11. 3). 

§ 870. Besides the rules which have thus fkr ba i- the 

subjunctive, it is particularly to be noticed, thai the second p 
singular of the subjunctive is used of en assumed person repn 
ing a single indefinite subject {some one, one), which is imagined, 
and, so to speak, addressed, in order to express something indefi- 
nite. In lending propositions, ibis form is found only in conditional 
discourse, in potential expressions, and questions concerning that 
which can and will happen (§§ 350 and 353) ; but in subordinate 
propositions, with conjunctions and in relative propositions (with qvi 
or an indefinite relative), and in commands and prohibition! 
on the imperative, Chap. V.) : — 

Aeqvabilitatem conservare non possis, si aliorum naturam imi- 
tans omittas tuam (Cic. Oir. 1. 31. Of definite subject, it would Be, 
conservare non possumus, si omittimus.) Dicas (credas, putes) 
adductum propius frondere Tarentum (Hor. Ep. 1. 16, 11) dicat 
aliqvis). Qvem neqve gloria neqve pericula excitant, neqvicqvain 
hoitere (Sail. Cat. 58). Crederes victos esse (Liv. 11. L3),'on< might 
iniv- believed they were conquered. (Concerning the Imperfect, see 3 350, • 
a.) Tanto amore possessiones suas amplexi teuebant, ut ab iis 
membra divelli citius posse diceres (Cic. pro Soil. 20), Ut sunt, 
qvi urbanis rebus bellicas anteponant, sic reperias multos, qvibus 
periculosa consilia qvietis splendidiora videantur (Id. < Ml*. 1. 24). 
Ubi istum invenias, qvi honorem amici anteponat suo? (Id. Ltd. 
17. Of an actual subject : Ubi eos inveniemus, qvi opes amicitiac 
non anteponant ? (Id. ibid.) Bonus segnior fit, ubi uegligas 
Jug. 81). If not in the second person, it would be expressed, ubi 
ligitur). Qvum aetas extrema advenit, turn illud, qvod praetcnit, 
effluxit; tantum remanet, qvod virtute et recte factis consecutus 
sis (Cic. Cat. M. 19 =consecuti sumus, consecutus aliqvib 
Conformatio sententiarum permanet, qvibuscunqve veibis uti 
velis (Id. de Or. III. > r yJ -utimur). 

Obs. 1. A conditional proposition of this Kind in the lubjui 
not require the subjunctive in the leading proposition: Mens qvoqvo 
et animus, nisi tanqvam lumini oleum instilles, exstiiujuuntm 
senectute (Cic. Gat II. 11) : except when the conditional | 
contains a merely imaginary case, in which something would occur: Si 
constitueris te cuipiam advocatum in ram piaeseutem ease van- 

328 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 372 

turum atqve interim graviter aegrotare filius coeperit, non sit 
contra omcium non facere, qvod dixeris (Cic. Off. I. 10), assuming 

that some one had , it would then . 

Obs. 2. Tu is very seldom inserted when the second person is em- 
ployed in this way (e.g. Virtutem necessario gloria, etiamsi tu id 
non agas, conseqvitur, Cic. Tusc. I. 38) ; on the other hand, te, tui, 
tibi, tuus, can refer to such a subject. In the same way, to denote 
an indefinite and assumed subject, te is put in the accusative with the 
infinitive, as only the assumed object of a judgment (see § 398, a) ; e.g. 
Nullum est testimonium victoriae certius, qvam, qvos saepe 
metueris, eos te vinctos ad supplicium duci videre (Cic. Verr. 
V. 26). 



§ 371. Since the idea of an action or condition as the object of a 
verb or phrase may be expressed not only by a proposition in the 
subjunctive, but also by the infinitive (accusative with the infini- 
tive), and the subjunctive propositions of this class are formed with 
various particles according to the nature of the predicate in the 
leading proposition, rules will here be given for the use of these 
propositions, and of the particles proper to each. (Those cases in 
which the object is expressed by an accusative with the infinitive, 
or an infinitive alone, will be treated of in the sixth chapter.) Gen- 
erally speaking, an object is expressed by a proposition in the sub- 
junctive after all verbs and phrases which signify an effort or 
activity, or indicate that something happens. 

Obs. In English, an infinitive is very often used where an object-clause 
in the subjunctive would occur in Latin. 

§ 372. a. A proposition with ut is subjoined to all those verbs 
or phrases, which, in one way or another, signify to bring about an 
occurrence, or to labor, to contribute, to interest one's self, to bring it 
about; as: — 

(a) Facio, efficio, perficio, conseqvor, asseqvor, adipiscor, im- 
petro, pervincio ; consvetudo, natura fert : (6) oro, rogo, peto, 
precor, obsecro, flagito, postulo, euro, video (look to it, that) , pro- 

§372 OBJK< T-( I.U'SES. 

video, prospicio, svadeo, persvadeo, ceuseo ((<> iortor, 

adhortor, moneo. admoneo, permoveo, adduco, incito, impelJo, 
cogo, impero, mando, praecipio, dico (to fay to i . that he is 

to ), scribo, mitto (to icriic to aug one, fend to an;/ ON . />> i 

ders to anyone, that he is to — ), edico, concedo, permitto (sino), 
Btatuo (to determine that some one is to), constituo, decerno, volo 

(to irish, that some one ), nolo, malo, opto (that some one ), 

studeo (to exert one's self, endeavor that some one ), liitor, con- 

tendo, elaboro, pugno, id ago, operam do, legem fero, lex est, sena- 
tus consultum fit, auctor sum, consilium do, magna cupiditaa est 
(a vehement longing that something should take pla Sol efficit, 

ut omnia floreant. Cura, ut valeas. Rogavi, ut proficiscerentur. 
Dolabella ad me scripsit, ut qvam primum in Italiam veuirem 
(Cic. ad Att. VII. 1). Elaborandum est, ut nosmet ipsi nobis 
mederi possimus (Id. Tusc. III. 3). Multi turn qvum raaxime fal- 
lunt, id agunt, ut boni viri esse videantur (Id. Oil*. I. 13). 

Ons. It maybe observed of the particle ut (uti), that it hftfl its 
in the same interrogative and relative pronominal stem from which liter, 
ubi, &c, arc derived, and therefore originally signifies how t (V (rela- 
tively) as (§ 201, 5). From hoio is deduced the signification that, as 
applied to express a purpose and the object of the verb (to exert one'fl 
self, how one may attain a thing), and from the relative usage partly the 
signification as soon as (ut veni, abiit), partly that of fO that (just as th i 
pronoun qvi acquires the signification of SO that he). Then the original 
Signification is still further lost, so that the word only marks out a propo- 
sition indefinitely and generally as the object or complement of another 
(with verbs of happening). 

b. If the object is expressed negatively (to bring it about, to 
exert one's self, that a thing may not happen), the particle lie u 
instead of ut (also ut — ne). Peto, non ut aliqvid novi decerna- 
tur, sed ne qvid novi decernatur (Cic ad Pam. II. 7). V03 
adepti estis, ne qvem civem metueretis (Id. pro Mil. 18). After 
the verbs which signify to bring about, to effect, ut non i 
made use of. See on this § 456, with Ob$. 8. 

Obs. 1. We should remark the expression videre, ne, to look t<> it, 
that not, to see whether perhaps not. Vide, ne mea conjectura sit 
verior (Cic. pro. Cluent. 85). Hence, vide ne has ■o mettmt f marly 
the signification of Iftar % that. 

Ons. 2. Those verbs that signify to irisli that ■ thing m i\ h 
(volo, &C., placet, it is determined, sometimes studeo, postulo | 
em also an accusative with the infinitive: Volo te hoc tier. 396. 

Volo (nolo, malo) is commonly used with the fubjunetive with 

330 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 372 

only in short and unambiguous expressions (see Obs. 4), otherwise with 
the accusative and infinitive: Qvid vis faciam? (Ter. Eun. V. 9, 24). 
Vis ergo experiamur? (Virg. B. III. 28). Tu ad me de rebus 
omnibus scribas velim (Cic. ad Fam. VII. 13). (More rarely: 
Volo, ut mini respondeas, Cic. in Vat. C). Sino, to let, permit, 
is used in the same way ; e.g. sine, vivam (rarely, ut vivam) ; other- 
wise, in the infinitive (§ 390) or the accusative with the infinitive 
(§ 396). 

Obs. 3. With some of those verbs which signify to influence others to 
do something, the action is sometimes expressed by the infinitive alone, 
as after moneo, and particularly cogo. See § 390. Some may be 
followed by ad with the gerund : Impello aliqvem ad faciendum ali- 

Obs. 4. After those verbs which denote a wish, combined with an 
influence over others (particularly, to advise, to beg, to persuade) , and 
after fac and faxo (but with these exceptions, not after facio and the 
others which signify to effectuate, to obtain) ut may be omitted, and the 
subjunctive alone employed, if the construction is free from ambiguity, 
especially if the subjunctive stands near the governing verb : Die veniat. 
Fac cogites, qvi sis. Sine te exorem (Ter. Andr. V. 3, 30). Caesar 
Labieno mandat, Remos reliqvosqve Belgas adeat atqve in officio 
contineat (Cass. B. G. III. 11). Albinus Massivae persvadet, 
qvoniam ex stirpe Masinissae sit, regnum Numidiae ab senatu 
petat (Sail. Jug. 35). Jugurtha oppidanos nortatur, moenia de- 
fendant (Id. ibid. 56). 

Obs. 5. Some of the verbs and phrases here mentioned have, at the 
same time, another signification, in which they denote an opinion, or 
the eliciting of an opinion ; and then they govern an accusative with the 
infinitive: as, statuo, to assume; decerno, to determine, decide; volo, 
to maintain (of philosophical dicta); contendo, to maintain; con- 
cedo, to grant ; persvadeo, to make a person believe ; moneo, to remind 
one (that so and so is) ; efficio (conficio), to make out, prove; cogo, to 
conclude, make good ; adducor, to be induced to believe ; auctor sum, 
to assure, — e.g. concedo, non esse miseros, qvi mortui sunt (Cic. 
Tusc. I. 7) . Dicaearchus vult efficere, animos esse mortales (Id. 
ib. I. 31). Yet concedo, contendo, efficio, adducor, and a few simi- 
lar expressions, are, in consequence of their original signification, also 
used with ut ; Ex qvo efficitur, ut, qvod sit honestum, id sit solum 
bonum (Cic. Tusc. V. 15 ; but also Ex qvo efficitur, honestate una 
vitam contineri beatam, Id. ibid.). Facio, signifying to represent a 
person as doing a thing, has an accusative with the infinitive, or the 
present participle in apposition to the object (as, induco aliqvem 
loqventem) ; Isocratem Plato admirabiliter in Fhaedro laudari 


fecit (Cic. de Opt. Gen. Or. G). Xenophon Socratem disputantem 
facit, formam dei qvaeri non oportere (Id. N. 1). 1. 12). Polyphe- 
mum Homerus cum ariete colloqventem facit ejusqve laudare 
fortunas, qvod, qva vellet, ingredi posset, et qvae vellet. attinge- 
ret (Id. Tuse. V. o9). Fac, suppose, assume, always has the accusative 
with the infinitive; e.g. Fac, qvaeso, qvi ego aim, esse te (Cic 
Fain. VII. 23). (Facio, with an accusative with the infinitive, in 
the signification to cause, is poetical : Nati me coram cernere letum 
fecisti, Virg. iEn. II. 538). 

Ons. 6. After the Avords causa, ratio, and argumentum, and 
phrases of a similar signification, the object is expressed by a proposi- 
tion with one of the particles qvare, qvamobrem, cur (reason, why, i.e. 
reason to). We have also simply est (nihil est, qvid est) cur (qvamob- 
rem, qvare, qvod), one has reason (no reason) : Multae sunt causae 
qvamobrem hunc hominem cupiam abducere (Tcr. Eun. I. 2, 65). 
Qvid fuit causae, cur in Africam Caesarem non seqverere? (Cic. 
Phil. II. 29.) Nihil affert Zeno, qvare mundum ratione uti pute- 
mus (Id. N. D. III. 9), no reason why we should believe. Qvid est 
cur tu in isto loco sedeas ? (Id. pro Clucnt. 53.) Non est, qvod 
invideas istis, qvos magnos felicesqve populus vocat (Senec. Ep. 
94). (Very rarely, causa est, ut.) 1 

§ 373. With verbs and phrases, which denote in general that a 
thing happens or is going on, is on the point of happening, a propo- 
sition with ut is used, to signify what happens, &c. ; thus with lit, 
futurum est, accidit, contingit, evenit, usu venit, est (it is the 
case, that) seqvitur, restat, reliqvuin est, relinqvitur, superest, 
proximum est (the next action, the next tiling is) extremum est, 
prope est, longe abest, tantum ahest. (In negative propositions 
ut non, and not ne, is employed : see § 456, with Ohs. .*'>. ) 

Accidit, ut illo tempore in urbe essem. Saepe fit, ut ii. qvi 
debeant (oioe us money), non respondeant ad tempus (Cic. ad Att. 
XVI. 2). Si haec enuntiatio vera non est, seqvitur, ut falsa sit 
(Id. de Fat. 12). Restat, ut doceam, omnia, qvae Bint In hoc 
mundo, hominum causa facta esse (Id. X. D. II. ill). Proximum 
est, ut doceam, deorum providentia mundum administraii (I<1. 
ib. II. 29). Propius nihil est factum qvam ut Cato occideretur 
(Id. ad Qv. Fr. I. 2, 5). (So also: Servilius ad id, qvod de pecu- 

1 Ma^na causa absolutionis Fonteji est, ne qva insignia huic imperio 
ignominia suscipiatur (Cic. pro Font. 12). A weighty reason for acquitting Fonfeatui K 
that no signal disgrace be Incurred (i.e. the wish to avoid, etc. I proporfrlon asp 

purpose, like: suscipienda bella suntob earn causaui ut sinfl injuria vivutux, 
Cic Off. 1. 11). 

332 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 374 

nia credita jus non dixerat, adjiciebat {added this proceeding), ut ne 
delectum qvidem militum haberet, Liv. II. 27.) 

Obs. 1. Here we should also notice the expressions necesse est and 
oportet, it is necessary, which are constructed sometimes with the sub- 
junctive without ut (necesse est, ut is rare) , sometimes with the accu- 
sative and infinitive: Leuctrica pugna immortalis sit necesse est 
(Corn. Epam. 10). Corpus mortale interire necesse est. Ex 
rerum cognitione efflorescat oportet oratio (Cic. de Or. I. 6). 
(Oportet, used to signify duty, always has the accusative with the infini- 
tive. Without a definite subject, it is expressed thus : necesse est ire, 
oportet ire.) (Concerning licet with the subjunctive, see § 389, 
Obs. 5.) 

Obs. 2. When seqvitur denotes a logical conclusion, it may have the 
accusative with the infinitive, but is generally constructed with ut. Con- 
tingit (mini) signifying I succeed, and restat (it remains) are also, by 
the poets and later writers, constructed with the simple infinitive : Non 
cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum (Hor. Ep. I. 17, 36). (The 
following is the more usual construction : Thrasybulo contigit, ut pa- 
triam liberaret, Corn. Thras. 1.) 

Obs. 3. The verb accedit, to this is to be added (by which the hearer 
is referred to some circumstance yet remaining) , is either similarly con- 
structed with ut, or it is followed by an indicative proposition with qvod 
which states the circumstance (compare § 393, b) : Ad Appii Claudii 
senectutem accedebat etiam, ut caecus esset (Cic. Cat. M. 6). 
Accedit, qvod patrem plus etiam, qvam tu scis, amo (Id. ad 
Att. XIII. 21. (If a circumstance is stated, not as actually existing, 
but only as conditional and assumed, qvod cannot stand, but only ut; 
e.g. Si vero illud qvoqve accedet, ut dives sit reus, difficillima 
causa erit. On the other hand, there is no variation in the construction 

of adde qvod, add the circumstance, that ) . (Concerning exspecto, 

ut, see§ 360, Obs. 1). 

§ 374. A substantive or pronoun with sum, which suggests that 
a thing happens or is to happen, is followed by a proposition with 
ut, to show what the preceding noun or pronoun refers to, and how 
it manifests itself: — 

Est hoc commune vitium in magnis liberisqve civitatibus, ut 
invidia gloriae comes sit (Corn. Chabr. 3). Mos est hominum, ut 
nolint eundum pluribus rebus excellere (Cic. Brut. 21) . Cultus 
deorum est optimus, ut (consists in this, that) eos semper pura, inte- 
gra, incorrupta mente veneremur (Id. N. D. II. 28). Altera est res 
(the second thing required is) ut res geras magnas et arduas plenas- 
qve laborum (Id. Off. I. 20). Fuit hoc in M. Crasso, ut existimari 
vellet nostrorum hominum prudentiam Graecis anteferre (Id. de 


Or. II. 1). Adhuc in hac sum sententia, nihil ut faciamus, nisi qvod 
Caesar velle videatur (Id. ad Fain. IV. 4). In eo est, ut proficis- 

Obs. 1. Such expressions as mos est, cultus est optimus (with- 
out a pronoun) are sometimes also completed by a simple infinitive: 
Virginibus Tyriis mos est gestare pharetram ( \'ii^. JEn. I. 886). 

Ohs. 2. If a judgment is pronounced concerning the char&i ter of an 
action that is only supposed (not declared as of actual occurrence) by 
means of an adjective with sum, or some equivalent phrase, as aeqvum 
est, optimum est, &e., magna laus est (it in a venj nwitorum thing), 
qvi probari potest ?(how can it be approved of?) qvam habet aeqvita- 
tem? (wliat fairness is there in it ?) the subject is expressed either by 
an infinitive, alone or an aecusative with the infinitive (§ 398, a). Yet 
such propositions arc also found with ut, when it is intended to denote, 
at the same time, the reality or falsity, possibility or impossibility of the 
action; e.g. Non est verisimile, ut Chrysogonus horum servorum 
litteras adamarit aut humanitatem (Cic. Kosc. Am. 41). Qvid tarn 
inauditum qvam eqvitem Romanum triumphare ? Qvid tarn inu- 
sitatum qvam ut, qvum duo consules fortissimi essent, eqves 
Romanus ad bellum maximum pro consule mitteretur ? (Id. pro 
Leg. Man. 21). Magnificum illud etiam Romanisqve gloriosum 
ut Graecis de philosophia litteris non egeant (Id. Div. 11. 'J). 

§ 375. a. A proposition with ne is put after those verbs, which 
in themselves express a hindering and resisting force (working to 
prevent a thing from happening) ; as, impedio, prohibeo, deterreo, 
obsisto, obsto, officio, repu*£no, intercedo, interdico, teneo (to 
withhold, teneo me, contineo), tempero, recuso, caveo (to avoid 
doing a tiling, to take measures, that so and so may not — ), &c. : — 

Impedior dolore animi, ne de hujus miseria plura dicam (Cic. 
pro Sull. 33) . Pythagoreis interdictum erat, ne faba vescerentur 
(Id. Div. I. 30). Histiaeus Milesius obstitit, ne res conficeretur 
(Corn. Milt. 3). Regulus, ne sententiam diceret, recusavit (Cic. 
Off. III. 27). Cavebam, ne cui suspicionem darem (Id. ad Fain. 
III. 12). 

Obs. 1. Cave is often used without ne : Cave putes, cave facias. 
(Sometimes recuso, to refuse; and caveo, to avoid, take the infini- 
tive : Cave id petere a populo Romano, qvod jure tibi negabitur 

(Sail. Jug. 64). (Caveo, ut , to take care that, make arrangement* 

thai .) 

Obs. 2. Impedio and prohibeo often have the infinitive (§ 390): 
Me et Sulpicium impedit pudor a Crasso hoc exqvirere (Cic. de 
Or. I. 35). Num igitur ignobilitas sapientem beatum esse prohi- 

334 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 375 

bet ? (When, on the other hand, these verbs are constructed with ne, 
the accusative is seldom retained. We find pudor impedit, ne exqvi- 
ram, but less frequently, me impedit, ne exqviram.) 

b. To those verbs and phrases, which signify to hinder and to be 
a hindrance '(impedio, prohibeo, officio, obsto, obsisto, deterreo, 
teneo, and per me fit, per me stat, it is chargeable to me, moror, 
in mora sum, &c), the objective proposition with qyominus (lite- 
rally, that so much the less) may be subjoined : — 

Hiemem credo adhuc prohibuisse, qvominus de te certum 
haberemus (Cic. ad Fam. XII. 5). Caesar cognovit, per Afranium 
stare, qvominus dimicaretur (Cass. B. C. I. 41). Hanc ego causam, 
qvominus novum consilium capiamus, imprimis magnam puto 
(Sail. Cat. 51), of a reason against a thing. Qvominus is used in 
the same way after other verbs, which either by themselves signify resist- 
ance, or acquire such a meaning from the context (e.g. pugno, to con- 
tend that not), and are qualified by a negative (non, vix) or take 

the form of a question which implies a negative ; e.g. Non recusabo, 
qvominus omnes mea scripta legant (Cic. Finn. I. 3). Hoc fecisti, 
ne pupillo tutores consulerent, qvominus fortunis omnibus everte- 
retur (Id. Verr. III. 7). 

c. After verbs and phrases, which signify to resist and detain 
from, or to omit (praetermitto, and expressions which acquire this 
meaning from the context, especially facio and causa est), to delay, 
as cunctor, exspecto, as well as after abest, dubito, and dubium 
est, qvin, that not, is used to designate^the object, when the negative 
force of the verb or phrase is cancelled by being qualified by a nega- 
tive or by taking the interrogative form: — 

Vix me contineo, qvin involem in ilium (Ter. Eun. V. 2, 20). 
Non possumus, qvin alii a nobis dissentiant, recusare (Cic. Ac. II. 
3) . Facere non potui, qvin tibi et sententiam et voluntatem de- 
clararem meam (Id. ad Fam. VI. 13). Clamabant, exspectari diu- 
tius non oportere, qvin ad castra iretur (Cses. B. G. III. 24). 
Haud multum abfuit, qvin Ismenias interficeretur (Liv. XLII. 44) . 
Qvid est causae, qvin decemviri coloniam in Janiculum possint 
deducere (Cic. de Leg. Agr. II. 27). Agamemno non dubitat, qvin 
brevi sit Troja peritura (Id. Cat. M. 10). Non erat dubium, qvin 
Helvetii plurimum possent (Caes. B. G. I. 3). Dubitare qvisqvam 
potest, qvin hoc multo sit honestius ? 

Obs. 1. Some verbs, therefore [compare b and c], even when they 
are not qualified by a negative, are followed by qvominus and ne 
interchangeably (prohibeo ne and qvominus) ; and some verbs, when 

§ 376 OBJECT-CLAl 

qualified by a negative, are followed by either qvominua or qvin 
(e.g. non recuso, qvominus and qvin) ; hut qviji often Standi where 
qvominus would be inadmissible. Hut alter t lit- verba which i>roj>- 
erlv signify /" hinder and forbid (impedio, prohibeo, intercede and 
interdico), qvominus is regularly used, qvin scarcely ever; after those 
which signify to omit (absum and dubito), only qvin. Qvin alone is 
sometimes used when the preceding proposition is qualified l>\ 
word expressing limitation (paullum, perpauci, aegre), instead of 
a negative ; e.g. Paullum abfuit, qvin Fabius Varum interficeret 
(Ca;s. B. C. II. 35). (So also Dubita, si potes, qvin, i.<j. dubitare 
non potes, qvin). Instead of facere non possum, qvin, / cannot 
refrain from (fieri non potest, qvin), Ave may also say ut — non (§ 372, 
b, and § 373) : Fieri non potest, ut, qvem video te praetore in Sicilia 
fuisse, eum tu in tua provincia non cognoveris (Cie. Yerr II. 77). 

Obs. 2. Of the verb dubito, it is to be observed, that, when used 
affirmatively, it is always followed by an indirect question : (dubito an, 
dubito an non. See § 453). After non dubito (dubium non est), 
we find also, in some writers (Cornelius, Livy), an accusative with the 
infinitive, instead of qvin. (Non dubitabant, deletis exercitibus, 
hostem ad oppugnandam urbem venturum, Liv. XXII. .')'>.) Non 
dubito (qvis dubitat ?) with an infinitive (non dubito facere, di- 
cere, &c.), signifies 1 have no scruple, do not hesitate. Yet in this signi- 
fication, too, it is sometimes put with qvin ; e.g. Nolite dubitare, qvin 
uni Pompejo credatis omnia (Cie. pro Leg. Man. 28). 

Obs. 3. Qvin is rarely found with negative verbs, which exprei 
opinion and explanation (non nego, qvis ignorat), instead of the 
accusative with the infinitive : Qvis ignorat, qvin tria Graecorum 
genera sint (Cie. pro Flaec. 27) , instead of tria Graecorum genera 

Obs. 4. Qvin is derived from the old relative and interrogative abla- 
tive qvi and the negative particle, and consequently its primitive signifi- 
cation is how not (so that not). Hence arises the signification why notf 
(qvin imus ? § 351, Obs. 3) ; and from this again the significatioi 
indeed (why not, indeed?). 

§ 376. After verbs and phrases of fearing, the thing feared (that, 
which is not wished for) is distinguished by ne (in English that) 
and the thing wished for (which, it is feared, will not happen) by 
ut (in English that not) or ne non (that not), ne nullus, &c : — 

Vereor, ne pater veniat (I fear that my father will come) ; vereor, 
ut pater veniat (that he will not come) ; vereor (non vereor), ne 
pater non veniat. Pavor ceperat milites, ne mortiferum esset 
vulnus Scipionis (Liv. XXLV. 42). Omnes labores te excipcrc 

330 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 377 

video; timeo, ut sustineas (Cic. ad Fam. XIV. 2). Vereor, ne 
consolatio nulla possit vera reperiri (Id. ibid. VI. 1). Non ve- 
reor, ne tua virtus opinioni bominum non respondeat (Id. ibid. 
II. 5) . Senatores suos ipsi cives timebant, ne Romana plebs metu 
perculsa pacem acciperet (Liv. II. 9) ; in this example, an accusa- 
tive object also depends on timeo. In the same way, ne or ne non 
stands alter periculuni (danger that, that not) : Periculum est, ne 
ille te verbis obruat (Cic. Div. in Case. 14). Nullum periculum 
est, ne locum non invenias. 

Ojbs. Metuo, timeo, vereor, to be afraid (not have the courage) to do 
a thing, to shrink from doing it, are followed by the infinitive ; as, 
vereor facere. But in good prose only vereor is so used : Vereor te 
laudare praesentem (Cic. N. D. I. 21). (Timeo and metuo are 
rarely found with the accusative and infinitive, with the signification, to 
expect with apprehension that something will happen.) 



§ 377. The tenses are in general distinguished and expressed in 
the subjunctive in the same way as in the indicative, both by the 
simple forms and by those compounded with participles (amatus 
sim, &c), so that we shall here only notice what is peculiar, to the 
way of expressing time in the subjunctive: — 

Pater aberat. Qvum (since, because) pater abesset, eram in 
timore. Pater profecturus erat. Qvum pater profecturus esset 
(was on the point of departing), valde occupatus eram. Paene 
cecidi. Vides, qvam paene ceciderim. Audivit aliqvid. Audiv- 
erit aliqvid, legerit (Cic. de Or. II. 20), he must have heard and read 
something. Qvis putare potest, plus egisse Dionysium turn, 
qvum eripuerit civibus suis libertatem, qvam Archimedem, qvum 
sphaeram effecerit (Id. R. P. I. 17 = Nihilo plus egit Dionysius 
turn, qvum eripuit c. s. L, qvam Archimedes, qvum sphaeram 

Obs. 1. The difference between amatus sim and amatus fuerim is 
like that between amatus sum and amatus fui ; § 344. Amatus 
fuissem is also put for amatus essem, as amatus fueram for amatus 

Obs. 2. The imperfect forem (§ 108, Obs. 3) is employed in the same 
signification as essem, especially in conditional propositions (would be) 


and those expressive of a purpose (ut foret, ne foret, qvi foret 
the, compound tenses (amatus foreiu, amaturus foicm) main 
(Sallust. Livy, the poets) use forem exactly like enem 
consul, qva parte copiarum alter consul victus foret, se vicisse 
(Liv. XXI. 53). (Cicero does not use it at all in the compound I 
and elsewhere very rarely.) 

§ 378. a. The present subjunctive is in many instance* employed, 
when the thing represented is properly future, partly because tin- 
relation of time is sufficiently evident from the nature! and construc- 
tion of the subjunctive proposition, partly because we do not in 
idea accurately distinguish between the present and the future (as 
in assumptions, wishes, &c). Hence the subjunctive has no simple 
form of the future in the active, and no future at all in the pai 

1. Thus the present is used in leading propositions in the sub- 
junctive, namely, in conditional propositions (§ 347, b), in potential 
propositions relating to a thing which can or is to be done (§ 350 
and § 353), and in wishes (§ 351). For examples, see the paragraphs 
referred to. But in potential propositions the future perfect is 
sometimes employed as a hypothetical future. See § 350 and 
§ 380. 

2. Propositions which denote a design and object are alsi i 
pressed with the present (the effect being conceived of as contem- 
poraneous with the act of the main proposition). See the examples 
in §§ 354 and 355, with § 371 and the following. 

Consequently, if past time be spoken of, the imperfect is used 
(and not the futurum in praeterito) : Rogabat frater, ut eras 
venires (not venturus esses). See examples elsewhere. 

Obs. After non dubito qvin, and those phrases which denote the 
relation of one proposition to another in the most general way (est, 
seqvitur, accidit) the future is employed to express what will happen at 
a future time : Non est dubium, qvin legiones venturae non si:it 
(Cie. ad Fam. II. 17). (But in familiar language the present i> also 
made use of: Hoc haud dubium est, qvin Chremes tibi non dot 
gnatam, Ter. Andr. II. 3, 17) ; [as in English: // is clear mougk, that 
you don't get the old mail's daughter, instead of icill not geQ. 

3. Dependent questions, hypothetical propositions of comparison 
(qvasi, &c.), and propositions expressing a result, are put in the 
present, as in English, when the leading proposition is in the future 
and the subordinate proposition contemporaneous with it (when it 



not belong to a still more distant future) : Qvum ad ilium 
venero, videbo, qvid effici possit. Sic in Asiam proficiscar, ut 
Athenas non attingam. 

1. Wherever in the oratio obliqva a leading proposition in the 
future b accompanied by a subordinate in the subjunctive, which 
in the oratio recta would stand in the future indicative (§ 339, 
Obs. 1) the latter is put in the present : — 

Negat Cicero, si naturam seqvamur ducem, unqvam nos aber- 
raturos (= Si naturam seqvemur ducem, nunqvam aberrabimus). 

b. In the other kinds of subordinate propositions (in which the 
connection itself does not show that the subordinate proposition 
belongs to future time), the periphrasis of the future participle with 
the verb sum, which has here precisely the sense of a simple future, 
is made use of in the active : — 

Scire cupio qvando frater tuus venturus sit. In earn rationem 
vitae nos fortuna dednxit, ut sempiternus sermo hominum 
de nobis futurus sit (Cic. ad Q. Fr. I. 1. c. 13). Non intelligo, 
cur Rullus qvemqvam tribunum intercessurum putet, qvum 
intercessio stultitiam intercessoris significatura sit, non rem 
impeditura (Id. de Leg. Agr. II. 12). In the passive, another turn 
must be given to the expression : e.g. Qvaero, qvando portam aper- 
tum iri putes. Ita cecidi, ut nunqvam erigi possim (that I shall 
never rise). 

§ 379. The future perfect of the subjunctive is in the active like 
the perfect, and is expressed in the passive (in subordinate proposi- 
tions) by the perfect subjunctive (so that only the preterite sense 
appears in the verb, while its futurity is ascertained from the lead- 
ing proposition) : — 

Adnitar, ne frustra vos hanc spem de me conceperitis (lay. 
XL1V. 22), that you shall not have conceived this hope in vain. Ros- 
cius facile egestatem suam se laturum putat, si hac indigna 
suspicione liberatus sit (Cic. Rose. Am. 44 ; independently expressed : 
facile feram, si — liberatus ero). Caesar magnopere se confidere 
dicit si colloqvendi cum Pompejo potestas facta sit, fore, ut 
aeqvis condicionibus ab armis discedatur (Caes. B. C. I. 26; si 
potestas facta erit discedeturj . 

If past time be spoken of (after a leading proposition in the pre- 
terite), the pluperfect is used in the same way, to denote an action 
which was to be completed before another : — 

§381 Hi 

Promisi me, qvum librum perleeissem, acntentiam racam dic- 
turum esse (when 1 h<«l reed i tmld lees read), d 

cum Caesare agit, Helvetios in earn partem ituroa atqve ibi 
fix tin os, ubi uos Caesar coixstitiusset atqve esse voluiaset 
1. 13). Dicebam, qvoad metucici, oinxxia to pcrmxjia 
simulac timere desisses, similem te fixtiiiuni tu: i , 

(In English the imperfect alone ii often employed 
th> in, ihould Mettle them, &c., the completion of the i re the 

other nut being noted ao accurately.) 

90. The fature perfect subjunctive in the activi 
ployed in hypothetical and modest statements of thai which is j>osai- 
ble : not, however, in the proper signification of thai mood und • 
but merely as a hypothetical future <>r present o> which the pn 
corresponds in the passive and in deponent verb v 350, and, 
with respect to the use of the ft oond penoo, § 370. It itaodi like- 
wise in prohibitiona as ■ simple future or present] ne dixeris, do 
not S(ty. See Chap. V. 

Obs. In conditional propeeitiona in the second person, thii I 
signifies (mors distinctly, however, than the present), 1 1 1 a t a « 
named which i^ now 1' r the first time to he conceived of. Th. 
found in a lew phrases only instead of tin- present suhjumtn <• aft r ut 
or ne {that not); p.g. ut sic dixerim, ami that never in the best 
writers (Qvinct. I. G, 1). 

§ 381. The periphrasis of the future participle and fuerim <fu- 
turum in praeterito) is used in a conditional proposition instead <<( 
the pluperfect subjunctive, if the proposition is ;i rabordinafc 

which on BOme other account would have had the subjuo 

after ut, after qvum. (causal), or as a dependent question. (Its 
hypothetical character is then shown by the periphrasis, at tin j 
of — . Compare what is said under the indicative in § 342, and 
§ 348, a.) 

Qvum haec reprehendis, ostendis, qvalis tu, si ita forte accidia- 
set, fueris illo tempore consul futurus (Cic. in Pis. 7). (A 
independent question : Qvalis tu, si ita forte accidisset consul illo 
tempore fuisses?) Virgines eo cursu se ex sacrario proripuerunt, 
ut, si effugium patuisset, impleturae urbem tumultu fucrint 
XXIV. 26). If the leading proposition be in the water its, the paspav- 

fert ifl employed in a dependent question ! Apparuit, qvautam exci- 
tatura molem vera fuisset clades, qvum vanus lurnoi tantaa pxo- 
cellas excivisset (Liv. XXV 1 11. M). 

g 40 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 382 

I„ ,he passive, where this form is not found, other modes of expres- 
sion are made use of; for it rarely happens that the subjunctive of 
;;; imple pluperfect is used, both on account of the hypothetical 
nature of the sentence and also for some other reason The im- 
f ^subjunctive, on the other hand, can, at one and the- same 
C be used hypothetic^, and form an indirect question, or follow 

ut, etc. : — 

Hi homines ita vixerunt, ut, qvidqvid dioerent, nemo esset, qvx 
non aeqvum pntaxet (Cic. pro Rose. Am. 41). 
n ° n rin Jse cases ^re the perfect «-£• — « ~ 

^rSZTrt buoyant* neghgentia castra 
SSiSn capi potuerint, si hostes aggredi ansi assent 
(= capi, castra potuerunt). 

§ 382. The time of a subjunctive subordinate proposition is deter- 
mined by referring to the time of the leading proposition The 
past time is therefore expressed in the subordinate proposition by 
^perfect, when the leading proposition belongs to the present or 
e fu but if the latter itself belongs to past time, the impe - 

feet (praesens in praeterito) or pluperfect (praetentnm m prae- 
terito) is employed in the subordinate proposition : - 

, ■* ^ ^ ~™a feeeris Qvis nescit, qvanto in honore 

V f e r° ( r os mnm^a fucrit" (not csset, although in the direct 
apud Graecos musxea fuen t ^^ musica apud 

assertion or ques U -£™W* ^ mnsica apud Or. erat?) 
S: dell'.vtdcr^) qvid faceres. Videham (v^videram) 
nvantum jam effecisset. Nemo est, qvi hoc nesdat; nemo erat 

fit, ut milites animos demittant. Eo factum est, 

If the nearest leading proposition be an accusative with an infini- 
tive notice must be taken whether it is dependent on a verb in the 
; et^ite (so that the present infinitive is the praesens in praete- 
rite, and the future infinitive the futnrnm in praeterito) .- 

Indignum te esse judico, qvi haec patiaris. Indignum te esse 
judfcaX qvi haec paterere. Negavi me unqvam oommrssurum 
esse, ut jure reprehenderer. ^^ . 

■ «* ru,, «* the infers drawn frotn it, * ~* tanned the rufc for the 

sequence of the tenses (consecutio temporum). 


Obs. 1. We should here notice tluit the historical present, m 

the propositions depending on it (or depending on B present infinitive 
which belongs to it) are concerned, is treated BOmetil 

present, sometimes as a perfect (which it virtually is): Turn demum 
Liscus proponit, esse nonnullos qvorum auctoritas apud plebem 
pluriraum valeat; qvi privati plus possint, qvam ipsi magiM 
(Caes. 1). (t. I. 17). Caesar, ne graviori bello occurreret, matin tai 
qvam consverat, ad exercitum proficiscitur (Id. ib. IV. 6). 6 
times, with some want of exactness, the two constructions are united: 
Helvetii legatee ad Caesarem mittunt, qvi dicerent, sibi esse in 
animo iter per provinciam facere, propterea qvod aliud iter 
nullum haberent; rogare, ut ejus voluntate id sibi facere liceat 
(Cass. B. G. I. 7). (Concerning the transition to the present after the 
preterite in a long oratio obliqva, see § 403, b.) 

Obs. 2. Where the assertions and opinions of older writers or schools 
are mentioned in the present, the discourse or narrative sometimes pro- 
ceeds in such forms as the preterite would have called for if it had been 
made use of; e.g. Chrysippus disputat, aethera esse eum, qvem 
homines Jovem appellarent (Cic. N. D. I. 1.3; instead of appellent). 
But this occurs chiefly in propositions which are separated from the 
leading proposition in a continuous oratio obliqva (§ 403, b). 

Obs. 3. After ut, signifying so that, qvin, qvi non (but that, 
icithout), in propositions expressing a result, the perfect is sometimes 
used (instead of the imperfect), although the leading proposition belong! 
to past time, if the statement in the subordinate proposition is conceived 
and expressed generally as a distinct historical fact, not merely with 
reference to the main transaction or to a certain particular point of 
time : Aemilius Paullus tantum in aerarium pecuniae invexit, ut 
unius imperatoris praeda finem attulerit tributorum (Cic. Oil. II. 
22), that the booty has put an end to imposts (for all time following, up 
to the present moment). Verres in itineribus eo usqve se prae- 
bebat patientem atqve impigrum, ut eum nemo unqvam in eqvo 
sedentem viderit (Cic. Verr. V. 10), that no one has seen him a 
a single occasion; videret would signify that no one ever then saw 
him == was accustomed to see him. Thorius erat ita non timidus ad 
mortem, ut in acie sit ob rempublicam interfectus (Cic. Finn. II. 
20), teas so little afraid of death that he (as ice know) fell. This con- 
struction is often found, when a single historical fact is represent c.l as 
the consequence of some general quality which has been described. 
Some historians occasionally use this perfect, even in cases where the 
imperfect would be more usual (especially Cornelius Xepo>). 

Obs. 4. Isolated instances of deviation from the rule result from an 
inaccuracy of expression ; e.g. Video igitur multas esse causas, qvae 

342 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 383 

istum impellerent (Cie. Rose. Am. 33 ; fuisse was at the time in the 
speaker'* mind). Pugna indicio fuit, qvos gesserint animos (Liv. 
VII. 33 : the author was thinking that he had used est in the preceding 
clause). Qvae fuerit hesterno die Cn. Pompeji gravitas in di- 
cendo, . . . perspicua admiratione declarari videbatur (Cie. pro 
13alb. 1 ; fuerit, as if it was to be followed by memoria tenetis.) 

§ 383. After a leading proposition in a past tense (as well as 
after the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive in hypothetical sen- 
tences) dependent questions and propositions expressing a purpose 
(ut, ne, qvi for lit, is) or object regularly take a past tense also, 
aud are expressed in the imperfect, although their import may hold 
good also at the present or at all times (in which case the present is 
often used in English) : — 

Turn subito Lentulus scelere demens, qvanta conscientiae vis 
esset, ostendit (Cie. Cat. III. 5), how great the power of conscience is. 
Qvemadmodum officia ducerentur ab honestate, satis explicatuni 
arbitror libro superiore (Id. Off. II. 1), how duties are derived. 
Haec Epicurus certe non diceret, si, bis bina qvot essent, didi- 
cisset (Id. 1ST. D. II. 18), how much twice two is. Haec non, ut vos 
excitarem, locutus sum, sed ut mea vox officio functa consulari 
videretur (Id. Cat. IV. 9). Vos adepti estis, ne qvem civem 
metueretis (Id. pro Mil. 13), that youhave not to fear. Sic mini per- 
spicere videor, ita natos esse nos, ut inter omnes esset societas 
qvaedam (Id. Lael. 5). (On the other hand : Multos annos in causis 
publicis ita sum versatus, ut defenderim multos, laeserim ne- 
minem (Id. Div. in Ca?c. 1), of the whole conduct, as it now appears. 
To express a result as it exists only at the present time, the present tense 
is necessarily employed : Siciliam Verres ita vexavit ac perdidit, 
ut ea restitui in antiqvum statum nullo modo possit (Cie. Yerr. 
Act. I. 4). 

Obs. 1. So also with qvum, the reason is often expressed in the im- 
perfect as one that existed at that time (in that case) , although it may 
also hold good now : Hoc scribere, praesertim qvum de philosophia 
scriberem, non auderem, nisi idem placeret Panaetio (Cie. Off. IL 
14), especially as I am writing about philosophy, especially in a philo- 
sophical work. 

Obs. 2. Yet a dependent question, a proposition expressing a pur- 
pose or object, sometimes stands in the present after a perfect (not 
after an imperfect), when this perfect represents the present state 
of affairs, and a condition which has commenced, rather than the nature 
and character of the previous action : Etiamne ad subsellia cum 
ferro atqve telis venistis, ut hie eum aut juguletis aut condemne* 

§ 384 THE imi'i:i:\tivi:. 

tis? (Cic. Rose. Am. 11), Arc you ' .' Generi 

animantium omni est a nature tributum, ut se, vitam, corpusqve 
tueatur (Id Off. L 1). Tueretur would denote the <l 
when she created living beings. (Exploratum e.^t omnibus, qvo loco 
causa tua sit, Cic. Verr. V. »'»;>. Ilcrcesset could not stand, since explo- 
ratum est ruilii has only a present signification, / know. Qvales viros 
creare vos coii3ules deceat, satis est dictum, Liv. XXIV. 8. I 
too, the present alone is admissible, because the action referred to 
to come.) 

Ons. 3. When the perfect (according to § 335, l>, 0b$. 1) denotes 
only the action that takes place on each several occasion, it is followed 
by the present in a proposition expressing a purpose \ Qvum mi.simus 
qvi afferat agnum, qvem immolemus, num is mihi agnua affertur, 
qvi habet exta rebus accommodata? (Cic. Div. II. 17). 

Ons. 4. Sometimes, the tense of a dependent proposition is governed 
rather inaccurately, not by the leading proposition, but by some remark 
in another tense which is inserted between the leading and subordinate 
propositions ; e.g. Idem a te nunc peto, qvod superioribus litteris 
(sc. petivi), ut, si qvid in perditis rebus di3piceres, qvod mihi 
putares faciendum, me moneres (Cic. ad Att. XI. 16). Curavitqve 
Servius Tullius, qvod semper in republica tenendum est, ue pluri- 
mum valeant plurimi (Id. R. P. II. 22). 



§ 384. The Imperative expresses a request, a command, a pre- 
cept, or an exhortation. The present imperative is employed, when 
the request, the command, &c., is stated with reference to the pres- 
ent time or without reference to a definite time or condition ; the 
future (which has a form for the third person as well as the second), 
when the request or command is stated with express reference to 
the time following or some particular ease that may occur: it is 
consequently employed in laws and where the style of laws is imi- 
tated : — 

Vale, O Jupiter, serva, obsecro, haec nobis bona (Ter. Eun. \ . 
8, ID). Patres conscripti, subvenite misero mihi, ite obviam Inju- 
ria* (Sail. Jug. 14). Fac venias. Facite, judices, ut recordemini 

344 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 336 

qvae sit temeritas multitudinis (Cic. pro Flacc. 24) = recordamini, 
judices. Cura, ut valeas. Rem vobis proponam ; vos earn suo, 
on uominis pondere penditote (Cic. Verr. IV. 1), then estimate it. 
Qvum valetudini tuae consulueris, turn consulito navigationi (Id. 
ad Fam. XVI. 4) . Regio imperio duo sunto iiqve consules apellan- 
tor (Id. Legg. III. 3). Servus meus Stichus liber esto (in wills). 
Non satis est, pulchra esse pcemata; dulcia sunto, et, qvocunqve 
volent, aninium auditoris agunto (Hor. A. P. 90). Esto {Be 
it so .'). 

Ocs. The second person of the future indicative is sometimes used for 
the second person of the imperative, in order to express a firm conviction 
that the command or direction will be complied with, especially in familiar 
Language : Si qvid acciderit novi, facies, ut sciam (Cic. ad Fam. XIV. 
8), you loill inform me. 

§ 385. A command, exhortation, demand, request, or counsel, is 
often (except in the language of the laws) expressed in the third 
person by the subjunctive. So also in the second person, of a sub- 
ject which is only assumed: — - 

Aut bibat aut abeat! (Cic. Tusc. V. 41). Status, incessus, vul- 
tus, oculi teneant decorum (Id. Off. I. 35) . Injurias fortunae, 
qvas ferre neqveas, defugiendo relinqvas (Id. Tusc. V. 41), one 
must escape by flight. 

Obs. The subjunctive is rarely so used of a definite second person 
(mostly only in the poets) : Si sciens fallo, turn me, Juppiter optime 

maxime, pessimo leto afficias (Liv. XXII. 53), then may est thou . 

Si certum est facere, facias ; verum ne post conferas culpam in 
me (Ter. Eun. II. 3, 97). 

§ 386. In laws a prohibition is expressed by the future impera- 
tive with ne (neve = et ne, vel no). With this exception, the 
subjunctive is employed in prose in prohibitions and requests of a 
negative form (ne, nemo, nihil, etc.), in the present tense (or the 
future perfect) when the verb is in the third person ; and when the 
verb is in the second person in the active voice the future perfect is 
used, and in the passive the perfect is preferred (rarely the pres- 
ent) : — 

Nocturna sacrificia ne sunto (Cic. Legg. II. 9). Borea flante, 
ne arato, semen ne jacito (second person, Plin. H. N". XVIII. s. 77). 
Puer telum ne habeat. (Capessite rempublicam, neqve qvem- 
qvam ex aliorum calamitate metus ceperit, Sail. Jug. 85.) Hoc 
facito, hoc ne feceris (Cic. Div. II. 61). Nihil ignoveris, nihil gra- 

§ 338 Tin-: intimtivi:. 

tiae causa feceris, misericordia commotus ne sis (M. pro M,, 

Ilium jocum ue sis aspernatus (Id. ad Q. IV. II. 1 ■) 

sieris Iberum ; ne qvid red tibi sit cum Sagunt | Will). 

(Scribere ne pigrere, be net negligent fa in </<„,,, ( lie, ad Att. XIV. 1). 

The poets use also the present imperative: Ne saevi 


Obs. 1. The second person of the present subjunctive active it bond 

in prohibitions, which arc directed only to an assumed subject • Isto 
bono utare, dum adsit; qvum absit, ne reqviras (Tic. Cat If. L0)« 
otherwise but rarely, and only in the oldest poets (Verum ne post coa- 
feras culpam in me, Ter. Eun. II. 3, i>7). 

Obs. 2. A prohibition is also often expressed by the imperative noli 
or nolito: e.g. Noli putare, Brute, qvenqvam uberiorem ad di- 
cendum fuisse, qvam C. Gracchum (Cic. Brut. 88). Si insidias 
fieri libertati vestrae intelligetis, nolitote dubitare earn consule 
adjutore defendere (Id. de Leg. Agr. II. C). (Cave facias.) 



§ 387. The Infinitive expresses the idea of a verb in general 
(with the distinctions of tense, dicere, dixisse, &c), but without 
applying that idea to a definite subject, to form a proposition 
with it. 

Obs. In that kind of subordinate propositions, which is called the 
accusative with the infinitive, the infinitive is indeed combined with ■ 
definite subject, and so far forms a proposition with it, but without the 
distinctions of person, or (so far as the simple infinitive is concerned) of 
number or gender which characterize the subject. 

§ 388. a. The infinitive stands as the subject of a proposition, 
when an act or state, taken in an indefinite and absolute - 
has something predicated of it; and with the verb sum, it is Died 
as the predicate of another infinitive : — 

Bene sentire recteqve facerc satis est ad bene beateqve viven- 
dum (Cic. ad Fam. VI. 1 ; bene sentire recteqve facere puto satis 
esse ad bene vivendum). Apud Persas summa laus est for titer 
venari (Corn. Ale. 11). Semper haec ratio accusandi fuit hones- 
tissima, pro sociis inimicitias suscipere (lie. l)iv. in Csso, l'.n. 

346 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 388 

Invidere nou cadit in sapientem (Cic. Tusc. III. 10) . Nihil aliud 
est (nihil aliud puto esse) bene et beate vivere nisi recte et 
honeste vivere (Cic. Par. I. 3). (Vivere ipsum turpe est nobis, 
Cio. ad Att. XIII. 28. Qvibusdam totum hoc displicet philoso- 
phari, Id. Finn. I. 1). It is less frequently used as the simple ob- 
je t of a verb : Beate vivere alii in alio, Epicurus in voluptate ponit 
\dr. Finn. II. 27). 

Ons. It is, however, unusual to make the infinitive the subject of a 
proposition (treating it, in all respects, like a substantive), unless the 
verb of the proposition is sum, or some one of those which (like cadit, 
displicet) approximate to the impersonal verbs. (Hos omnes eadem 
cupere, eadem odisse, eadem metuere, in unum coegit, Sail. Jug. 31 ; 
better, eaedem cupiditates, eadem odia, iidem metus in unum 

b. An adjective or substantive, which is connected as a predicate 
noun, or by way of apposition with an infinitive used thus indefi- 
nitely (without a subject), is always put in the accusative (§ 222, 
Obs. 1), and so also the participle, when the compound form of the 
infinitive is used: — 

Consulem fieri magnificum est. Magna laus est, tantas res 
solum gessisse. Ad virtutem non est satis vivere obedientem 
legibus populorum. Praestat honeste vivere qvam honeste natum 
esse. Divitias contemnere, comparantem cum utilitate communi, 
magni animi est (Cic), when one compares. 

Obs. 1. The infinitive is not used appositively to define an undefined 
substantive ; thus, we do not find labor legere, but labor legendi. See 
§§ 286 and 417. (An infinitive, however, maybe added in apposition to 
a substantive which is defined by an adjective : Demus nobis acerbam 
necessitudinem, pariter te errantem et ilium sceleratissimum per- 

seqvi (Sail. Jug. 102), a hard necessity, namely ; but this, too, is 

rare ; and by far the most common construction is acerbam necessitu- 
dinem perseqvendi.) 

Obs. 2. To such an infinitive, a subordinate proposition may be sub- 
joined in the third person singular of the active voice, without a definite 
subject, — the same subject being understood, to which the infinitive 
might be referred (in English, one) : Neqve mihi praestabilius qvid- 
qvam videtur qvam posse dicendo hominum voluntates irnpel- 
lere, qvo velit.unde autem velit, deducere (Cic. dc Or. I. 8), whither 
one toill. Nulla vox inimicior amicitiae reperiri potuit qvam 
ejus, qvi dixit, ita amare oportcre, ut si aliqvando es3et osurus 
(Id. Lael. 16.) 


§ 389. Verbs which, from the nature of their Kgniflnetifli 

for a second act by the Bame perioa (a second rerb with the same 
subject), are followed by the infinitive of that lecoad rerb. Snob 
verba are those which designate a wish, power, duty, ensiom, incli- 
nation, purpose, beginning, continuation, oomtJOB, 
as: — 

Volo, nolo, malo, cupio, studeo, conor, nitor, contendo (tento, 
poet, anio, qvaero), possum, qveo, neqveo (poet, valeo), audeo 
(poet, sustineo), vereor (poet, metuo, timeo), gravor, non dubito, 
scio, nescio, disco, debeo, soleo, adsvesco, consvevi, statuo, con- 
stituo, decerno, cogito, paro, meditor, instituo, coepi, incipio, 
aggredior, pergo, persevero, desiuo, interniitto, maturo (to he 
ceiso, occupo (to hasten to anticipate another in doing a thing), recor- 
dor, memini, obliviscor, negligo, omitto, supersedeo, non euro (f 
do not like, poet, parco, fugio) ; further the (wholly or partially) imper- 
sonal verbs libet, licet, oportet, decet, placet, visum est (// 
good to me, I resolved), fugit (me, / neglect), pudet, poenitet, piget, 
taedet, and the expressions necesse est, opus est. The infinitive ii 
likewise put after some phrases of similar import ; e.g. habeo in amnio, 
in animo est, consilium est (cepi), certum est, animum induco, 
prevail upon one^s self (also in animum induco). Vincere scis, Han- 
nibal, victoria uti nescis (Liv. XXII. 51). Antium me recipere 
cogito. Oblitus sum tibi hoc dicere. Visum est mihi de se- 
nectute aliqvid ad te scribere (Cie. Cat. M. 1). Pudet (me) haec 
fateri. Certum est (mihi) deliberatumqve omnia audacter libere- 
qve dicere (Cic. Rose. Am. 11). Tu animum poteris inducere 
contra haec dicere? (Id. Div. I. 13). Nemo alteri concedere in 
animum inducebat (Liv. I. 17). 

Obs. 1. Those verbs which denote a determined purpose arc found 
also with ut : Athenienses statuerunt, ut urbe relicta naves con- 
scenderent (Cic. Off. III. 11). In like manner, we find both animum 
induco facere, and ut faciam. So also with opto : Phaeton optavit, 
ut in currum patris tolleretur (Cic. Off. III. 26), and Optat arare 
caballus (Hor. Ep. I. 14, 43). (Merui, ut honorarer, like impetro, ami 
honorari.) Concerning the infinitive or the genitive of the gerund, in 
some phrases consisting of a substantive and sum, see § 417, Obi. St. 

Obs. 2. The poets use the infinitive after some verbs which, when 
used figuratively, denote inclination and effort, but which, in prose, have 
no such meaning; e.g. ardeo, trepido (ardet abire fuga, Yirg. .Kn. 
IV. 281). They also use the infinitive after some verba which are else- 
where followed by ut or ne to express the purpose (compare § 419). 
Hoc acrius omnes (apes) incumbent generis lapsi sarcire ruinaa 

848 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 390 

(Virg. G. IV. 248). Otherwise, ad ruinas sarciendas, ut ruinas 
sarciaiit. Isolated expressions of this kind are found, here and there, 
in prose ; e.g. Conjuravere nobilissimi cives patriam incendere 
(Sail. Cat. 62). 

Ons. 3. The infinitive may follow the partieiple paratus, ready : para- 
tuo frumeiitum dare (ad frumentum dandum) ; so likewise (ehiefly 
in the poets, and in the style of a later period), contentus, svetus 
assvetus, insuetus. " 

Obs. 4. With volo, nolo, malo, cupio, opto, and studeo, an accu- 
sative (of the pronoun) with the infinitive is sometimes employed instead 
of the simple infinitive (as, in stating what one wishes that another 
should do, see § 396), the whole circumstance, which is the object of 
the will and desire, being conceived rather as a distinct thing in 
itself (most frequently with esse, or a passive infinitive) ; e.g. Sapien- 
teni civem me et esse et numerari volo (Cic. ad Fam. I. 9). 
Cupio me esse clementem ; cupio in tantis reipublicae periculis 
me non dissolutum videri (Id. Cat. I. 2). A similar construction is 
found with postulo : Ego qvoqve a meis me amari postulo (Ter. 
Ad. V. 4, 25) ; and with constituo, to engage, promise (§ 395, Obs. 3). 
(Patior appellari sapiens, for patior me appellari sapientem, accord- 
ing to the rule given in § 396, is poetical.) 

Obs. 5. Licet, too (though the instances are rare) is found con- 
structed with the accusative and infinitive (according to § 398, a) : 
Non licet me isto tanto bono uti (Cic. Yerr. Y. 59). (In familiar 
language, and that style in which it is imitated, licet and licebit are 
also used with the subjunctive, ut being omitted. § 361, Obs. 1.) 

§ 390. The infinitive is subjoined to the verbs doceo, assuefacio, 
jubeo, veto, sino, arguo, insimulo, to denote what one teaches, 
orders, forbids, or allows a person to do, or accuses him of doing; 
it may likewise be subjoined to the verbs COgO (subigo), moneo, 1 
hortor (dehortor), impedio, and prokibeo, which otherwise have 
an objective proposition in the subjunctive with ut, &c. (§§ 372 and 
375). The infinitive is also added to the passive of these verbs 
(and to deterreor, to be deterred). 

Docebo Rullum posthac tacere (Cic. Leg. Agr. III. 2). Num. 
sum etiamnum vel G-raece loqvi vel Latine docendus ? (Id. Finn. 
II. 5). Herus me jussit Parnphilum observare. Consules ju- 
bentur (receive orders ; jussi sunt, received orders) exercitum scribere. 
Caesar legatos ab opere discedere vetuerat. Nolani muros por- 

1 [Non ilia qvisqvam me nocte per altum 
Ire, neqve ab terra moneat convellere funem (Virg. Georg. I. 45.6).] 

§ 390 TEE imimiivi:. 

tasqve adire vetiti sunt (Liv. Will. 16). Improbitas nunqvam 
respirare eum sinit (Cic. Finn. I. if,). Accusarc non sum situ 
pro Seat, II). Insimulant hominem fraudandi causa discessisae 
(Id. Verr. II. 24). Roscius arguitur patrem occidisse. Nnm to 
emere venditor coegit ? Qvura vita sine anuu:, m idiarum et 
metii3 plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias compararc (Cic. linn. 
I. 20). Prohibiti estis pedem in provincia ponere (do. pro 

Oas. 1. The verbs jubeo, veto, sino, have, in this construction, (he 
name of the one -who receives the command, &c, ;is their object, al- 
though, in other circumstances (without the infinitive), they could not 
take this object. The object of the verb i.s subject M regards the infini- 
tive (jubeo te salvum, salvam, vos salvos, salvas esse; hence, in the 
passive, jubeor salvus esse). (Sino is also used with the subjunctive, 
with or without ut. § 372, b, Obs. 2.) 

Obs. 2. Jubeo with ut, or with the subjunctive without ut, is ran-, 
when it means to order : Magoni nuntiatum ab Carthagine est, sena- 
tum jubere, ut classem in Italiam trajiceret (Liv. XXVII] 
So also veto ne, or qvominus is rarely met with. 1 (Jubeo alicui, ut 
faciat, or alicui, faciat, is found only in later writers.) 

Obs. 3. If, with jubeo and veto, the person to whom a thing is com- 
manded or forbidden is not specified, a simple infinitive may follow: 
Hesiodu3 eadem mensura reddere jubet, qva acceperis, aut etiam 
cumulatiore, si possis (Cic. Brut. 4) . Desperatis etiam Hippocra- 
tes vetat adhibere medicinam (Id. ad Att. XVI. 15). But it is more 
usual, when the infinitive has an object, to express the purport of the 
command or prohibition in the passive by an accusative with the infini- 
tive. See § 396. 

Obs. 4. The poets and later writers sometimes use other verbs, which 
express- an influence over others, and govern the accusative with the 
infinitive, instead of taking the subjunctive with ut: Quid dolens (from 
what provocation) regina deum insignem pietate virum tot adire la- 
bores impulit ? (Virg. iEn. I. 9). Sollicitor nullos esse putare deo3 

(Ov. Am. III. 9, 3G), I am tempted . Fuere, qvos pavor uando 

etiam capessere fugam impulerit (Liv. XXII. 6). Amici Nerouem 
orabant cavere insidias (Tac. Ann. XIII. 13). 

Obs. 5. The infinitive is occasionally used instead of ut (chiefly in the 
poets or later writers), with some verbs which govern the dativ< 
denote an influence over others to induce them to an action; e.g. with 
svadeo, concede permitto, impero : Imperavi egomet mini omnia 
assentari (Ter. Eun. II. 2, 21). Servis qvoqve pueros hujus 

[Vetabo sub isdem sit trabibus (Hor. CM. Ill 

350 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 392 

aetatis verberare concedimus (Curt. VIII. 26) . Hence, in the passive : 
De republica, nisi per concilium, loqvi non conceditur (Caes. B. G. 
VI. 20). 

Obs. 6. The poets use the infinitive with do and reddo, to give to a 

person to, i.q. give a person the power to : Grajis dedit ore ro- 

tundo Musa loqvi (Hor. A. P. 323). Hence, in the passive (in the 
later prose- writers, also) : Qvantum mini cernere datur, so far as it 
is given me to see, so far as I can see (Plin. Ep. I. 10). (Adimam can- 
tare severis, Hor. Ep. I. 19, 9.) (Celso gaudere et bene rem gerere 
refer, wish Celsus joy and prosperity, Id. Ep. I. 8, 1, after a Greek 
usage) . 

§ 391. In the poets (and, in some cases, in the later prose-writers), 
the simple infinitive is found, instead of a case of the gerund after adjec- 
tives, and instead of the supine, both of the active and passive voice. 
See § 419, § 411, Obs. 2 ; and § 412, Obs. 3. 

Obs. The infinitive stands after a preposition in the phrase interest 
inter; e.g. Aristo et Pyrrho inter optime valere et gravissime 
aegrotare nihil prorsus dicebant interesse (Cic. Finn. II. 13). 
(Nihil praeter plorare, Hor. Sat. II. 5, 69, nothing but .) 

§ 392. The present infinitive is often used in a peculiar way 
in narration instead of the imperfect indicative, when the writer 
passes from the relation of events to the description of a state of 
things that has suddenly taken place and begun, and of recurring 
actions and emotions that follow in rapid succession (the historical 
infinitive). The proposition remains otherwise unaltered, precisely 
as if the indicative had been employed. Usually several such in- 
finitives are found in succession. 

Circumspectare turn patriciorum vultus plebeji (then the plebeians 
began to search) et inde libertatis captare auram, unde servitutenx 
timuerant. Primores patrum odisse (hated) decemviros, odisse ple- 
bem ; nee probare, qvae fierent, et credere haud indignis accidere 
(Li v. III. 37). (Odisse has a present signification.) Hoc ubi Ver- 
res audivit, usqve eo commotus est, ut sine ulla dubitatione in- 
sanire omnibus videretur. Qvia non potuerat eripere argentum, 
ip3e a Diodoro erepta sibi vasa optime facta dicebat ; minitari 
absenti Diodoro, vociferari palam, lacrimas interdum vix tenere 
(Cic. Verr. IV. 18). This construction is even found after qvum, 
qvum interim, qvum tamen, if the time at which a particular state 
of things took place or appeared has been previously specified : Fusis 
Auruncis, victor tot intra paucos dies bellis Romanus promissa 
consulis fidemqve senatus expectabat, qvum Appius, et insita 

§ 393 THE INFIMTIVi;. 

superbia animo, et ut collegae vanam faceret fidem qvam aaper- 
rime poterat, jus de creditia pecuuiis dicei e ( I 

pitu suddenly began . Jainqve dies ccntiumptus crat, qvuin 

tamen barbari nihil remittere, atqve, uti reges piaeceperant, acrius 
instare (Sail Jug. 98). Patres ut . . . credere, ita malic {hiw. ill. 

Obs. Tin- infinitive, thus oaed, presenti to the bearer a 
picture of a transient state of things, or of ■ rapid snooeafion of acts, 

without separating the acls from each other, or referring then t<» auv 

particular time. 

§ 303. If to an infinitive, which refers 1o a preceding word I 
subject, a predicate substantive or adjective, or a word in apposition, 
is added, then this predicate or appositivc word agrees in case with 
the subject. 

a. If therefore an infinitive, depending on one of the verba named 
in § 389 or on the passive of those named in § 390, is connected 
with a subject which is in the nominative case, then the added sub- 
stantive or adjective is put in the nominative : — 

Cupio esse Clemens. Bibulus studet fieri consul. Habeo in 
animo solus proficisci. (Sustinuit conjux exsulis esse viri, ()v. 
Trist. IV. 10, 74, she endured to be.) Jubemur securi (securae) 

b. If the infinitive belongs to an accusative (after the verbs men- 
tioned in § 390, and after an impersonal verb with the accusative), 
the added word is put in the accusative : — 

Coegerunt eum nudum saltare. Pudet me victum discedere. 

c. If the infinitive belongs to a dative, the added word is also put 
in the dative : — 

Hannibal nihil jam majus precatur deos, qvam ut incolumi 
cedere atqve abire ex nostrum terra liceat (Liv. XXVI. 41). In 
republica mini negligenti esse non licet (Cic. ad Alt. 1. 17). Qvo 
tibi, Tilli, sumere depositum clavum fieriqve tribuno ? (Hot 
I. C, 25. Compare $ 239.) Nee fortibus illic profuit armentis nee 
eqvis velocibus esse (Ov. Met. VIII. 553). (Mediocribus esse 
poetis non homines, non di concessere, I lor. A. P. .">7l\ Bee £ 390, 
Obs. 5.) 

Ons. 1. An infinitive with the accusative i<. howevi-r. m . u*ic>nally 
found after licet with the dative (as if the infinitive had no definite sub- 
ject, § 388, b) ; e.g. Civi Romano licet esse Gaditanum (t 


Balb. 12). The accusative must be employed -when the dative is nc 
actually expressed, although it may be understood: Medios esse (to b 
neutral) jam non licebit ^Cic. ad Att. X. 8). 

Obs. 2. If a verb, which otherwise governs the dative, is used with 
out the dative, lor the sake of making the expression indefinite (e.£ 
licet, one can), then the word connected with the infinitive must be ii 
the accusative: Haec praescripta servantem (if one observes), lice 
magnifice, graviter, animoseqve vivere (Cic. Off. I. 26). So also 
when the infinitive is constructed with est alicujus. See § 388, 6, tin 
last example. 

§ 394. A subject stands in the accusative having an infinitive a 
its predicate, in order to present the proposition so expressed as ai 
idea, which is the object of an assertion or judgment ; e.g. Homi 
nem ire, that the man goes [or. that the man should go~] ; Caesaren 
vicisse, that Ccesar has conquered [or, that Ccesar should have con 
quered~\. This construction is called the accusative with the iniini 
tire. If, in the completed proposition of which the accusative wit! 
the infinitive forms a part, the subject and object might be con 
founded (both being in the accusative), this must be avoided: e.g 
by making the proposition passive : as, Ajo hostes a te vinci posse 
rather than ajo te hostes vincere posse ; but the sense and connec 
tion (together with the arrangement of the words) usually obviate 
auy ambiguity. 

An accusative with the infinitive may be dependent on (governed by] 
another proposition of the same form : Milonis inimici dicunt, caedem 
in qva P. Clodius occisus est, senatum judicasse, contra rempub 
licam esse factam (Cic. pro MIL 5). 

§ 395. An accusative with the infinitive is put after verbs anci 
phrases, which denote a knowledge and opinion that a thing is oi 
takes place, or a declaration that a thing is or takes place (verba 
sentiendi and deelarandi), and expresses what is thought oi 
said : — 

Thus after video, audio, sentio. animadverto, scio, nescio, etc., in- 
telligo, perspicio, comperio, suspicor, etc., disco, doceo (to inform 

one that ), persvadeo (convince one that ), merniiii, etc.. credo, 

arbitror, etc., judico, censeo, duco; spero, despero, colligo, con- 
cludo (infer), dico, afflrmo, nego, fateor, narro, trado, scribo, nuntio, 
ostendo, demonstro, significo, polliceor, promitto, minor, simulo, 
dissimulo, etc.. apparet, elucet, constat convenit (it is agreed thai 
), perspicuum, certuni, credibile est, etc., communis opinio 

§395 THE IM ;\:>:\ 

est, fania eat, apea eat, auctor sum (t<> assure), teatia turn, certiorem 
aliqvera facio (/<» inform W ). 

Sentit animus ae sua vi, non alien I Platonem Cicero 

scribit Tarentum ad Archytain vciiissc. Ex rnultis rebus iutslligi 
potest (ccncluditui ), mundum providen 

Dejotario tuura ho dvudt smun (i ic pro I :3pero 

me propedicm iotuc venturum esse. Caesar pollicctur, ao Us 
auxilio futurum. Fama est, Qallos adveutare. Qvem putaa tibi 
fidem habiturum ? (Qvaesivi ex te, qvem putares tibi Gdem habi 
turura). Qvando haec acta esse dicis ? 

Or.s. l. Such a proposition maj also coane I 
which moans opinion, judgment, &c, either in apposition, « 
m>un agreeing with the substantive points to the ncxl proj 
when the substantive, by It ^ connection with the rest of th<- 
to which it belongs, acquires the force of :i verbum seutiendi, 
e.g. Hunc sermonem mandavi litteris, ut ilia opinio, qvae semper 
fuisset, tolleretur, Crassum non doctissimum, Aiitoiiiura plruie 
indoctum fuisse (Cic. de Or. II. 2). Atqve etdam subjiciunt se 
homines imperio alterius de causis pluribu3 ; ducuntur euim aut 
benevolentia aut beueficiorum rnaguitudine aut spe, sibi id utile 
futurum (Id. Off. II. G). So, likewise, an accusative with the infinitive 
may be added as an apposition to a pronoun which, from the conn* 
conns to signify opinion, Judgment, &c.\ c^. Posidonius graviter et 
copiose de hoc ipso ; nihil esse bonum, nisi qvod hone3tum esset, 
disputavit (Cic. Tusc. II. 25). 

0:-.s. 2. Some few verba, which are not properly verba sentiendl 
or declarandi, Bometimes acquire such a meaning, in certain 
tions ; e.g. mitto, to applies any one bu (Fabius ad colle- 

gam misit, exercitu opu3 esse, qvi Campanis oppoueretur, Li\. 
XX I V. 19), defendo, to allege; purgo, to soy ty i 
interpreter, to state, by tray of explanation, that. (Stoicis placet, 

omnia peccata paria esse, tit- . ) ( : con- 

ccdo, &c, with the accusative and infinitive, or ut, see § 372, 
Concerning dubito, non dubito, § 375, 

0b8. 3. The beginner must notice, thai verbs which signify 
promise, and to threaten, and arc commonly used, in English, with I 
pie present infinitive, when the leading and the d epe ndant verb na 
same Bubject (e.g. he pron me, 1 //<-/ ; h / threat' 

g > duaij), must be followed, in Latin, by the a< I 

promittebat, se venturum ; spero, me cum visurum ; minabar, me 
abiturum. The verbs spero and polliceor are found 
rarely) with the infinitive alone, instead of th< 

Magnitudine poeuae reliavoa deterreic aperana | 

35-1 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 395 

B. C. III. 8) ; for se deterriturum. 1 (Spero nostram amicitiam 
non egere testibus, said of a thing present.) (Nego facere, poetical, 
to refuse to do.) 

Obs. 4. Concerning duco, existimo, judico, puto, with two accusa- 
tives without an infinitive, see § 227, c. 

Obs. 5. Audio te contumeliose de me loqvi, I hear (learn) that 
you speak contemptuously of me ; audivi te ipsum dicere, / heard you 
say, icas witness that you said (also, audivi, and audivi ex te, quum 
diceres, I heard the assertion from you) ; audivi te dicentem, i" heard 
you speak (make a speech) . (Video pueros ludere ; vidi pueros magno 
studio ludentes.) 

Obs. 6. The contents of the infinitive proposition are sometimes 
briefly pointed to beforehand by a neuter pronoun ; e.g. Ulud negare 
potes, te de re judicata judicasse ? (Cic. Verr. II. 33) ; or by ita or 
sic ; e.g. Sic enim a majoribus nostris accepimus, praetorem 
qvaestori suo parentis loco esse oportere (Cic. Div. in Caec. 19). 
(Zeao ita definit, perturbationem esse aversum a ratione animi 

motum, gives the definition that passion ; Zeno ita definit, ut 

perturbatio sit aversa a ratione animi commotio, defines passion in 

such a way, that it is, according io this definition , Cic. Tusc. IV. 

21, compared with Off. I. 27.) 

Obs. 7. The person or thing concerning which something is asserted 
in the accusative with the infinitive is not often introduced into the lead- 
ing proposition with the preposition de, but is found only in the infini- 
tive proposition. Therefore, we should not say, De Medea narrant, 

earn sic fugisse , but Medeam narrant sic fugisse ; not 

de Crasso scribit Cicero, nihil eo laetius fuisse, but Crasso Cicero 
scribit nihil laetius fuisse; not Cornelius de qvo narrasti, eum 

Athenas profectum esse (of whom you related, that he was , but 

qvem narrasti Athenas profectum esse. Yet the second form is also 
found, (1) where such a compression of the sentence would not be easy ; 
e.g. De hoc Verri dicitur, habere eum perbona toreumata (Cic. 
Verr. IV. 18, because the passive dicor is only used personally, in the 
signification it is said (generally) of me, and does not admit of a dative) ; 
or, (2) where the attention is first drawn generally to the thing to be men- 
tioned; e.g. De Antonio, jam ante tibi scripsi, non esse eum a me 

conventum (Cic. ad Att. XV. 1), as to what relates to A. . We 

must also notice such expressions as the following in questions which are 
interrupted, and then continued by a new question : Qvid censes 
(censetis, putamus) hunc ipsum S. Roscium? qvo studio et 

1 [Ad eum legati veniunt, qvi polliceantur obsides dare, atqve imperio 
populi Romani obtemperare (Caes. B. G. IV. 21). Ad eum legati venerunt, qvi 
se ea qvae imperasset facturos pollicerentur (Id. IV. 22) J 


qva intelligentia esse in rusticis rebus (Cic. Rose. Am. 17; |] ■,,, 
qvid censes S. Roscium, nonne summo studio esse et summa intel- 
ligentia ?), where the accusative already points to the infinitive 


Obs. 8. It is less customary in Latin than in English to insert a 
verbum sentiendi or declarandi with ut, as, as a subordinate propo- 
sition ; and it is preferable to make such a verb the leading proposition 
with an accusative with the infinitive depending upon it. (Verrem 

narrant , rather than Verres, ut narrant; Socratem Plato 

scribit , rather than Socrates, ut Plato scribit.) Yet we fre- 
quently find ut opinor, or simply opinor, credo, ut audio, employed 

§ 396. An accusative with the infinitive is put after those verbs 
which denote a wish that something should happen, or the enduring 
or allowing it (verba voluntatis) ; namely, volo, nolo, malo, cupio, 
opto, studeo, postulo, placet, sino, patior, with jubeo, iinpero, 
prohibeo, veto (to command, forbid^ that something should be done) ; 

Majores corpora juvenum firmari labore volucrunt (Cic. Tusc. 
II. 15). Tibi favemus, te tua virtute frui cupimus (Id. Brut. 97). 
Senatui placet, Crassum Syriam obtinere (Id. Phil. XI. 12). Nul- 
los honores mini decerni sino (Id. ad Att. V. 21). Verres homi- 
nem corripi jussit. Caesar castra vallo muniri vetuit. Delectum 
haberi prohibebo (Liv. IV. 2). Non hunc in vincula duci impera- 
bis? (Cic. Cat. I. 11). 

Obs. 1. These verbs also take after them a proposition with ut 
(prohibeo with ne or qvominus, veto with ne), but jubeo (§ 390, 
Obs. 2), patior, and veto, very rarely. (Sometimes writers pass from 
the accusative with the infinitive to the other construction : Placuit 
creari decemviros sine provocatione, et ne qvis eo anno alius 
magistratus esset, Liv. III. 32.) Concerning cupio me clementem 
esse for cupio esse Clemens, see § 389, Obs. 4. Later writers and 
the poets put also an accusative with the infinitive (passive) after per- 
mitto (with the dative), and after verbs of entreating, commanding, &c, 
which, in the best writers, always have ut; e.g. praecipio, mando, 
interdico, oro, precor: Otho corpora cremari permisit (Tac. H. I. 
47). Caligula praecepit, triremes itinere terrestri Romam devehi 
(Svet. Cal. 47). 

Obs. 2. After volo (nolo, malo, cupio), an accusative with the infini- 
tive of the perf. pass, is often used in the signification will have a thing 
done = will that something should be done ; e.g. Sociis maxime lex 
consultum esse vult (Cic. Div. in Caec. 0). (Often simply consul- 

356 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 397 

turn volo, without esse: Legati Sullam orant, ut Sex. Roscii 
famam et filii innocentis fortunas conservatas velit, Cic. pro Rose. 
Am. 0.) 

Obs. 3. Jubeo, sino, veto, prohibeo, and impero, take only a 
passive infinitive, or esse with a subject accusative ; since, if it is active, 
Ave find jubeo (veto) aliqvem facere, with a simple infinitive (§ 390), 
and impero alicui ut faciat (e.g. Nonne lictoribus tuis imperabis, 
ut hunc in vincula ducant ?) . From jubeo, veto, prohibeo, im- 
pero nunc occidi, a new phrase may be formed in the passive, when 
the person who commands or forbids is not specified (nom. Avith the infini- 
tive. See § 400) : Hie occidi jubetur, vetatur, prohibetur, impera- 
tur ; e.g. Jussus es renuntiari consul (Cic. Phil. II. 32), it was ordered 
that you should be proclaimed consul. In lautumias Syracusanas, si 
qvi publice custodiendi sunt, etiam ex ceteris oppidis Siciliae 
deduci imperantur (Id. Yerr. Y. 27). Ad prohibenda circumdari 
opera Aeqvi se parabant (Liv. III. 28). (Such expressions are dis- 
tinct from jubeor, prohibeor, facere; § 390.) 

Obs. 4. The verb ceDseo, to think, vote for, advise, has various con- 
structions, which may be here noticed : Censeo Carthaginem esse 

delendam (2 think that Carthage must i.e. vote for it). Censeo 

bona reddi (I vote, will, that the properly should be restored, as Avith 
jubeo). Antenor censet belli praecidere causam (Hor. Ep. I. 2, 
9), votes for cutting off; in the poetical and later style for praeciden- 
dam esse or praecidi. Censeo, ut perrumpas, I advise you to break 
through (censeo, perrumpas). 

§ 397. An accusative with the infinitive is put with those verbs 
which denote satisfaction, dissatisfaction, or surprise at the exist- 
ence of a thing (verba affectuum), such as gaudeo, laetor, glorior, 
doleo, angor, sollicitor, indignor, qveror, miror, admiror, fero 
(to be resigned to a thing), aegre, moleste fero. Yet qvod (with 
the indicative or subjunctive, according to § 357) may also be em- 
ployed with these verbs, in order to denote more the reason of the 
feeling: — 

Gaudeo id te mihi svadere, qvod ego mea sponte feceram (Cic. 
ad Att. XY. 27). Nihil me magis sollicitabat, qvam non me, si 
qvae ridenda essent, ridere tecum (Id. ad Fam. II. 12). Miror, te 
ad me nihil scribere (Id. ad Att. YIII. 12) . Varus promissa non 
servari qverebatur. (Laetor, qvod Petilius incolumis vivit in 
urbe, Hor. Sat. I. 4, 98. Scipio qverebatur, qvod omnibus in 
rebus homines diligentiores essent qvam in amicitiis comparan- 
dis, Cic.-Lael. 17). Irascor amicis, cur me funesto properent arcere 


veterno (Hor. Ep. I. 8, 10), / am angry with my fn ing t in 

thought, ic/ty they . 

§ 398. a. An accusative with tbe infinitive ia used with the imper- 
sonal verbs which signify propriety or desirableness (oportet, decet, 
convenit, expedit, nihil attinet, interest, refert), and with other 
impersonal expressions consisting of sum and a substantive or ad- 
jective (as, opus, nececse, utile, rectum, turpe, fas, tempus, mos, 
nefas, facinus, etc.), by means of which a similar judgment is 
passed on the nature of an act or relation, while it is neither a 
nor suggested that the act or relation really exists : — 

Qvos ferro trucidari oportebat, eo3 nondum voce vulnero (Cic. 
Cat. I. 4) . Accusatores multos esse in civitate, utile est, ut metu 
contineatur audacia (Id. Rose. Am. 20). Omnibus bonis expedit, 
salvam esse rempublicam (Id. Phil. XII I. 8). Tempiw est, nos 
de ilia perpetua jam, non de hac exigua vita cogitare (Id. ad Alt. 
X. 8). Facinus est, civem Romanum vinciri (Id. Verr. V. GG). 
Haec benignitas etiam reipublicae utilis est (= utile est), redimi 
e servitute captos, locupletari tenuiores (Id. OIF. II. 18). 

Obs. 1. Concerning the use of ut in propositions which arc the object 
of a judgment, see § 374, 06s. 2. 

Obs. 2. Oportet, it is necessary, and necesse est are also constructed 
with a subjunctive without ut; § 373, Obs. 1. If it is not said who has 
to do a thing, the infinitive alone is employed (§ 383 : ex malis eligere 
minima oportet, Cic. Off. III. 1) ; but the proposition is often altered 
into an accusative with the infinitive passive : Hoc fieri ct oportet et 
opus est (Cic. ad Att. XIII. 25). 

Obs. 3. By an inaccuracy of expression, a simple infinitive (active) 
and an accusative with the infinitive (passive) are sometimes combined 
in one judgment : Proponi oportet, qvid afferas, et id qvare ita sit, 
ostendere (Cic. de Or. II. 41). 

b. If on the other hand it is intended to show that a thing (a 
circumstance, a relation of things) actually exists, and at the same 
time a judgment or remark is made and uttered concerning it, t lie 
thing spoken of is expressed by a proposition with qvod {that, the 
circumstance that; with the indicative, if the mood of the leading 
proposition does not, according to § 369, require the subjunctive). 
Such a proposition with qvod (of a real fact) is often connected 
with a pronoun (hoc, illud, id, ea res, &c.) which points to it ; 
sometimes, too, with a substantive in the way of apposition (to 
explain it) : — 

358 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 398 

Eumeni inter Macedones viventi multum detraxit, qvod 
alienae erat civitatis (Corn. Eum. 1). Multa sunt in fabrica 
rnundi admirabilia, sed nihil majus qvam qvod ita stabilis est 
atqve ita cohaeret ad permanendum, ut nihil ne excogitari qvidem 
possit aptius (Cic. N. D. II. 45). Non ea res me deterruit, qvomi- 
uus ad te litteras mitterem, qvod tu ad me nullas miseras (Id. ad 
Fam. VI. 22). Percommode factum est (cadit), qvod de morte 
et de dolore primo et proximo die disputatum est (Id. Tusc. IV. 
30). Non pigritia facio, qvod non mea manu scribo (Id. ad Att. 
XVI. 15), that I do not write with my own hand does not proceed from 
laziness ; but, pigritia factum est, ut ad te non scriberem, my lazi- 
ness caused me not to ivrite to you ; § 373. Hoc uno praestamus vel 
maxinie feris, qvod exprimere dicendo sensa possumus (Id. de 
Or. I. 8). Aristoteles laudandus est in eo, qvod omnia, qvae 
nioventur, aut natura moveri censet aut vi aut voluntate (Id. 
N. D. II. 16). Pro magnitudine injuriae proqve eo, qvod summa 
respublica in hujus periculo tentatur (Id. Rose. Am. 51) , in propor- 
tion to the circumstance, that. Me una consolatio sustentat, qvod 
tibi nullum a me amoris, nullum pietatis officium defuit (Id. pro 
Mil. 36), one consolation, namely, that. (So also, accedit, qvod. See 
§ 373, Obs. 3. Praeterqvam qvod, except that. Praetereo, mitto, 
qvod, I passed by the circumstance, that, say nothing of it, that . 

Obs. 1. In saying, Utile est, Gajum adesse, -we only express an 
opinion, in general, that the presence of Gaius is (will be) useful, but 
-\ve do not say that he is actually present. If we say, on the other hand, 
Ad multas res magnae utilitati erit, qvod G-ajus adest, we make it 
known that Gaius is present, and judge of the consequences of this fact. 
By the first form, however (the accusative with the infinitive), the pres- 
ence of Gaius is not denied : it may, therefore, be sometimes employed 
for the other, especially when a feeling produced by some particular cir- 
cumstance is, at the same time, indicated (compare § 397) : Nonne 
hoc indignissimum est, vos idoneos habitos, per qvorum senten- 
tias id asseqvantur, qvod antea ipsi scelere asseqvi consverunt ? 
(Cic. Rose. Am. 3.) Te hilari animo esse et prompto ad jocan- 
dum, valde me juvat (Id. ad Q. Fr. II. 13). 

OiiS. 2. The leading proposition often contains, not a direct judg- 
ment or assertion concerning that which stands in the proposition with 
qvod, but an observation which is occasioned by and refers to it, so that 
qvod signifies as to t\e fact that ; e.g. Qvod autem me Agamemno- 
nem aemulari putas, falleris (Corn. Epam. 5). Qvod scribis, te, si 
velim, ad me venturum, ego vero te istic esse volo (Cic. ad Fam. 
XIV. 3). Qvod autem deinde dicit, but as to the fact that he pro- 
ceeds to say, or, in briefer, but nearly equivalent English, but if he pro- 
ceeds to say. 

§400 tiii: ini'imi 

Ods. 3. Of qvod (with the subjunctive), instead <>f the accusative 
with tin- infinitive after verba aontiandl and declarandi, only aoliftan 
examples arc found, and those in the later srrifc 

0b8. l. Instead of a judgment i a distinct prop 

an adjective and sum, followed by the accusative and infinitive, <t bj a 
proposition with qvod, an adverb alone tonally made o 

Utrum impudentiu3 Verres banc pecuniam a sociis abstulit an 
turpius naeretrici dedit an improbius populo Romano ad< 
(Cic. Verr. III. 86). Utilius starent etiam nunc rnoenia Phoebi 
(Ov. Her. I. G7) = utilius erat stare, &C. 

§ 399. An accusative with the infinitive Bometimes stands with- 
out a governing proposition, in order to express surprise and com- 
plaint, that a. thing happens or may happen, mostly with the 
interrogative particle ne (to denote inquiry aud doubt) : — 

Me miserum ! Te, ista virtute, fide, probitate, In tantas aerum- 
na3 propter me incidisse! (Cic. ad Fam. XIV. 1). Adeonc homi- 
nem esse infelicem qvemqvam, ut ego sum! (Ter. Andr. I. 5, 10). 

That a man can be so unfortunate as I am! Mene incepto desistere 
victam? (Virg. JSn. I. 37). ' 

Obs. (On §§ 395-399.) The beginner should accurately compare and 
distinguish the different ways in which the subordinate propositions, 
which, in English, are introduced by the conjunction that, are expi 
in Latin, and, after putting aside those, in which that denotes a d 
or a consequence (in order that, so that), he must observe that the object 
of an effort or action is expressed by objective propositions with the BUO- 
junctive (sec the appendix to Chap. III.) ; the object of an opinion, 
knowledge, declaration, or feeling, on the other hand, by the accusative 
with the infinitive ; and a circumstance concerning which a judgment is 
expressed by the accusative with the infinitive, when a judgment is stated 
in general, or by a proposition with qvod, when the relation is denoted 
as actually existing. 

§ 400. a. Instead of an impersonal passive of a verb of saying, 
relating, informing, or of thinking, believing, finding, or of com- 
manding or forbidding (see § 396, Obs. 3), or of the verb videtur, 
it seems, appears, followed by an accusative with the infinitive 
dicitur, patrem venisse), another mode of expression is u^vd, the 
subject of the infinitive proposition being made the nominative 
ject of the passive verb, and the infinitive being subjoined to com- 

1 In the following exclamation we have the iuQuitive only : Tantum laborom caporo 
ob talem filium ! (Ter. Andr. v. 2, 27.) 

860 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 400 

pie to the idea and the proposition. 1 (In this case every word, which 
is annexed to the infinitive, becomes nominative according to 

§303): — 

Lectitavisse Platonem studiose Demosthenes dicitur (Cic.Brut. 
31). Aristides unus omnium justissimus fuisse traditur (narra- 
tur, fertur). Oppugnata (sc. esse) domus Caesaris per multas 
noctis horas nuntiabatur (Cie. pro Mil. 24). Luna solis lumine 
collustrari putatur (Id. Div. II. 43). Regnante Tarqvinio Su- 
perbo in Italiam Pythagoras venisse reperitur (Id. R. P. II. 15). 
Malum mihividetur esse mors. Videris mihi (it appears to me that 
you) satis bene attendere. Videor mihi (or simply videor) Graece 

luculenter scire (it seems to me, that I , / believe that I ). 

Visus sum mihi animos auditorum commovere. 

Obs. Even in an observation inserted parenthetically with ut (as it 
seems), videor is, almost always, referre4 personally to the subject 
spoken of: Ego tibi, qvod satis esset, paucis verbis, ut mihi vide- 
bar, responderam (Cic. Tusc. I. 43). Fhilargyrus tuus omnia 
fidelissimo animo, ut mihi qvidem visus est, narravit (Id. ad Fam. 
VI. 1). 

b. With verbs, however, of saying or thinking (but not with jubeor, 
vetor, prohibeor, or videor), the impersonal form of expression is 
more usual in the compound tenses : — 

Traditum est, Homerum caecum fuisse (Cic. Tusc. V. 39) ; and 
with the gerundive with sum, it is almost always used : Ubi tyrannus est, 
ibi dicendum est, plane nullam esse rempublicam (Id. R. P. III. 
31). (Julius Sabinus voluntaria morte intsrisse creditus est, Tac. 
Hist. IV. 67.) 

Obs. In the simple tenses, dicitur, traditur, existimatur, &c, are 
rarely used impersonally with an accusative with the infinitive : e.g. Earn 
gentem traditur fama Alpes transisse (Liv. V. 33) ; but nuntiatur and 
dicitur are so employed when followed by a dative : Non dubie mihi 
nuntiabatur, Parthos transisse Euphratem (Cic. ad Fam. XV. 1) ; 
nUntiatur also without a dative : Ecce autem repente nuntiatur, pira- 
tarum naves esse in portu Odysseae (Id. Verr. V. 34). With vide- 
tur (mihi), the accusative with the infinitive is employed very rarely (with 
jubetur, &c, never). 

c. The personal form of expression is also sometimes used instead 
of the impersonal in the passive of other verbs, which do not sigr 
nify to speak or to think in general, but denote a more peculiar antl 

1 This form is usually, but improperly, styled the nominative with the infinitive. 


special kind of declaration, or knoul. cribor, demonstror, 

audior, intelligor, &o. ; e.g.: — 

Bibulus noiidum audiebatur esse in Syria (< lie. a<l An. \ 
as yet nothing w<is heard of H.'s In ing in Syria. Scutorum gladiorum- 
qve multitudo deprehendi posse indicabatnr (Id. pro MiL 
Ex hoc dii beati esse iutelliguntur (Id. X. 1) I Pompejns 

perspectus est a me toto ammo de te cogitare (Id. ad Fam. I. 7). 
But, in those cases, the impersonal form is the more tUlial. 

OflS. The poetfl and later writers extend this (Mage farther than the 
earlier prose-writers ; e.g. Colligor placuisse, for colligitur (ii 
ferred) me placuisse (Ov. Am. II. 6, (11). Suspectus fecisse (Sail.), 
compertus fecisse (Liv.). (Hi fratres in suspicioiiem venerant 
suis civibus fanum expilasse Apollinis, i.e. putabantur, Cic 
IV. 13. Liberatur Milo non eo consilio profectus esse, ut insidia- 
retur Clodio. i.e. demonstratur, Id. pro Mil. 18 

d. "When a statement of the words or opinion of another it 
menced in this way, and then continued through several infinitive propo- 
sitions (§ 403, 6), the latter take the accusative with the infinitive : Ad 
Themistoclem qvidam doctus homo accessisse dicitur eiqve 
artem memoriae pollicitus esse se traditurum ; qvum ille qvaesis- 
set, qvidnam ilia ars efficere posset, dixisse ilium doctorem, ut 
omnia meminisset (Cic. dc Or. II. 74) . 

§ 401. If the subject in an accusative with the infinitive i- a personal 
or reflective pronoun, which corresponds to the subject of the leading 
verb (dico, me esse; dicit, se esse), this pronoun (particularly mc, 
te, se, more rarely nos, vos) is sometimes left out with verba decla- 
randi and putandi ; but this must be looked on as an irregularity: 
Confitere, ea spe hue venisse, qvod putares hie latrociuium, uon 
judicium futurum (Cic. Rose. Am. 22)=te venisse. Qvum id 
nescire Mago diceret, nihil facilius scitu est, inqvit Hanno (Liv. 
XXIII. 13) — se id nescire. This is done, more especially when an 
accusative with the infinitive is dependent on another with the same Bub- 
ject : Licet me existimes desperare ista posse perdiscere (Cic. de 
Or. III. 36) = me ista posse perdiscere. With the future infinitive act- 
ive, this omission occurs very frequently in the historians, in which 
case esse is also generally omitted : Alcon, precibus aliqvid motu- 
rum ratus, transiit ad Hannibalem (Liv. XXI. 12) =se moturum. 
Ne nocte qvidem turba ex eo loco dilabebatur, refracturosqve 
carcerem minabantur (Id. YI. 17). (On the contrary, it is hardly 
ever found Avith the perfect infinitive passive.) 

Obs. 1. When, in a continued oratio obliqva (§ 403, I 
accusatives with the infinitive have se for their subject, it i* often 

362 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 402 

Obs. 2. It is important to discriminate between this and the occa- 
sional omission, before the infinitive, of a personal or demonstrative 
pronoun which docs not refer to the subject of the leading proposition, 
when it may be easily ascertained from the connection, and from the 
previous mention of it : Petam a vobis, ut ea, qvae dicam, non de 
niemet ipso, sed de oratore dicere putetis (Cic. Or. III. 20). Vale- 
rius dictatura se abdicavit. Apparuit causa plebi, suam (sc. ple- 
bis) vicem indignautem niagistratu abisse (Liv. II. 31). 

Obs. 3. The poets, in some few instances, put a simple infinitive with 
the nominative, as in Greek, instead of the accusative with the infini- 
tive, when it has the same subject as the main proposition : Vir bonus 
et sapiens dignis ait esse paratus == (se paratum esse Hoi*. Ep. I. 
7, 22). (Sensit medios delapsus in hostes = se delapsum esse 
Virg. Mn. II. 377.) 

§ 402. a. Propositions subordinate to the accusative and infinitive 
retain the customary form of the oratio unita. Yet the accusative with the 
infinitive is used in them if they are relative propositions, in case the re'a- 
tive only continues the thought, so that it might be changed to a demon- 
strative with or without et : Postea autem Gallus dicebat ab Eudoxo 
Cnidio sphaeram (« celestial globe) astris coelo inhaerentibus • esse 
descriptani, cujus omnem ornatum et descriptionem sumptam ab 
ESudoxo, Aratum extulisse versibus (Cic. It. P. I. 14). It might 
also read : esse descriptara ; ejus omnem ornatum, &c. Marcellus, 
qvuni Syracusas cepisset, reqvisivisse dicitur Archimedem ilium, 
qvem qvum audisset interfectum, permoleste tulisse (Cic. Yen*. 
IV. 58) = et, qvuni audisset interfectum, permoleste tulisse. (So 
also, Jacere tarn diu irritas sanctiones, qvae de suis commodis 
ferrentur, qvum interim de sangvine et supplicio suo latam legem 
confestim exerceri, for et interim, Liv. IV. 51. But such examples, 
with relative conjunctions, are very unusual.) 1 

b. If one subject of a proposition is compared with another (by qvam, 
atqve, or idem qvi, tantus qvantus, and similar expressions) , so that 
the same verb obviously belongs to both (e.g. Iisdem rebus com- 
moveris, qvibus ego, sc. commoveor), and the leading proposition 
is an accusative with the infinitive, the second subject is also put in the 
accusative, although its verb should be, strictly speaking, understood 
with it in a finite mood, because the governing verb (on which the accusa- 
tive with the infinitive depends) cannot be applied to this member of the 

1 Porsena prae se ferebat, qvemadmodum, si non dedatur obses. pro 
rupto se foedus habiturum, sic deditam inviolatam ad suos remissurum 
(Liv. II. 13) = prae se ferebat, si non dedatur obses, se — habiturum, de.ditam 
contra, &c. Admonemus, cives nos eorum esse et, si non easdem opes 
habere, eandem tamen patriam incolere (Id. IV. 3). 

§403 Till: INTIMTIVi:. gftg 

proposition : Suspicor, te eisdem rebus qvibus me ipsum com- 
moveri (Cic (at. M. 1); properly, qvibua ipse commoveor. 
Antonius ajebat, se tantidem frumentum aestimasse, qvai 
cerdotem (Id. Verr. III. 92) ; properly, qvanti Sacerdos aestimas- 
set. (Attraction. Compare § 303, 6.) 

c. It* two propositions, each of which has its own u-rb. irt COO 
by a comparative with qvam, and the leading proposition paaaei orer into 
the accusative with the infinitive, the subordinate proposition sometimes 
takes the same form: Num putatis dixisse Antonium minacius 
qvam facturum fuisse ? (Cic. Phil. V. 8.) Affirmavi qvidvis mo 
potius perpessurum qvam ex Italia exiturum (Id. ad Fain. II. H>). 
Consilium dicebant specie prima melius fuisse qvam usu apparitu- 
rum (Liv. IV. 60). This, however, is rare, especially when (as in the 
last example) the subjunctive should stand in the oratio recta 
qvam (according to § 360, Obs. 4), which mood is then commonly re- 
tained : Certum habeo, majores qvoqve qvamlibet dimicationem 
subituros fuisse potius qvam eas leges sibi imponi pater eutur (Liv. 
IV. 2). 

§ 403. a. An accusative with the infinitive is often put without 
being governed directly by a verbum sentiendi or declarandi, 
where a person is mentioned immediately before in such a way, 
that a speech, an opinion, or a resolution is ascribed to him, and 
the purport of his speech or opinion, or the reasoning on which he 
acts, is now alleged, so that one may supply in one's mind, he says 
(said), lie thinks (thought), or some equivalent expression : — 

Regulus in senatum venit, mandata exposuit: sententiam ne 
diceret, recusavit; qvamdiu jurejurando hostium teneretur, non 
esse se senatorem (Cic. Off. III. 27), for (he thought and said), to 
long as he ivas bound by the oath exacted from him by the enemy, he wot 
no senator. Romulus legatos circa vicinas gentes misit, qvi socie- 
tatem connubiumqve novo populo peterent ; Urbes qvoqve, ut 
cetera, ex infimo nasci ; deinde, qvas sua virtus ac dii juvent, 
magnas opes sibi magnumqve nomen facere, &c. (Liv. I. 9. Tins 
is the language •which Romulus desired the ambassadors to hold.) This 
use of the accusative with the infinitive, in which the speaker or writer 
adduces not his own expressions and thoughts, but those of others, is 
specially called oratio obliqva, as distinguished from the oratio di- 

Obs. 1. Sometimes the name oratio obliqva is used of every gram- 
matical way of expressing the thought of a third party. Sec § 369. 

Obs. 2. Sometimes the transition to this accusative with the infinitive 
takes place very abruptly, no indication being given by any particular 


word, that the expressions or ideas of another person are introduced ; 
e.g. Conticuit adolescens : haud dubie videre aliqva impedimenta 
pugnae consulem, qvae sibi non apparerent (Liv. XLIV. 36). 
Sometimes a negative verb precedes, from which an affirmative idea 
(says, thinks) is to be supplied : Regulus reddi captivos negavit esse 
utile ; illos enim adolescentes esse et bonos duces, se jam con- 
fectum senectute (Cic. Off. III. 27). 

b. In the same way entire speeches or discussions of other per- 
sons and their views are often cited in a series of accusatives with 
the infinitive, the first of which is either directly governed by a 
verb, or put in the way above mentioned under a (continuous oratio 
obliqva). With reference to this it is to be noticed, that a speech 
or argument belonging to past time, and connected with a verb in 
the preterite, should regularly be continued as depending on the 
preterite, the subordinate propositions being thus required lo stand 
in the imperfect or pluperfect. Yet a transition to the present may 
take place, the leading verb understood being thought of as if it 
were the historical present (he says, &c). If the oratio obliqva 
begins with a historical present, it is continued in the present, but 
may also (according to § 382, Obs. 3) be changed to the preterite. 
Examples of such a continuous oratio obliqva (some of them ex- 
hibiting the variations above noticed in the tenses of the subordinate 
propositions) may be found in Caesar in the first book of the Gallic 
War, Chaps, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 31, 35, 36, 44, 45, and in Livy in 
the first book, Chaps. 50, 53 ; in the second book, Chap. 6, &c. 

§ 404. That which, in the oratio directa, was expressed in the im- 
perative, or in the subjunctive with the force of a command or prohibi- 
tion, is expressed, in the oratio obliqva, by the subjunctive ; and in 
such a way, that the present of the former becomes the imperfect of the 
latter (they should, he said = you shall; they were not to believe = you 
are not to believe) : Sin bello perseqvi perseveraret, reminiscere- 
tur pristinae virtutis Helvetiorum. Qvare ne committeret, ut is 
locus ex calamitate populi Romani nomen caperet (Cses. B. G. I. 
13 = si bello perseveras, reminiscitor pristinae virtutis Helveti- 
orum. Qvare ne commiseris, ut .) Burrus praetorianos nihil 

adversus progeniem Germanici ausuros respondit ; perpetraret 
Anicetus promissa (Tac. Ann. XIV 7=perpetret Anic). The 
present may, however, be retained, if the first governing verb is the his- 
torical present, or if the narrative is changed to the historical present : 
Vercingetorix perfacile esse factu dicit frumentatiouibus Roma- 

§407 mi: im'I.mtivi:. 

nos prohibere aeqvo modo animo sua ipsi fiunient.i coi nun- 
pant aedificiaqve incendant (Cs&s. B, G, \ II. Si) aeqvo modo 
animo vestra ipsi frumenta corrumpite. 

§ 406. a. Questioni which occur in the oratio directa in the i 
tivc arc expressed in (lie oratio obliqva In the accusative with tin- infini- 
live, if, in (he oratio directa, they stood in the first or third n 
but in the subjunctive, if the second person was there made use of, in 
which ease (he present or perfect of the direct difCOOJ ularlv 

changed to the imperfect and pluperfect. (Vet the preseoi may be 
retained here also, according to § 403.) If the question in the oratio 
directa is asked in the first person, then the speaker is commonly repre- 
sented, in the oratio obliqva, by the reflective pronoun se; hut this may 
be omitted (especially if the same subject is found also in the preceding 
propositions), so that the first and third persons are only distinguished 
by the context (as in the oratio obliqva in English all three a 
pressed by he, then) : Qvid se vivere, qvid in parte civium censeri. 
si, qvod duorum hominum virtute partum sit, id obtinere universi 
non possint ? (Liv. VII. 18 = qvid vivimus, qvid in parte civium 
censemur?) Si veteris contumeliae oblivisci vellet, num etiam 
recentium injuriarum memoriam deponere posse? (( Isbs. B.G.I. 14; 
Avith the omission of se = si — volo, num — possum?) An qvic- 
qvam superbius esse qvam ludificari sic omne nomen Latinum ? 
(Liv. I. 50) =an qvicqvam superbius est? Scaptione haec as- 
signaturos putarent finitimos populos? (Liv. III. 72) = putatis ? 
Qvid de praeda faciendum censerent ? (Liv. V. 20) = censetis ? 

Obs. Exceptions to this, where questions of the first and third per- 
son are put in the subjunctive, or questions of the second person in the 
infinitive, are rare. 

b. Questions which, in direct discourse, arc put in the subjunctive, 
(§ 350, a, and § 353) retain the subjunctive (usually with an alteration 
of the tense) : Qvis sibi hoc persvaderet? (Caes. B. (J. V. 29) qvis 
sibi hoc persvadeat?- Cur fortunam periclitaretur ? (Id. B. ( . 1 
72) = cur fortunam pericliter ? 

§ 406. In the infinitive the three leading tenses are distinguished 
as in the indicative : Dico eum venire, venisse, venturum esse ; 
dico eum decipi, deceptum esse, deceptum iri. In the I 
compounded with esse this word is often omitted, whether the infini- 
tive has an accusative or a nominative connected with it : Victum 
me video, Facturum se dixit. Hannibal deceptus errore loco- 
rum traditur. 

§ 407. The perfect infinitive designates the action as finished ind 
complete: Poteras dixisse (Hor. A. P. 828), you might have tU 



said. Bellum ante hiemem perfecisse possumus (Liv. XXXVII, 
19), we may have finished the war; but little differing from perficere 
poterimus. In this signification, the perfect infinitive occasionally stands 
id Latin with satis est, satis habeo, contentus sum, where the present 
is used in English, and particularly with the expressions poenitebit, 
pudebit, pigebit, juvabit, melius erit, to signify what will follow the 
completion of the action expressed by the infinitive : Proinde qviesse 
erit melius? (Liv. III. 48). 

Obs. 1. With oportuit, decuit, convenit, debueram, oportuerat, 
&c, when used for the purpose of telling what ought to have been done 
(§ 348, Obs. 1) , the perfect infinitive is often employed in the active and 
commonly in the passive, and in the latter usually without esse : Tunc 
decuit flesse (Liv. XXX. 44). Ego id, qvod jampridem factum 
esse oportuit, certa de causa nondum facio (Cic. Cat. I. 2) . Ado- 
lescent! morem gestum oportuit (Ter. Ad. II. 2, 6). 

Obs. 2. In the poets, the perfect infinitive active is sometimes used 
(like the Greek aorist) for the present infinitive, but only as a simple 
infinitive after a verb (especially after verba voluntatis et potestatis), 
not as a subject (§ 388, a), nor in the accusative with the infinitive : Fra- 
tres tendentes opaco Pelion imposuisse Olympo (Hor. Od. III. 4, 
52) . Immanis in antro bacchatur vates, magnum si pectore pos- 
sit excussisse deum (Virg. iEn. VI. 77). (In the earlier style, volo 
is constructed in prohibitions with the perfect infinitive ; e.g. consules 
edixerunt, ne qvis qvid fugae causa vendidisse vellet, Liv. 
XXXIX. 17). 

§ 408. a. There is no special form of the infinitive to represent the 
imperfect (so that after a leading verb in the present or future the imper- 
fect indicative of direct discourse always becomes the perfect infinitive : 
Narrant ilium, qvoties filium conspexisset, ingemuisse == in- 
gemiscebat, qvoties filium conspexerat) , nor the pluperfect in the 
active voice. In the passive, the perfect participle is used with fuisse, 
as in the indicative with fui or eram, to express a condition (imperfect 
of the condition) ; e.g. Dico Luculli adventu maximas Mithridatis 
copias omnibus rebus ornatas atqve instructas fuisse urbemqve 
Cyzicenorum obsessam esse ab ipso rege et oppugnatam vehemen- 
tissime (Cic. pro Leg. Man. 8)=copiae ornatae atqve instructae 
erant urbsqve obsidebatur. In this way, too, the pluperfect of an 
action may sometimes be expressed ; e.g. nego litteras jam turn scrip- 
tas fuisse. (But it is never used for the conditional pluperfect in the 
subjunctive. See § 409.) 

b. In the accusative with the infinitive, after a governing verb in the 
past time (as well as after the historical present), the present, perfect, 
and future infinitive are used of a thing which, at the. time indicated in 


the leading proposition, was present, past, or tutu* 
imperfect, pluperfect, and foturum in praeterito; Die 
dixerat, se timere (thai he feared, was afraid), so timuissc, decep- 
tum esse (thai he had feared, l><ni been deceived), se veuturum esse, 
deceptum iri {that he would come, should bt d 

Obs. 1. The perfect infinitive must always stand aA r a pen 
something i.s designated that was past at the time of the leadii 
tion, though the pluperfect may not Ik: usvd in En di b : e.g. Multi ccrir:- 
tores tradiderunt, regem in praelio adfuisse ( 
king was present). 

Ons. 2. The present infinitive is commonly used after tl 
memini (which lias the. signification of a present), when a pi | 
tion is spoken of, of which one has been an actual witness, and which 
one calls to mind (as if the signification were, / noticed, when the trans- 
action took place, that ) : Memini Catonem anno ante, qvam 

est mortuuB, mecum et cum Scipione disserere (Cic. Lei! 3). L. 
Metellum memini puer (/ remember from the years of my bo\ 
ita bonis esse viribus extremo tempore aetatis, ut adolescentiam 
non reqvireret (Id. Cat. M. 9). On the other hand, the p 
infinitive is always used of a thing of which one. has not been an actual 
witness : Memineram C. Marium, qvuin vim armorum profugis- 
set, senile corpus paludibus occultasse (Cic. pro Sest. -I'l) ; and 
the perfect may also stand in the first case, if the object be merely to 
contrast the thing remembered with the present, and to avoid ambi- 
guity: Meministis me ita initio distribuisse causam (Cic. 
Am. 42; this might also have been expressed by distribuere). So 
also with memoria teneo (Cic. Philipp. VIII. 10, and Verr. V. 16). 

§'409. To represent the conditional pluperfect subjunctive, the 
part. fut. with fuisse is employed in the infinitive of the active 
voice (facturus fuisse, corresponding to facturus fui ; § 34:2. Com- 
pare § 348, a, and § 381) : — 

Num. Gn. Fompejum censes tribus snis consulatibus, tribus 
triumphis laetaturum fuisse, si sciret se in solitudine Aegyptio- 
rum trucidatum iri ? (Cic. Div. II. 9). In the passive, the periphra- 
sis futurum fuisse, ut (it would have happened, that) is made u 
Theophrastus moriens accusasse naturam dicitur, qvod homini- 
bus tam exiguam vitam dedisset ; nam si potuisset esse longiu* 
qvior, futurum fuisse, ut omnes artes perficerentur (Cic. Tuse. III. 
28). (Platonem existimo, si genus forense dicendi tractare volu- 
isset, gravissime et copiosisDime potuisse dicere, Cic. OflF. 1. 1. be- 
cause it would be expressed, in the oratio recta, Plato potuit, accord- 
ing to § 348, c.) 

368 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 411 

Obs. The conditional imperfect subjunctive may be expressed after 
a preterite by the future infinitive as the futurum in praeterito (in the 
passive, by futurum esse or fore, ut) : Titurius clamabat, si Caesar 
adesset, neqve Carnutes interficiendi Tasgetii consilium fuisse 
capturos (= cepissent), neqve Eburones tanta cum contemptione 
nostra ad castra venturos esse (=venirent, Cass. B. G. V. 29). 
But the transition to the oratio obliqva after a preterite usually involves 
the change of the imperfect into the pluperfect, or at least permits that 
change ; e.g. Si ditior essem, plus darem = dixit se, si ditior esset, 
plus daturum fuisse. 

§ 410. For the fut. infin., both in the active and passive voice, a 
periphrasis with fore (sometimes futurum esse), ut (amem or 
amer, that it will happen, that — ), is often made use of; e.g. Clama- 
bant homines, fore, ut ipsi sese dii immortales ulciscerentur 
(Cic. Verr. IV. 40) ; especially in verbs, which want the supine 
and the future participle : — 

Video te velle in coelum migrare ; spero fore, ut contingat id 
nobis (Cic. Tusc. I. 34). 

Obs. 1. The infinitive posse is also usually employed where one might 
have expected the future (will be able) , especially after spero : Roscio 
damnato, sperat Chrysogonus se posse, qvod adeptus est per 
scelus, id per luxuriam effundere (Cic. Rose. Am. 2). 

Obs. 2. Fore with the part. perf. corresponds to the future perfect 
(in passive and deponent verbs) : Cartnaginienses debellatum moz 
fore rebantur (Liv. XXIII. 13) , that they should soon have terminated 
the war. Hoc dico, me satis adeptum fore, si ex tanto in omnes 
mortales beneficio nullum in me periculum redundarit (Cic. pro 
Sull. 9). 



§ 411. The first (active) Supine, in um, is used after verbs which 
signify motion (e.g. eo, venio, aliqvem mitto), to express the design 
with which the motion takes place, and is constructed with the case 
of its verb : — 

Legati in castra Aeqvorum venerunt qvestum injurias (Liv. III. 
25) . Fabius Pictor Delphos ad oraculum missus est sciscitatum 


qvibus precibus deos possent placare (I.I. XXII 57). Lacedae- 
monii senem sessum receperunt (Cic. Cat .M. 18), U sit among 

Obs. 1. We also find : Dare alicui aliqvam nuptum (to give in 
marriage to any our). Eo perditum, eo ultum, have almost the —»fl 
meaning; as, perdo, ulciscor (/ go to destroy), 

Obs. 2. That which is expressed by the supine may also be indicated 
by ut, ad, causa (qverendi causa), or by the participle future ( g 424, 
Obs. !)). The poets sometimes use the simple infinitive, instead of 
this supine: Proteus pecus egit altos visere montes (Hoi 
I. 2, 7). 

§ 412. The second supine, in u, is used with adjectives, to denote 
that the quality they express is attributed to the subject of the pro- 
position in reference to a certain action, performed upon it (conse- 
quently in a passive signification) : — 

Hoc dictu qvam re facilius est. Honestum, turpe factu (f<> <!<>, 
if one does it) . Uva peracerba gustatu (to taste). Qvid est tam 
jucundum cognitu atqve auditu qvam sapientibus sententiis 
gravibusqve verbis ornata oratio ? (Cic. de Or. I. 8). 

Obs. 1. Some few adjectives, especially facile, difficile, and proclive, 
stand in the neuter with a supine, even when they properly refer to an 
active infinitive as their subject, and are followed by a proposition which 
ought to depend on this infinitive : Difficile dictu est, qvauto opere 
conciliet homines comitas affabilitasqve sermonis (Cic. Oil*. II. 
14) = dicere ad calamitatum societates, non est facile inventu 
(=^invenire), qvi descendant (Id. Lasl. 17). In the same war, fas 
and nefas are also used : Nefas est dictu, miseram fuisse Fabii Max- 
imi senectutem (Cic. Cat. M. 5). 

Obs. 2. The supine rarely stands with dignus, indignus ; e.g. Nihil 
dictu dignum (Liv. IX. 43) = Nihil dignum, qvod dicatur. 

Obs. 3. Ad (with regard to) with the gerund is often used in the 
same signification as the second supine, particularly after facilis, diffi- 
cilis, jucundus; e.g. Res facilis ad intelligendum, easy to under- 
stand. Verba ad audiendum jucunda (Cic. de Or. I. 49). In the 
poets and later writers, we find such constructions as the following with 
the infinitive : facilis legi, easy to read. Cereus in vitium flecti (I lor. 
A. P. 161). 

§ 413. The Gerund (which has only the oblique nsed 

to express the meaning of the present infinitive active (thai is, the 
absolute meaning of the verb), when the infinitive ought to stand 
in some particular case (not the nominative) ; e.g. studium obtempe- 


370 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 414 

randi legibus (see the following sections). If the verb governs the 
accusative, then in place of the gerund and the accusative governed 
by it (e.g. consilium capiendi urbem; perseqvendo hostes, by 
pursuing the enemy) the word so governed may be put in the case 
of the gerund with the gerundive for its adjective (consilium 
urbis capiendae ; perseqvendis hostibus), so that the substantive 
and gerundive together represent the action as taking place in refer- 
ence to the person or thing named in the substantive. If the 
gerund would have to be governed by a preposition, the expression 
with the gerundive is used always with the accusative, and almost 
always with the ablative ; thus, ad placandos deos (not ad pla- 
candum deos), in victore laudando (not in laudando victorem). 1 
The dative also of the gerund with an accusative (esse onus 
ferendo, for oneri ferendo) is very unusual. 

Obs. 1. In all other cases (the genitive and the ablative without a 
preposition) , the choice between the gerund with an accusative and the 
gerundive is determined by euphony and perspicuity, or the mere pleas- 
ure of the writer. Some writers, therefore, retain the gerund far more 
frequently than others, who (as, Cicero and Csesar) prefer using the 
gerundive. Yet the gerund is mostly retained when the object is a neuter 
adjective or pronoun ; e.g. studium aliqvid agendi, falsum fatendo (by 
confessing something that is false), cupiditas plura habendi, — except 
where the neuter singular denotes an abstract idea ; studium veri inve- 
niendi (of discovering the truth). 

Obs. 2. In the earlier writers, we occasionally meet with a remarkable 
irregularity ; the accusative plural, which should be governed by a gerund 
in the genitive (e.g. facultas agros latronibus condonandi), being 
turned into the genitive, as if the gerundive were to be employed (agro- 
rum condonandorum), while the gerund itself still remains unaltered : 
Agitur, utrum M. Antonio facultas detur opprimendae reipublicae 
caedis faciendae bonorum, diripiendae urbis, agrorum suis latroni- 
bus condonandi (Cic. Phil. V. 3). 

§ 414. a. The infinitive, partly from its own nature, and partly 
from the usage of the language, cannot occur in all those relations 
to other words, in which an actual substantive would be placed. 
Hence the cases of the gerund (and of the gerundive used for it) 
are not always found where the same cases of a substantive would 
be employed. 

1 In the published editions of Latin authors, such expressions as ad levandum fortu- 
nam for ad levandam fortunam, and the like, are inaccuracies of the press. 


Ons. In a very fewinstai 
dive agreeing with it, is put in apposition with a substantive word, 
construction is such as would be regular for n gerund : Zfnnqv 
urn idem ad res diversissimas, parendum atqve iraperaudum 
ius fait (Liv. XXI. I). Noa Immemor ejus, qvod initio c 
latus imbiberat, reconciliandi amnios plebis (Id. II. 17). 

b. The accusative of the gerund (or of the gerundive combined 
with a substantive) occurs only after a preposition, very frequently 
ad, less frequently inter, during (an action), and ob : — 

Ereve tempus aetatis satis longum est ad bene honesteqve 
vivendum (Cic. Cat. M. 19). Natura animum ornavit sensibus 
ad res percipiendas idoneis (Id. Finn. V. 21). Tuis libris nos- 
met ipsi ad veterum rerum memoriam comprehendendam irnpulsi 
sumus (Id. Brut. 5). (Facilis ad intelligendum. See § 412 
3.) Cicero inter agendum nunqvam est destitutus scientia juris 
(Quinct. XII. 3, 10). T. Herminius inter spoliandum corpus hos- 
tis veruto percussus est (Liv. II. 20). Flagitiosum est ob rem 
judicandam pecuniam accipere (Cic. Verr. II. .'32)- 

Ons. It is only in isolated unusual constructions that the gerund (<>r 
gerundive) stands after ante, in, circa; e.g. Qvae ante conditam 
condendamve urbem traduntur (Liv. praef.), what is handed down 
from the times before the city was built, or in building. Conferre aliqvid 
in rempublicam conservandam atqve amplificandam (( ic. pr 
Man. IC ; usually, ad). 

§ 415. The dative of the gerund or gerundive (which latter is 
almost always found where the gerund, if used, would govern an 
accusative, § 413) is employed after verbs and phrases which may 
have for their remote object an action that is in progress (as, prae- 
esse, operam dare, diem dicere, locum capere, to fix 
place, for the doing of something) ; and after adjectives which de- 
note a fitness and adaptation for a certain action or destination : — 

Praeesse agro colendo (Cic. Rose. Am. 18). Meum laborem 
hominum periculis sublevandis impertio (Id. pro Mur. I). Con- 
sul placandis dis dat operam (Liv. XXII. -J). Ver ostendit fruc- 
tus futuros ; reliqva tempora demetendis fructibus et percipiendis 
accommodata sunt (Cic. Cat. M. 1!>)- Genus armorum aptum 
tegendis corporibus (Liv. XXXII. 10). Area firma templis por- 

ticibusqve sustinendis (Id. II. 5), firm enough t» . Animis 

natum inventumqve poema juvandis (Hor. A. P. 877). (Bui 
such adjectives, ad with the accusative of the gerund hi more frequently 

612 LATIN GRAMMAR. §416 

The dative of the gerund also expresses a destination in official 
appellations (especially with compounds of vir) ; e.g. decemviri 
legibus scribendis; curator muris reficiendis; and after comi- 
tia : — # 

Valerius consul comitia collegae subrogando habuit (Liv. 
II. 8). 

Oi:s. 1. We should especially notice esse with the dative of the 
gerund (esse solvendo) or gerundive, signifying to be in a condition to, 
able to, capable of (particularly of payments and pecuniary obligations) : 
Tributo plebes liberata est, ut divites conferrent, qvi oneri ferendo 
essent (Liv. II. 9). Experiunda res est, sitne aliqvi plebejus, 
ferendo magno honori (Id. IV. 35). (The same construction occurs 
with sufficere.) 

Obs. 2. Some writers occasionally employ the dative of a substantive 
with the gerundive after other expressions also, to denote a destination 
and purpose ; e.g. His avertendis terroribus in triduum feriae in- 
dictae (Liv. III. 5). Non exercitus, non dux, scribendo exer- 
citui erat (Id. IV. 43). Germanicus Caecinam cum qvadraginta 
cohortibus distrahendo hosti ad Airmen Amisiam misit (Tac. 
Aim. I. 60). 

§ 416. The ablative of the gerund or gerundive stands sometimes 
as an ablative of the means and instrument, sometimes after the 
prepositions in, ab, de, ex. 

Homines ad deos nulla re propius accedunt qvam salutem 
hominibus dando (Cic. pro Lig. 12). Volscus stando et vigiliis 
fessus erat (Liv. II. 65). Omnis loqvendi elegantia augetur legen- 
dis oratoribus ct poetis (Cic. de Or. III. 10). Tempus absumere 
legationibus audiendis. In voluptate spernenda virtus vel maxime 
cernitur (Id. Legg. I. 19). Aristotelem non deterruit a scribendo 
amplitudo Platonis (Id. Or. I.). Primus liber Tusculanarum dis- 
putationum est de contemnenda morte (Id. Div. II. 1). Summa 
voluptas ex discendo capitur (Id. Finn. V. 18). 

Obs. 1. Sometimes, the ablative of the gerundive and gerund denotes 
rather the way and manner, the modal relation shown by the identity of 
time, [as, in English, by the word while, " lest while ye gather up the 
tares, ye root up the wheat, also," for which might be substituted, 
"lest by gathering up the tares," &c., which comes very near the 
gerundive expression] : Qvis est enim, qvi nullis officii praeceptis 
tradendis philosophum se audeat dicere? (Cic. Off. I. 2, icho, while 
he teaches no rules of duty). L. Cornelius, complexus Appium, non, 
cui simulabat, consulendo, diremit certamen (Liv. III. 41), while he 


did not consult for the into; sis of the p 
fended to consult . 

Ons. 2. The ablative of the gerund (or genmdive) 
governed by a verb, an adjective, or the preposition pro: Appan 
abstitit contiiiuando magistratu (Li v. IX. ;;i). Contentua posai- 
dendia agria (Id. VI. 11), content with po98ot$ing the Umdt ; asuallr, 
poaaeaaione agrorum. Pro omnibua gentibua conaervandia aut 
juvandia maximos laborea auacipere (Cic. Oil'. III..",). (Nullum 
officium referenda gratia magia eat neceaaarium, I«l. Oil. I. 
the ablative after the comparative.) 

Ohs. ;>. Since the preposition aine is never used with the gerund, the 
beginner may here notice the different ways in which without, followed 
by a verbal noun, is rendered in Latin. That which docs do( happen, 
when spoken of as something contemporaneous, is expressed by the 
participle present, either in apposition to the subject or the object, 
or in the form of the ablative absolute; what does not happen or has 
not happened, previously, by the participle perfect: Miaerum eat 
nihil proficientem angi (Cic. N. D. III. 6). Nihil adverai accidit 
non praedicente me (Id. ad Fam. VI. 6). Romani non rogati Grae- 
cia auxilium offerunt (Liv. XXXIV. 23). Conaul, non exapectato 
auxilio collegae, pugnam committit. Natura dedit uauram vitae 
tanqvam pecuniae, nulla praeatituta die (Cic. Tusc. I. 89), A con- 
dition precedent is expressed by niai : Haec dijudicari non poaaunt, 
niai ante causam cognoverimua (sometimes, Haec dijudicare non 
poterimua niai meliua de cauaa edocti, or, niai cauaa ante cognita. 
See § 424, Obs. 4; § 428, Obs. 2.) To express a necessary conse- 
quence or a necessarily accompanying circumstance, ut non or qvin is 
employed, according to § 440, a, Obs. 3 ; or qvi non : nihil ab illia 
tentatur, de qvo non ante mecum delibereirt In some cat 
connection by a copulative conjunction may convey the same meaning : 
Fieri poteat, ut recte qvia aentiat, et id, qvod aentit, polite eloqvi 
non poaait (Cic. Tusc. I. 3), without being able to express his ideas with 

§ 417. The genitive of the gerund or gerundive stands after sub- 
stantives and adjectives as an objective genitive (§$ 283 and 289) ; 
after substantives which denote the quality of an act, and, further, 
after substantives, as a denning genitive (genitivus definitivus, 
e.g. verbum monendi = the word monere, see § 286) to define a 
generic word by a specific word of the same class : — 

Cum ape vincendi abjeciati etiam pugnandi cupiditatem (Cic. 
ad Fam. IV. 7). Paraimonia eat acientia vitandi sumptua auper- 
vacuoa aut ara re familiari moderate utendi (Sen. de Benef. 1 1 

374 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 417 

Ita nati factiqve sumus, ut et agendi aliqvid et diligendi aliqvos 
et referendae gratiae principia in nobis contineremus (Cic. Finn. 
V. 15). Germanis neqve consilii habendi neqve arma capiendi 
spatium datum est (Cics. B. G. IV. 14). Potestas mini data est 
augendae dignitatis tuae (Cic. ad Fam. X. 13). Voluntas, con- 
svetudo aliqvid faciendi. Vestis frigoris depellendi causa re- 
perta primo est (Id. de Or. III. 38). Sp. Maelius in suspicionem 

incidit regni appetendi (Id. pro Mil. 27, suspicion of aiming at ; 

regni appetiti, of having aimed at ). Cicero auctor non fuit 

Caesaris interficiendi (Id. ad Fam. XII. 2). Principes civitatis 
non tarn sui conservandi qvam tuorum consiliorum reprimendo- 
rum causa Roma profugerunt (Id. Cat. I. 3; =se conservandi. 
For se the genitive sui is put in the neuter, according to § 297, b, if the 
gerundive is used, and that whether se be the singular or the plural) . 
Maxima illecebra est peccandi impunitatis spes (Id. pro Mil. 16 ; 
the genitive with illecebra, according to § 283, Obs. 3). Peritus 
nandi. Valde sum cupidus in longiore te ac perpetua disputa- 
tione audiendi (Cic. de Or. II. 4). Neuter sui protegendi cor- 
poris memor erat (Liv. II. 6) . Difficultas navigandi. Arrogantia 
respondendi, in replying. Triste est nomen ipsum carendi (Cic. 
Tusc. I. 3G), the word "to want?' 1 (Duo sunt genera liberalitatis, 
nnum dandi beneficii, alterum reddendi, Id. Off. I. 15. Compare 
§ 286, Obs. 2.) 

Obs. 1. The genitive of the gerund is not governed by verbs (obli- 
tus sum facere, pudet me facere). 

Obs. 2. Some few substances, which may be constructed with the 
genitive of the gerund, may acquire, in conjunction with est, the force 
of an impersonal expression {will, inclination, &c.~), after which the 
infinitive is employed (§ 389). Thus, we find Tempus est abire (but 
tempus committendi praelii, a favorable time for giving battle) : 
nulla ratio est ejusmodi occasionem amittere (Cic. pro Caec. 5) ; 
consilium est {my plan is = decrevi) exitum exspectare. (The 
following is more unusual : Ii, qvibus in otio vel magnifice vel mol- 
liter vivere copia erat, Sail. Cat. 17 = licebat.) In the same way, 
consilium capio usually stands with the infinitive : e.g. Galli consil- 
ium ceperunt ex oppido profugere (Cass. B. G. VII. 26), sometimes 
also consilium ineo. (The following is the usual construction : M. 
Lepidus interficiendi Caesaris consilia inierat, Veil. II. 88 ; and in 
the passive it is exclusively employed : Inita sunt consilia urbis 
delendae, Cic. pro Mur. 37.) Sometimes, also, the meaning of such a 
phrase gives occasion to the addition of a proposition with ut ; e.g. Sub- 
ito consilium cepi, ut, anteqvam luceret, exirem (Cic. ad Att. VII. 
10. Compare § 373 and § 389, Obs. 1.) Concerning the use of 

§419 OF THE SUPINE, QBBUND, and 01 :. 

the infinitive instead of the genitive of the gerund \>\ tli 
§ 419. 

Obs. 8. Ad is, in a few instances, employed after certain phi 

facultatem dare, afferre, locum, signum dare, aliqva or nulla est ra- 
tio) instead of the genitive of the gerund governed by the substantive; 
e.g. Oppiduni magnam ad ducendum bellum dabat facultatem 
B. G. 1. 88) $ the more usual construction would be ducendi belli. Si 
Cleomenes non tauto ante fugisset, aliqva tarnen ad resistendum 
ratio fuisset (Cic. Verr. V . 84). Ne haec qvidem satis vehemens 
causa ad objurgandum fuit (Ter. Andr. I. 1, 128). 

Ons. 4. The genitive of a substantive and gerundive is sometimes 
subjoined to the verb sum, to denote the purpose which a thing serves 
(or that to which it belongs, somewhat like the genitive, explained in 
§ 282) : Regium imperium initio conservandae libertatis atqve 
augendae reipublicae fuerat (Sail. Cat. G). Tribuni plebis con- 
cordiam ordinum timent, qvatn dissolvendae maxime tribuniciae 
potestatis rentur esse (Liv. V. 3). 

Obs. 5. In a few writers (especially those of a later period), causa 
is sometimes omitted after the genitive of a gerund or a substantive and 
gerundive; e.g. Germanicus in .aigyptum proficiscitur cognos- 
cendae antiqvitatis (Tac. A. II. 59). Perhaps this idiom has 
originated in a genitive, which was added to a substantive, in order 
to define it ; e.g. Marsi miserunt Romam oratores pacis petendae 
(Liv. IX. 45). 

§ 418. Sometimes the gerund is employed less accurately, so as 
to have the appearance of a passive signification, inasmuch as it 
either (especially in the genitive) merely designates the action of 
the verb in general, and so takes the place of a substantive (e.g. 
movendi for motus),or is referred in idea to some other agent than 
the grammatical subject of the proposition: — 

Multa vera videntur neqve tamen habent insignem et propriam 
percipiendi notam (Cic. Acad. II. 31), mark of recognition, mark by 
which they can be known. Antonius hostis judicatus, Italia cesse- 
rat; spes restituendi nulla erat (Corn. Att. 9) — restitutionis or 
fore, ut restitueretur. Jugurtha ad imperandum Tisidium voca- 
batur (Sail. Jug. C2) , that they might give him orders. Annulus in digito 
subtertenuatur habendo (Lucr. I. 813), by our wearing it. (Facilis 
ad intelligendum. See § 412, Obs. 8. Signum recipiendi, / 
treat = Be recipiendi, Cies. B. G. VII. ?>'2.) 

§ 419. The poets often use the simple infinitive after substantives 
(with est), adjectives, and (more rarely) verbs, when the p 

376 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 420 

would require the gerund either iu the genitive, or governed by ad 
or in : — 

Si tanta cupido est bis Stygios innare lacus, bis nigra videre 
Tartara (Virg. iEn. VI. 134) = innandi — videndi. Summa elu- 
dendi occasio est mini nunc senes et Phaedriae curam adimere 
argentariam (Ter. Phorm. V. 6, 3). Pelides cedere nescius (Hor. 
Od. I. 6, 6)=cedendi. Avidus committere pugnam (Ov. Met. 
V. 75). Audax omnia perpeti gens humana (Hor. Od. I. 3, 25) 
= ad omnia perpetienda. Nos numerus sumus et fruges consu- 
mere nati (Id. Ep. I. 2, 27). Fingit eqvum magister ire, viam 
qva monstret eqves (Id. ib. 65). Non mini sunt vires inimicos 
pellere tectis (Ov. Her. I. 109) = ad inimicos pellendos. Durus 
componere versus (Hor. Sat. I. 4, 8) = in versibus componendis. 
(Eqvus, qvem Candida Dido esse sui dederat monumentum et 
pignus amoris, i.q. ut esset, Virg. iEn. V. 572.) 

§ 420. The gerundive (of transitive verbs) denotes something 
that must be done (is to be done) : Vir minime contemnendns 
(virum minime contemnendnm, viro minime contemnendo, &c, 
through all the cases) : Vires hand spernendae. Cognoscite aliud 
genns imperatornm, sane diligenter retinendnm et conservan- 
dnm (Cic. Verr. V. 10). In combination with the verb snm (in 
all the simple tenses of the indicative, subjunctive, and infinitive) 
the gerundive denotes that a certain action is to be done (must be 
done, is proper and necessary). If a definite subject be spoken of, 
to whom the action is a duty (who has to do it), this subject is put 
in the dative (§ 250, 5): — 

Ager colendus est, ut fruges ferat Fortes et magnanimi sunt 
habendi, non qvi faciunt, sed qvi propulsant injuriam (Cic. Off. I. 
19). Tria videnda sunt oratori, qvid dicat et qvo qvidqve loco 
et qvomodo (Cic. Or. 14). Credo rem aliter instituendam (sc. 
esse). Frovideo multas mini molestias exhauriendas fore (that 
I shall have to endure) . Qvaero, si hostis supervenisset, qvid mihi 
faciendum fuerit (corresponding to faciendum fuit, in the indicative ; 

Obs. After a negation, and particularly after vix, the gerund or 
gerundive sometimes takes the modified signification of that which may 
be done : Vix ferendus dolor (Cic. Finn. IV. 19). Vix credendum 
erat (Caes. B. G. V. 28) , it was hardly credible (impersonally. See § 421.) 
In the poets and later writers, videndus is sometimes found even with- 
out a negation, signifying visible (to be seen), and the like. 


§421. a. From intransitive rerbi (whiofa otherwise hsn 

gerundive) the neuter of the gerundive [fl am d with est (sit, esse, 
&c.) as an impersonal phrase (like venitur, ventum est; § 218, c, 
compare § 97), to Bignify that the action must be done. Tin? >ub- 
jeot which has to do something i.s expressed by the dative, i 
the ordinary gerundive and the impersonal phrase governs th< 
case as the verb (dative, ablative, or genitive) : — 

Nunc est bibendum. Proficiscendum mini erat illo ipso die. 
Obtemperandum est legibus. Utendum erit viribus. Obliviscen- 
duin tibi injuriarum esse censeo. 

Ous. 1. If the verb governs the dative, two datives may eome to- 
gether; e.g. Aliqvando isti principes et sibi et ceteris populi 
Romani universi auctoritati parendum esse fateantur (Cic. pi 
Man. 22). But this is rather avoided. Instead of the dative of the agent, 
the ablative with ab is used in a very few instances; e.g. Aguntur 
bona multoruzn civiuni, qvibus est a vobis consulendum (Id. 
ib. 2). 

Ons. 2. The verbs utor, fruor, fungor, potior, have the proper 
gerundive, although they govern the ablative ; e.g. Rei utendae causa. 
Non paranda solum sapientia sed fruenda etiam est (Cic. Finn. I. 
1) ; but, in this construction with the verb sum, the impersonal form is 
more usual (utendum est viribus). 1 

b. The earliest writers sometimes form such an impersonal phrase from 
transitive verbs, and let an accusative follow ; e.g. Mini hac nocte 
agitandum est vigilias (Plaut. Trin. IV. 2, 27), instead of mini hac 
nocte agitandae sunt vigiliae. Aeternas poenas in morte tiinen- 
dum est (Lucr. I. 112). In good prose-writers, this is very unusual. 

§ 422. The gerundive is subjoined to the object, or in the pa 
to the subject of certain verbs, which signify to give, to trans/, r, to 
make over, to take, to obtain (do, mando, trado, impono, relinqvo, 
propono, accipio, suscipio, &c.),in order to specify it as the design 
and purpose of the action, that something should be done to the 
object or subject (to give a person a thing to keep, i.q. that it may 
be kept) : — 

Antigonus Eumenem mortuum propinqvis sepeliendum tra- 
didit (Corn. Eum. 13). Demus nos philosophiae excolendos (( i.-. 
Tusc. IV. 38). Laudem gloriamqve P. Africani tuendam con- 
servandamqve suscepi (Id. Verr. IV. 38). Loco (conduco) opus 
faciendum, vectigal fruendum, to Id (contract for) the execution 

1 Gloriandus (Cic. Tusc. v. 17); obliviscendus (Hor.). 

378 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 424 

work, to farm the revenue. Eqvorum qvattuor millia domauda 
eqvitibus divisa sunt (Liv. XXIV. 20). So also with the verb euro, 
to have a thing done : Caesar pontem in Arari faciendum curat (Cies. 
B. G. I. 13). Conon muros Athenarum reficiendos curavit (Corn. 
Con. 4), had the walls of Athens rebuilt. (Edicendum euro, ut, I have 
it proclaimed, that.) 

Obs. 1. The poets here use the present infinitive active (as is often 
the case in English) ; e.g. Tristitiam et metus tradam protervis in 
mare Creticum portarc ventis (Hor. Od. I. 26, 1). In prose, we 
find Do (ministro) alicui bibere, give one to drink (without an accusa- 
tive) . Jussit ei bibere dare. 

Obs. 2. We sometimes find such expressions as deligere, proponere 
sibi aliqvos ad imitandum (Cic. de Or. III. 31, instead of imitan- 
dos), the verb being taken in its absolute sense. 

Obs. 3. Though it is allowable to say habeo aedem tuendam, the 
keeping up of the temple is intrusted to me, yet habeo statuendum, 
dicendum, &c, / have to decide, must decide (for statuendum mini 
est), is a later idiom. (We must also notice habeo with the infinitive 
of dico, and of similar verbs ; as, scribo, polliceor, in the signification 
I can: Haec fere dicere habui de natura deorum (Cic. N. D. III. 
39), that is what 1 had to say, could say. De republica nihil habui 
ad te scribere, Id. ad Att. II. 22). 



§ 423. A Participle, after the manner of an adjective, but with 
the distinctions of time, present, past, and future, describes a person 
or thing as doing or suffering something, or as being in a certain 
state. The active participles, which represent the person or thing 
as acting, govern the case of their verb ; and all participles may 
themselves be qualified by subordinate propositions or otherwise, 
just as the verb of an independent proposition may be qualified by 
words or clauses introduced into the predicate : — 

Venit Gajus ad me qverens valde miserabiliter de injuria sibi 
a fi atre suo illata. 

§ 424. a. The present and perfect participles are used instead of. 
a relative clause, like an adjective, to qualify a substantive. In such 


a case the participle docs not bring forward any cin bear- 

ing on the main proposition (tee §485): carbo ardens ; legati a 
rege missi. Ordo est recta qvaedam collocatio, prioribus se- 
qventia annectens (Qvintil. VII. 1,1). A participle may lis 
be used substantively in place of a relative clause ; dormiens ~ if, 
qvi dormit. But this is done only where do ambiguity can result 
from it, where there is nothing to lead to the supposition that the 
participle bears on the main proposition as in § 425, most ol* the 
cases being in the plural, and very few in the nominative or accu- 
sative singular (compare § 301, a). A farther definition (by i 
adverbs, prepositions, &c.) is not often subjoined to a participle thai 
stands substantively, in any case only a very short and perspicuous 
one: — 

Jacet corpus dormientis ut mortui (Cic. Div. I. 80). Nihil 
difficile amanti puto (Id. Or. 10). Uno et eodem temporis puncto 
nati (persons who are bom) dissimiles et naturas et vitas habent 
(Id. Div. II. 45). Romulus vetere consilio condentium urbes 
asylum aperit (Liv. I. 8) = eorum, qvi urbes couduut or coudide- 
ruut. Male parta male dilabuntur (Cic. Phil. II. 27). Clodius 
omnium ordinum consensu pro reipublicae salute gesta resciderat 
(Id. pro Mil. 32) = ea, qvae omnium — gesta erant. Imperaturua 
omnibus eligi debet ex omnibus (Plin. Paneg. 7). 

b. The participle present and perfect are often used to express 
not only or chiefly, that the substantive is now doing something or 
that something has been done to it before, but a certain quality and 
a certain state in general, so that the participle acquires precisely 
the nature of an adjective ; e.g. domus ornata, vir bene de repub- 
lic a meritus. Animalia alia rationis expertia sunt, alia ratione 
Utentia (Cic. Off. II. 3), rational Consequently many participles 
admit of degrees of comparison (see § 62), and in this case the 
present participle of transitive verbs generally has the genitive in- 
stead of the accusative (§ 289, a). 

Ons. The future participle cannot be used with the simple force of an 
adjective, except in the particular instance when a relation of time is 
conceived of as a general property of a thing; as, futurus, future, anni 

c. The participle perfect of many verbs has assumed in the neuter 
gender precisely the signification of a substantive, and is treated M 
such; e.g. peccatum, pactum, VOtum. Some participles, partial- 

380 I.M1N liliAMMAlt. §425 

larlv dictum, factum, ami responsum, are used in a substantive 
signification) sometimes precisely m substantive (praeclarum fac- 
tum, fortia facta, ex alterius improbo facto), and sometimes as 
participles combined with adverbs; e.g. recte facta, facete dictum, 
alterius bene inventis obtemperare (Cic pro fluent. 31), espe- 
cially if there 18 also an adjective or possessive pronoun : — 

Multa Catonis et iu senatu et in foro vel provisa prudenter 
vel acta constauter vel respousa acute ferebaiitur (Cic. Lai. 2). 

§ 425. By means of the participles the description of a contem- 
porary, past, or future action, connected with the main action, is 
added appositively to a substantive (or equivalent word) of the 
leading proposition ; the participles thus serving not ouly to fix the 
relative time of the main action, but also its manner and circum- 
stances, such as the motive, occasion, contrast, condition (design). 
Such relations and circumstances are often expressed in English by 
subordinate propositions with conjunctions (while, during, if, after, 
since, because, although), or by phrases with prepositions. The 
participles are therefore well adapted to impart smoothness and 
brevity to the style, especially as they may be annexed not only to 
the subject of the leading proposition (which is most usual), but 
also to the object, either direct or remote, or to a genitive : — 

Acr effluens hue et illuc ventos efficit (Cic. N. 1). II. 39). 
Omne malum nascens facile opprimitur ; inveteratum fit plerum- 
qve robustius (Id. Phil. V. 11), at its birth, — when it lias grown older. 
M.' Curio ad focum sedenti Samnites magnum auri pondus attule- 
runt (Id. Cat. M. 1G). Valet apud nos clarorum hominum me- 
moria etiam mortuorum (Id. pro Sest. 9). Valerium hostes 
acerrime pugnantem occidunt (wliilejighting). Miserum est nihil 
proficientem angi (Cic. N. D. III. G), without doing any good. Diony- 
sius tyrannus cultros metuens tonsorios candenti carbone sibi 
adurebat capillum (Id. OIF. II. 7), for fear of. Risus saepc ita re- 
pente erumpit, ut eum cupientes tenere neqveamus (Id. de Or. II. 
although we with it. Dionysius tyrannus Syracusis expulsus 
Corinthi pueros docebat (Id. Tusc. III. 12), after he had been ex- 
pelled, after hi* expulsion. Claudius audendum aliqvid improvisum 
rebatur, qvod coeptum non minorem apud cives qvam hostes 
terrorem faceret, perpetratum in magnam laetitiam ex magno 
metu verteret (Lit. XXY'II. 43). Romani non rogati Graecis 
ultro adversus Nabin auxilium offerunt (Id. XXXI V. 23). Qvis 
hoc non intelligit, Verrem absolutum tamtn ex manibus populi 

§ 425 

mi oiipi nullo modo posse 

/ M i iki pars bomlnmn <-«t, qvae navlgatura do tern- 
pestatc non cogitat (8cn. dfl Tranq. An M 
Bail. 1 

Ili'llt* Uiiii ll 

verba given in ^ 110, and thai the pn 

\ <• p.irti. iple. 

oi u bit h . 
of which, as a circumstance accompanying tin 
expressed in Latin by the participle, 

ami: Caesar celeriter aggrossus Pompejanos ex vallo dcturbavit 

B. C. III. 67), T. Manlius Toiqvatus Galium, cum qvo 

provocatus manum conscruit, in conspectu duorum excicituum 

UB toiqve spoliavit (Li v. VI. ti'i cecidit et spo; 
Patrimonium Sex. Roscii domestici pracdones vi creptum possi- 
dent (Cic. pro Rose. Am. »i). (We should notice 
the preceding verb in the participle: Romani qvum asbem vi ccpls- 
sent captamqve diripuissent, Carthaginem petuut, Li. Wll. 
20, when they ha I the town, and then plundered it. Romulus 

Caeninensiuni exercitum fundit fugatqve; fusum pcrseqvitur; 
W. I. 10). 

j, :'.. A relative or interrogative proposition ma) al 
il in ;i partic'ipia] form; :i participle which governs i 
interrogative pronoun, or i> defined l>y it, being added to l 
or object of :i proposition (but rarely to another word): Iuaidcb 
mente Phidiae species pulchritudinis eximia qvaedam, qvam 
intuens ad illius similitudincm art em et manum dUrlgebat I I I 

oking to which he , i.q. to which as looked <unl . Cogi- 
tate, qvantis laboribus fundatum imperium, qvanta viitute stabili- 
tam libertatem una nox paene delerit (Id, < at 1\ 

I. [nstead oft complete subordinate propositi* 
is sometimes connected by the particle nisi, when s 
cedes, in order to express an exception or negative condition: Non 
mehercule mihi nisi admonito venisset In menttin 
11. li') nisi admonitus easem. In 1 1 *t • same way, ■ j • 

mes connected (but, in general, only in the la 
time of Liv\) by qvanqvam, qvamvis, qvasi, tanqvam, vel' 
non ante (piius) qvam, to <!• ; or comn 

1 Est apud Platonem Socratos, qvum osset it 
Critoni buo fumiliari. sihi p 

(Dicens denoting tht manner, uot out dicona for d 

382 LATIN GRAMMAR. §426 

the time of the action, which is otherwise expressed by a subordinate 
proposition, introduced for the purpose: Caesarem milites, qvamvis 
recusanteni, ultro in Africam sunt secuti (Svet. Jul. 70). Sagun- 
tini nullum ante fiuem pugnae qvam niorientes fecerunt (Liv. 
XXI. 14) = qvarn mortui sunt. Rubos fessi pervenimus utpote 
longum carpentes iter (llor. Sat. I. 5, 94) = utpote qvi carperemus, 
§ 396, Obs. 2. (On the other hand, the combination of a participle with the 
preposition sine, in phrases like the following, — " without a correspond- 
ing benefit," ^ — is not admissible in Latin. On the proper mode of ex- 
pressing this, see § 416, Obs. 3.) 

Obs. 5. The participle future commonly stands in the older writers 
(Cicero, Ctesar, Sallust) , only in combination with the verb sum, to 
express certain relations of time connected with the action (futurus 
also as a pure adjective) . In the later writers, it serves, like the other 
participles, to denote circumstances and relations, sometimes in the sig- 
nification if or when, sometimes (more frequently) to signify a design, 
or a prospect of something : Perseus, unde profectus erat, rediit, belli 
casum de integro tentaturus (Liv. XLII. G2). Horatius Codes 
ausus est rem plus famae habituram ad posteros qvam fidei (Id. 
II. 10). Hostes carpere multifariam vires Romanas, ut non suf- 
fecturas ad omnia aggressi sunt (Liv. III. 5), thinking that they would 

not . Neqve illis judicium aut Veritas (erat), qvippe eodem 

die diversa pari certamine postulaturis (Tac. H. I. 32). It is also 
employed by the same writers as a concise mode of expressing a whole 
conditional proposition, which should have been subjoined to the preced- 
ing : Martialis dedit mini qvantum potuit, daturus amplius, si 
potuisset (Plin. Ep. III. 21) =et dedisset amplius. 

§ 42G. Sometimes a substantive is used with the perfect participle 
in such a way, that we have to think not so much of the person or 
thing itself in its specified circumstances, as of the action performed 
on the subject considered in itself substantively; e.g.: — 

Rex interfectus, the {perpetrated) murder of the king. (Like the 
gerundive, especially in the genitive, with this difference, that the gerundive 
does not designate the action as completed.) L. Tarqvinius missum 
se dicebat, qvi Catilinae nuntiaret, ne eum Lentulus et Cethegus 
deprehensi terrerent (Sail. Cat. 48), that the arrest of L. and C. 
should not alarm him. Pudor non lati auxilii patres cepit (Liv. 
XXI. 1G). Sibi qvisqve caesi regis expetebat decus (Curt. IV. 
58) . Regnatum est Romae ab condita urbe ad liberatam annos 
ducentos qvadraginta qvattuor (Liv. I. GO), from the foundation of 
the city to its liberation. Ante Capitolium incensum (M. VI. 4). 
Major ex civibus amissis dolor qvam laetitia fusis hostibus fuit 

§428 CHI PAHXI4 II; g88 

(Lis. IV. L7), at (he loss oj » ob surreptum 

e viridario pavonem capite puniit (S\.; 

is particularly employed, in order to obtain I 

sion, when the corresponding verbal ■ . i » - .1 . t i . < i not ii 

condere, iiiterficere, nasci.) 

Obs. l. Livy uses, in this way, even the participle <>f an intran 
verb standing by itself in the neuter with an impel unification : 

Tarqvinius Superbus bellica arte aeqvasset superiores regc I 
degeneratuni in aliia huic qvoqve laudi offecisset (Liv. I. 68), the 
circumstance that he hud degenerated in other respect*, his n% 
acy. 1 

Obs. 2. Concerning the participle perfect in the ablative with opus 
est, see § 266, Ubs. 

§ 427. Habeo in combination with a participle passive perfect of 
verbs of insight or determination (the participle being eithi r 
nppositively with the object of the verb, or standing alone in the 
neuter) forms a kind of periphrastic perfect active, which at the 

same time indicates the present condition ; habeo aliqvid perspec- 
tum having not merely the force of perspexi, but signifying, that 1 
now have this insight into a thing, and that it stands before me 
clearly investigated : — 

Si Curium nondum satis habes cognitum, valde tibi eum com- 
meudo (Cic. ad Fain. XIII. 7). Tu si habes jam statutum, qvid 
tibi agendum putes, supersedeto hoc labore itineris (Id. ad Fain. 
IV. 2). Verres deorum templis bellum semper habuit indictum 
(Id. Verr. V. 72), was always at open war with the temples* 

Obs. The periphrasis factum (rem factam) dabo for faciam is 

^ 128. A participle combined with a subject and pat in the abla- 
tive is annexed to another proposition in the way described in § 277 
its an ablative absolute, to show that the main action takes pU 
the same time with the action expressed in the participle (present), 
or after it (perfect), or while it is to take place (future), and by 
these means to indicate the time of the main action, the occasion of 
ii, the way in which it is performed, a contrast, a condition, 
The participle! in the ablative absolute may be limited and qualified 
by eases, propositions, and adverbs, just a- the proposition for 

1 Notum, furens qvid femina possit (Vlig. An. v. I 
Sonu'tiincs an aajeetlTA U used Instead of a parttoiple: vix una sospes navis ab hoeti- 
bus(IIur. Od. 1.37,13). 


which this ablative is substituted might have been qualified by the 

same : — 

Homerus fuit et Hesiodus ante Roniam conditam, Archilochus 
regnante Romulo (Cic. Tusc. I. 1). Qvaeritur, utruni niundus {the 
firmament) terra stante circumeat, an niundo stante terra vertatur 
(Sen. Q. X. VII. 2). Perditis rebus omnibus, tameu ipsa virtus 
se susteutare potest (Cic. ad Fam. VI. 1). Caesar homines inhnico 
ammo, data facultate per provinciam itineris faciendi, nou teni- 
peraturos ab injuria existiniabat (Ca?s. B. G. I. 7), if (in case that) 

the jwrnission should be given them . Parumper silentium et 

qvies fuit, nee Etruscis, nisi cogerentur, pugnam inituris et dicta- 
tore arcem Romanam respectante (Liv. IV. 18). 

Obs. 1. Ablatives absolute are not commonly used, when the person 
or thing which should form their subject occurs in the main proposition 
as the subject, object, or remote object; for, in that case, the participle 
is introduced in agreement with that subject or object : Manlius caesum 
Galium torqve spoliavit, not Manlius, caeso Gallo, eum torqve 
spoliavit; still less, Manlius Galium, caeso eo, t. sp. Hosti ce- 
dent! instandum est (not, hoste cedente, ei instandum est). Some- 
times, however, ablatives absolute are found in such cases, in order to 
draw a more marked distinction between the contents of the participial 
and those of the leading proposition, and to indicate more prominently 
the order of events or the relation they bear to each other : Vercinget- 
orix, convocatis suis clientibus facile incendit (sc. eos) (Cses. B. 
G. VII. 4) . Nemo erit, qvi credat, te invito, provinciam tibi esse 
decretam (Cic. Phil. XI. 10)= tibi invito provinciam e. d. (Se 
judice nemo nocens absolvitur, Juv. XIII. 3, before his own judg- 
ment-scat.) For the same reason the ablative absolute is generally made 
use of, where the subject of the participle stands in the genitive in the 
leading proposition : M. Porcius Cato vivo qvoqve Scipione alla- 
trare ejus magnitudinem solitus erat (Liv. XXXVJII. 54). 
Jugurtha fratre meo interfecto regnum ejus sceleris sui praedam 
fecit (Sail. Jug. 14). 

Ons. 2. Ablatives absolute, like a simple participle (see § 424, Obs. 
4) may sometimes be subjoined with nisi, when a negation precedes, to 
point out an exception : Nihil praecepta atqve artes valent nisi adju- 
vante natura (Qvinct. Prooem. §26)= nisi qvum adjuvat natura. 
Regina apum non procedit foras nisi migraturo agmine (Plin. H. 
N. XI. 17) =nisi qvum agmen migraturum est. So likewise ablatives 
absolute may be connected with the sentence in which they stand by 
qvanqvam, qvamvis or qvasi, tanqvam, velut, or non ante (prius) 
qvam : Caesar, qvanqvam obsidione Massiliae summaqve frumen- 
tariae rei penuria retardante, brevi tamen omnia subegit (Svet. Jul. 

§ 428 rHI PARTICIP1 

14). Albani, velut diia qvoqve simul cum patria relictis, sacra ob- 

livioiii dederajit (Liv. I. 81) vclut si deos . . . reliquisbeii' 

this oooatruotion rarely ocean in the earlier irriters, frith w\ 

it is almost entirely confined to qui 

vecta, uon, praedonibus captis, si qui senes 

eos in hostium numero ducit (( lie. Verr, V. 

Obs. .'). Ablatives absolute of the participle future arc rar 
met with in the older writers. (Compare § 425, 

Obs. 4. Ablatives absolute in the passive, with a leading propo 

in the active, usually denote an action proceeding from th oftho 

leading proposition, unless the name of an agent with ab is added to the 

passive participle ; e.g. Cognito Caesaris adventu, Ariovistus legatos 
ad eum mittit. In this ease the leading subject sometii 
between the two ablatives : e.g. His Caesar cognitis milites aggerem 
comportare jubet (Cses. 1>. ('. 111. 62). (C. Sernproaius causa 
ipse pro se dicta damnatur, Liv. IV. 44 ; i.q. qvum ipse causara pro 
se dixisset.) Sometimes the ablatives absolute express something that 
has happened with reference to the leading subject : Hannibal, spe po- 
tiundae Nolae adernpta, Acerras recessit (Liv. XXIII. 17). Aedui 
Caesarem certiorem faciunt, sese, depopulatis agris, non facile ab 
oppidis vim hostium prohibere (Cass. B. G. I. 11, after their 
had been already plundered) . 

Obs. 5. To the participle in the ablative absolute it is not usual to add 
other ablatives, which might lead to a sacrifice of euphony or perspicuity; 
indeed, long and complicated propositions in general are not often ex- 
pressed in this way. Another participle is rarely added as an adjective 
in the ablative absolute ; e.g. Defosso cadavere domi apud T. Scs- 
tium invento, C. Julius Sestio diem dixit (Liv. III. 83). Writers 
generally endeavor to avoid such a concurrence of two parti< 
(Eumene pacatiore invento, Liv. XXX Y II. 45. See § 227. 

Obs. 6. Occasionally turn (turn vero, turn deniqve) follow 
ablative absolute, in order emphatically to indicate that its action U ante- 
cedent to the act expressed by the leading verb, and is ii^ h . 
dition : Hoc constitute turn licebit otiose ista qvaerere (Cic. Finn. 
IV. 13). Sed confecto proelio, turn vero cerneres, qvauta animi 
vis fuisset in exercitu Catilinae (Sail. Cat. <*>1). 

OBS. 7. The ablative absolute can also take a relative or inter 
tive form, the subject in it being a relative, or the question of I 
applying only to some accompanying circumstance : Id habes an: 
ingenium, qvo exculto summa omnia facile asseqvi possis (by the 

1 The following complicated construction occurs in l.iv. I. 16 1 conciliate plebis VO» 
luntate agro capto ex hoatibus viritim diviso. 


cultivation of which). Qva freqventia omnium generum prose- 
qveute creditis uos Capua profectos? (Liv. VII. 30). Qvaerunt, 
qvo admoueute hoc mini in mentem venerit. 

§ 129. Sometimes the ablative of a participle perfect stands alone im- 
personally in the same way as the ablative of a substantive and participle in 
combination, followed by a dependent proposition (accusative with the 
infinitive, interrogative proposition, or ut). (So in particular audito, 
cognito, comperto, intellecto, nuntiato, edicto, permisso, and some- 
times a few others.) Alexander, audito, Darium movisse ab Ecba- 
tanis (had set out from Ecb at ana), fugientem inseqvi pergit (Curt. V. 
35). Consul, statione eqvitum ad portam posita, edictoqve, ut, 
qvicunqve ad vallum tenderet, pro hoste haberetur, fugientibus 
obstitit (Liv. X. 30). x 

Obs. 1. Sometimes a participle stands alone without any thing depend- 
ing on it : Tribuni militum, non loco castris ante capto, non prae- 
munito vallo, nee auspicato, nee litato, instruunt aciem (Liv. V. 
38). (Compare the adverbs auspicato, consulto, &c. § 198, a, Obs. 2.) 

Obs. 2. In the ablative absolute the subject may be left out and 
understood, if it is an indefinite or demonstrative pronoun, which has a 
relative corresponding to it : Additur dolus, missis, qvi magnam vim 
lignorum ardentem in flumen conjicerent (Liv. I. 37) . (Caralitani, 
simul ad se Valerium mitti audierunt, nondum profecto ex Italia, 
sua sponte ex oppido Cottam ejiciunt, Cses. B. C. I. 30, where eo 
has to be supplied from the context.) 

§ 430. As the methods of indicating that a second act introduced 
into a sentence is only a qualification of the main proposition are 
various (by a subordinate proposition with a conjunction, by a par- 
ticiple in agreement with some word in the proposition, and by the 
ablative absolute), it is usual, when a long series of circumstances 
is to be given, to vary the syntax, the participial constructions 
being either subjoined to the subordinate proposition (the protasis) 
to explain and define it, or entering into the leading proposition : — 

Consul, nuntio circumventi fratris conversus ad pugnam, dum 
se temere magis qvam caute in mediam dimicationem infert, 
vulnere accepto, aegre ab circumstantibus ereptus, et suorum 
animos turbavit et ferociores hostes fecit (Liv. III. 5). Yet a 

series of ablatives absolute is occasionally employed to express circum- 
stances which follow in succession (e.g. Cass. B. G. III. 1). This 

1 Incerto is found as an equivalent expression for qvum incertum esset in Livy 
XXVIII. 36. 

§431 PHI i'Ai:iKii, 

depends on the greater or less care which the writer ha 
precision of expression. 

§ 131. a. The participle denotes the lime with reference to the 
leading verb of the proposition, so that, If this be in the preterite, 

the participle present has the signification of the imp.i l.«t (prae- 
sens in praeterito), the participle perfect that of the plup 
(praeteritum in praeterito), and the participle future that of the 
futurum in praeterito, and this must also be borne in mind in 
tying time in subordinate propositions depending on a participle. 
(Haec omnia Titius pridem mutavit me probante, signifies, there- 
fore, with my approbation at the time, not ichich 1 now approve,) 

b. The participle perfect of deponents or half-deponents is Dot 
nnfrequently joined to the subject instead of the participle pres- 
ent (imperfect) to indicate the motive, occasion, or manner of the 
main action (since) : — 

Fatebor me in adolescentia, diffisum ingenio meo, qvaesisse ad- 
jumenta doctrinae (Cie. pro Mur. SO). Caesar, iisdem ducibus 
usus, qvi nuntii venerant, Numidas et Cretas sagittarios subsidio 
oppidanis mittit (Cecs. B. G. II. 7). Ego copia et facilitate causae 
confisus, vide, qvo progrediar (Cie. pro Rose Com. 1). Vet this 
occurs chiefly in the historical style, where the leading proposition is, in 
the perfect or historical present, or in those eases where the present par- 
ticiple is not in use (ratus, solitus). 

Obs. 1. With these exceptions there arc bat few instances of the 
participle perfect inaccurately used attributively with the force of a 
present: Melior tutiorqve est certa pax qvam sperata victoria 
(Liv. XXX. 30) =qvae speratur. So called is never expressed in Latin 
by ita dictus, but by qvi dicitur, qvi vocatur, qvem vocant. 

Obs. 2. In some writers (Livy and those of a later period) we i 
sionally find ablatives absolute formed with the participle perfect I 
press a circumstance which does not precede, but accompanies or follows 
the main action : Volsci inermes oppressi dederunt poenas, vlx 

mintiis caedis relictis (Liv. TV. 10), so that scarcely . Hannibal 

totis viribus aggressus urbem momento cepit, signo dato, at omnes 
puberes interficerent (Id. XXI. 14). Suetonius Paullinus bieimio 
prosperas res habuit, subactis nationibus firniatisqve praesidiis 
(Tac. Agric. 14), while he subdued nations. 

388 LATIN GRAMMAR. 8433 



§ 432. The Coordination of Propositions (§ 328) is denoted by 
copulative, disjunctive, and adversative conjunctions. 

§ 433. The Copulative Conjunctions are et, qve (which is 
affixed to the end of a word), ac (atqve), and (combined with a 
negation) nee, neqve, and not. Et simply connects two coordinate 
words or propositions, without any additional signification whatever ; 
while qve rather marks the second member as a supplement to the 
first, and as a continuation or enlargement of it ; e.g. : — 

Solis et lunae reliqvorumqve siderum ortus ; de ilia civitate to- 
taqve provincia. Pro salute hujus imperii et pro vita civium 
proqve universa republica (Cic. pro Arch. 11). Prima seqventem 
honestum est in secundis tertiisqve consistere. Tu omnium 
divinarum humanarumqve rerum nomina, genera, causas aperuisti, 
plurimumqve poetis nostris, omninoqve Latinis et litteris luminis 
et verbis attulisti (Cic. Acad. I. 3). Mini vero nihil unqvam 
populare placuit, eainqve optimam rempublicam esse duco, qvam 
hie consul constituit (Id. Legg. III. 17). * It is therefore often em- 
ployed to connect two notions which are to be considered as a connected 
whole (senatus populusqve Romanus, but Caesare et Bibulo con- 
sulibus, of the two consuls considered as equal), or with two words, 
which express only one leading idea (jus potestatemqve habere). (In 
many cases no distinction is made : noctes et dies, noctes diesqve. 
Rerum divinarum et humanarum scientia, Cic. Off. I. 43 ; omnium 
divinarum humanarumqve rerum consensio, Id. Lael. 6). Ac 
(which only stands before consonants) or atqve (before consonants and 
(vowels) puts forward the second member somewhat more forcibly in 
comparison with the first as distinct from it and equally important (omnia 
honesta atqve inhonesta, the unbecoming no less than the becoming : 
omnium rerum, divinarum atqve humanarum, vim, naturam, cau- 
sasqve nosse, Cic. de Or. I. 49) . Yet this accessory signification is often 
not to be recognized, especially with the shorter form ac, which is used 

1 Examples of a series of such additions and continuations may be seen in Cicero, Legg. I. 
23, and Phil IX. 7. 


for variety with et, if one of the two connected membi 

divided: Magnifica vox et magno viro ao sapiente digna (( 'i. •. < )it. 

III. 1). Concerning neqve, see § 458. 

Ope. 1. Et is sometimes employed a- an adverb for attain, aUo : but 
in the earlier writers, it, for the moat part, occuri only in certain com- 
binationa ; e.g. simul et, et nunc (sed et), &C. 

0b6. 2. If a negative proposition is followed by an atlinnative, in 

which the same thought is expressed or continued, qve, et, or ac, is 
employed in Latin, where in English we DM but : Socrates nee patro- 
nuni qvaesivit ad judicium capitis nee judicious supplex fuit, 
adhibuitqve liberam contumaciam, a magnitudine animi ductam 
(Cic. TusC. I. 29). Tamen aiiimo non deficiam, et id, qvod sus- 
cepi, qvoad potero, perferam (Id. pro Rose. Am. I), Nostrorum 
militum impetum hostes ferre non potuerunt ac terga verteruut 
(('as. 13. G. IV. 35). 

§ 434. The omission of the copulative conjunctions (Asyndeton) 1 
occurs in Latin in quick and animated, not only where 
there are three or more members, but even with two : — 

Aderant amici, propinqvi (Cic. Yerr. I. 48) . Adsunt, qveruntur 
Siculi universi (Id. Div. in Ca?c. IV.). So occasionally, in speaking 
of colleagues in office : Cn. Pompejo, M. Crasso consulibus ; in ex- 
amples : In feris inesse fortitudinem saepe dicimus, ut in eqvis in 
leonibus (Id. Off. I. 1G) ; in contrasts, which embrace a whole class of 
subjects : prima, postrema ; fanda, nefanda ; aedificia omnia, pub- 
lico, pri vat a ; ultro, citro; and in certain expressions of judicial official 
language, when two words are put together for greater accuracy : qvic- 
qvid dare facere oportet: aeqvum bonum, right and justice. Qvi 
damnatus est, erit, he who has been or shall be condemned. 

Obs. 1. In an enumeration of three or more perfectly coordinate 
words, we may either connect each of them with the preceding by a 
conjunction, if we wish to give a certain prominence to each (Polysynde- 
ton), 2 or omit the conjunction entirely : surama fide, constantia, justi- 
tia; monebo, praedicam, denuntiabo, testabor ; ' or omit it between 
the first members, and annex qve to the last : summa fide, constantia, 
justitiaqve (but Ave must avoid, in this case, using et, ac, or atqve, 
unless with a desire to mark the last member as distinct from the rest). 
So also alii, ceteri, reliqvi, stand at the end of an enumeration with- 
out a conjunction (honores, divitiae, cetera) or with qve, rarely with 

i devvderoc, unconnected. 

2 nol^vovvfieToc , connected in many ways. 

3 As in the aboye example, four wonts thoa Halted without oanjunetloiii an- often made up 
of two pair of words which are either nearly connected or uiutualh 


et ; and we always find postremo, deniqve, not et postremo, et deni- 
qve. (Sibi liberisqve et genti Numidarum, where the two first ideas 
are more nearly connected.) 

Obs. 2. The place of a copulative conjunction may be supplied, in 
animated discourse, by repeating, in each member of the sentence, a 
word common to all (Anaphora) : Si recte Cato judicavit, 11011 recte 
frumentarius ille, noil recte aedium pestilentium venditor tacuit 
(Cic. Off. III. 16). Nos deorum immortalium templa, nos muros, 
nos domicilia sedesqve populi Romani, aras, focos, sepulcra majo- 
runi defendimus (Id. Phil. VIII. 3). Another conjunction may be 
repeated in the same way : Si loca, si fana, si campum, si canes, si 
eqvos consvetudine adamare solemus, qvantum id in hominum 
consvetudine faoilius fieri poterit? (Cic. Finn. I. 20). Nee tamen 
omnes possunt esse Scipiones aut Maximi, ut urbium expugna- 
tiones, ut pedestres navalesqve pugnas, ut bella a se gesta, ut 
triumphos recordentur (Id. Cat. M. 5) . Promisit, sed difficulter, 
sed subductis superciliis, sed malignis verbis (Sen. de Benef. 1. 1). 

Obs. 3. We cannot, in Latin, subjoin an illative adverb (itaqve, igi- 
tur, ergo) to a copulative particle (as in English, and therefore, and 
consequently) ; we must therefore say propterqve earn, causam, and 
the like. 

§ 435. a. Both members of a combination are rendered promi- 
nent by et — et, both — awe?, for which qvo — et and qve — qve 
are occasionally employed in some writers. 

Obs. 1. Qve — et connect only single words, not propositions: e.g. 
Legatiqve et tribuni (Liv. XXIX. 22), seqve et ducem (and that not 
in all writers, e.g. in Cicero) ; qve — qve (also not found in all writers) 
are used with a double, relative proposition : Qviqve Romae qviqve in 
exercitu erant (Liv. XXII. 26) = et qvi — • et qvi ; but otherwise, they 
rarely occur in prose, and only to connect single words, the first of which 
is a pronoun: Meqve regnumqve meum (Sail. Jug. 10). Et — qve 
are only found as a loose way of connecting two propositions : Qvis 
est, qvin intelligat, et eos, qvi haec fecerint, dignitatis splendore 
ductos immemores fuisse utilitatum suarum, nosqve, qvum ea 
laudemus, nulla alia re nisi honestate duci? (Cic. Finn. V. 22). 

Obs. 2. Concerning neqve — et, et — neqve, see § 468, c. 

Obs. 3. Qvum — turn, both — and (concerning the mood, when 
qvum forms a subordinate proposition, see § 358, Obs. 3). Turn — 
turn always signifies at one time, at another time, as also modo — modo, 
nunc — nunc, more rarely in prose jam — jam. (With these, and simi- 
lar partitive phrases, a copulative particle is never used.) Less usual 
expressions are qva — qva (of two single words) : e.g. qva consules, 


qva exercitum hostes increpabant; and simul — siniul, win. h last 
approaches, in signification, to partim — partim: i increpare simul 
tumultum, simul ignaviam militum. 

Ons. 1. li may here be observed, «H» I description u 

followed by something more .special, no Midi particle as tin- 1. 
namely is used in Latin: Veteres philosophi in qvattuor vi, 
omnem honestatem dividebaut, prudentiani, justitiam, fortimd:- 
nem, modestiam {namely, prudence, justice, ftc). [fan expU 
is added in a new proposition, nam and enim are made D 
ties enim sunt causae, there are namely lino The rord 

nempe signifies surely (is it not 80$), and expresses our com 
that what we say will not be denied. 

§ 43G. The Disjunctive Conjunctions are aut, vel (ve, at- 
tached to a word), sive. Two words which are essentially different 
in meaning are separated by aut : — 

Officia omnia aut pleraqve servantem vivere (Cic. Finn. IV 
Nihil aut non multum (non multum aut nihil omuhio ; semel aut 
non saepe). 

The simple aut is therefore particularly used in questions whieh 
imply an objection or a negative, or in expressing sentiments of 
disapprobation, when we wish to separate the ideas, and to keep 
them distinct : — 

Ubi sunt ii, qvos miseros dicis, aut qvem locum incolunt ? 
(Cic. Tusc. I. 6). Qvid est majus aut dimcilius qvam severi- 
tatem cum misericordia conjungere? Homines locupletes et 
honorati patrocinio se usos aut clientes appellari mortis instar 
putant (Cic. OIF. II. 20). (Concerning aut alter a negative, see ^ 453, 
c, Obs. 2.) Vel denotes a distinction, which is of no importance, ":• 
relates only to the choice of an expression ; e.g. A virtute profectum 
vel in ipsa virtute positum (Cic. Tusc. II. 20) ; in the earlier writers 
especially, Avhen a more suitable expression is added (also, vel potius ; 
vel dicam; vel.ut verius dicam; vel etiam). 1 

An unimportant distinction or one of name only is likewia 
pressed by ve, either with subordinate accessory ideas of the lead- 
ing proposition, or (which is more usual) in subordinate proposi- 
tions: — 

1 Aut eloqventiae nomen relinqvendum est (Clo. de <>r. n 
concidat omne caelum, omnisqve natura conaistat necesse es' 

392 LATIN GRAMMAIi. §437 

Post hanc contionem duabus tribusve horis optatissimi nuntii 
veuerunt (Cic. Phil. XIV. 6). Timet, ne qvid plus rainusve qvam 
sit necesse dicat (Cic. pro Flacco. 5 ; si plus minus ve dixero). Non 
satis est judicare, qvid faciendum non faciendumve sit (Id. Finn. 
I. 14). Aut — aut repeated denotes an opposition, in which the mem- 
bers exclude one another, or at least are considered as distinct and sepa- 
rate : Omne enuntiatum aut verum aut falsum est ; aut omnino 
aut magna ex parte. Aut inimicitias aut labores aut sumptus sus- 
cipere nolunt (Cic. Off. I. 9). Vel — vel denotes such a distinction, 
that the things distinguished may, nevertheless, be connected {partly — 
partly), or it is indifferent (with reference to what is asserted) which is 
chosen, or such as properly relates only to a difference of expression : 
Postea, vel qvod tanta res erat, vel qvod nondum audieramus Bibu- 
lum in Syriam venisse, vel qvia administratio hujus belli mi hi 
cum Bibulo paene est communis, qvae ad me delata essent, scri- 
benda ad vos putavi (Cic. ad Fam. XV. 1) . Nihil est tarn conve- 
niens ad res vel secundas vel adversas qvam amicitia (Id. Lsel. 
o) . Una atqve altera aestas vel metu vel spe vel poena vel proe- 
miis vel armis vel legibus potest totam Galliam sempiternis vin- 
culis adstringere (Cic. Prov. Cons. 14). (Ve — ve has the same signi- 
fication in the poets.) 

Obs. Vel has also the signification even, especially with superlatives : 
e.g. vel optime ; fructus vel maximus. Per me vel stertas licet 
(Cic. Acad. II. 29). It is used also in citing examples (/or example, 
-particularly) : Raras tuas qvidem sed svaves accipio litteras ; vel, 
qvas proximo acceperam, qvam prudentes! (Cic. ad Fam. II. 13). 
Qvam sis morosus vel ex hoc intelligi potest, qvod. 

Sive (seu) stands not only in the signification of vel si, or if, as a 
conditional conjunction (§ 442, b), but also as a mere disjunctive con- 
junction, when it denotes a distinction which is not essential, or of im- 
portance. Nihil perturbatius hoc ab urbe discessu sive (seu) 
potius turpissima fuga (Cic. ad Att. VIII. 3). Ascanius florentem 
urbem matri seu novercae reliqvit (Liv. I. 3). (In the best writers, 
when used singly, it is generally found with potius, in correction of what 
ha. been previously said.) With sive — sive (by which, however, only 
nouns and adverbs, and not verbs, can be connected with this significa- 
tion) , it is left undecided which member is the right one, as a thing 
of no importance, so far as the purport of the sentence is concerned: 
Ita sive casu sive consilio deorum immortalium, qvae pars civi- 
tatis Helvetiae insignem calamitatem populo Romano intulerat, 
ea princeps poenas persolvit (Caes. B. G. I. 12). 

§ 437. The Adversative Conjunctions are sed, antem, verum. 
(vero, ceterum), at. Yet it is to be remarked that these words 

§437 C0NJUNOTI0N8 AM) PABTI4 i.i 

often serve to introduce b new independent proposition without any 
grammatical connection, properly bo called. 

Obs. Au tern and vero do not stand al the beginning oft pn 

tion, but after a word, or two closely connected words, u, for example, ■ 
preposition with its case (de republica vero) ; autem, even 
raJi which cannot be well separated. 

a. Sed denotes something which alters, limits, or sets aside what 
goes before (and corresponds on the whole ino.-i nearly to tie 

lish but) : — 

Ingeniosus homo, sed in omni vita inconstans. Non contentio 
animi qvaeritur, sed relaxatio. Saepe ab amico tuo dissensi, sed 
sine ulla ira. (Non qvod — , sed qvia ; non modo — sed, fee.) In 
transitions it is employed where one leaves a subject and docs nut mention 
it further: Sed haec parva sunt; veniamus ad majora. Ego a 
Qvinto nostro non dissentio ; sed ea, qvae restant, audiamus 
(Cie. Legg. III. 11). 

b. With autem, on the contrary, we only add something that is 
different from the preceding; and it denotes an opposition which 
does not set aside what goes before, or serves simply to add an ob- 
servation or to continue the discourse : — 

Gyges a nullo videbatur ; ipse autem omnia videbat (Cic. Off. 
ITT. 9) . Mens mundi providet, primum ut mundus qvam aptissi- 
mus sit ad permanendum, deinde ut nulla re egeat, niaxime autem, 
ut in eo eximia pulchritudo sit (Id. N. D. II. 22). Orationes 
Caesaris mihi vehementer probantur ; legi autem complures (Id. 
Brut. 75) . Nunc, qvod agitur, agamus ; agitur autem, liberine 
vivamus an mortem obeamus (Id. Phil. XL. 10). Est igitur homini 
cum deo rationis societas ; inter qvos autem ratio, inter eos etiam 
recta ratio communis est (Id. Legg. I. 7). 

c. At emphatically calls the attention to something different and 
opposed {on the other hand), and connects it with what goes before 
rather as an independent proposition: — 

Magnae divitiae, vis corporis, alia omnia hujusmodi brevi 
dilabuntur; at ingenii egregia facinora immortalia sunt (Sail. Jug. 
2). At is frequently employed to introduce in a new proposition so ob- 
jection started by one's sell* or another, or the answer toan objection 
but) : At memoria minuitur (Cic. Cat. M. 7), certainly, but it is 
said thai the memory is impaired. Nisi forte ego vobis cessare 
nunc videor, qvod bella non gero. At senatui, qvae sint ge- 
renda, praescribo, et qvomodo (Id. ib. 6). (This signification il still 

89-1 LATIN GRAMMAR. §437 

stronger in at enim, at vero.) At often stands too in the signification 
yet, however (at least, after conditional propositions) : Si se ipsos illi 
nostri liberatores e couspectu nostro abstulerunt, at exemplum 
reliqveruut (Cic. Phil. II. 4-t). Res, si non splendidae, at toler- 
abiles (at tolerabiles tameu, attamen tolerabiles) . At is also to be 
noticed in interrogative exclamations subjoined to a sentence : Una 
mater Cluentium oppugnat. At qvae mater! (Cic. pro Cluent. 70). 
Aeschines in Demosthenem invehitur. At qvam rhetorice ! qvam 
copiose ! (Id. Tusc. IH. 26). And in prayers and wishes that break 
out suddenly : At te di deaeqve perduint ! (Ter. Hec. I. 2, 59). 

Obs. Atqvi denotes an objection and assurance (pretty much 
the same as yes, but indeed) ; in conclusions it signifies but now 
(further) : Qvod si virtutes sunt pares, paria etiam vitia esse 
necesse est. Atqvi pares esse virtutes facillime perspici potest 
(Cic. Par. III. 1. Autem is likewise sometimes used in this sense). 

d. Verum has nearly the same signification as sed (e.g. sed etiam 
aud verum etiam, and in transitions : Verum de his satis dictum 
est), but somewhat more decidedly corrects what has gone before. 
Ceterum is used by some writers (Sallust, Livy) instead of sed, or 
verum, in many, but not in all combinations (e.g. not ceterum 
etiam). Vero contains properly an assurance and confirmation 
(certainly), but stands as a conjunction, when that which follows is 
asserted and maintained still more strongly than that which pre- 
cedes, particular emphasis falling on the word before vero : — 

Musica Romanis moribus abest a principis persona, saltare vero 
etiam in vitio ponitur (Corn. Epam. 1) ; or, saltare vero multo 
etiam magis, or saltare vero ne libero qvidem dignum judicatur. 
Turn vero furere Appius (historical infinitive), but then Ajjpius 
became quite raving. In the same way we find neqve vero, and (but) 
also not, and that not : Est igitur causa omnis in opinione, nee vero 
aegritudinis solum, sed etiam reliqvarum omnium perturbationum 
(Cic. Tusc. III. 11). Vero may likewise be added to qvum — turn, to 
emphasize the truth of a statement: Pompejus qvum semper tuae 
laudi favere mini visus est, turn vero, lectis tuis litteris, perspectus 
est a me toto animo de te ac de tuis commodis cogitare (Cic. ad 
Fam. I. 7). 

Obs. An adversative conjunction is often omitted, when the subjects 
of two propositions are brought into contrast by the different things pred- 
icated of them ; or when the same thing differently qualified is predicated 
of them. The same omission occurs between two subordinate propositions 
which are coordinate with each other, provided their mutual relation is suffi- 
ciently obvious without the conjunction : Opinionum commenta delet 


dies, naturae judicia confirmat ((So. X. 1>. II :.')- Opifices In artifi- 
ciis suis utuntur vocabulis nobis incognitis, usitatis sibi 
III. -_'). Qvum prhno Galli tantum avidi oertamlnll ! 
Romanus miles rueudo in diniicationem aliqvaj 
ferociam vinceret, dictatori neutiqvam placebat fortunae sc com- 
rnittere adversus hostem iis animis corporibnsqve, qvornm omnia 
in impetu vis esset, parva eadem langvesceret mora (Lit. VII. 
12). Qvid est, qvamobrem abs te Q. Hortensii factum 11011 repre- 
hendatur, reprehendatur meum (Cic. pro Soil. 1). 

§ 438. Sometimes two coordinate propositions, whether conni 

by means of autem and vero, or standing together without any con- 
junction, must be understood to combine their meaning in inch a 
way, that they together only make one assertion. The tense might 
therefore be expressed (and often is expressed in English) by sub- 
ordinating the one proposition to the other by means of a con junc- 
tion. This form of expression is made use of, when, in order to 
prove something, we seek to draw attention to the agreerhenl or 
difference, compatibility or incompatibility, of two propositions, and 
the combined propositions are either expressed interrogatively 
(rarely in the negative), or attached to a leading proposition which 
points to the combination of the two as incongruous or absurd. 

Qvidigitur? Hoc pueri possunt, viri non poterunt? (Cic. 
II. 14). Cur igitur jus civile docere semper pulchrum fuit, ad 
dicendum si qvis acuat aut adjuvetin eo juventutem vituperetur? 
(Id. Or. 41), if therefore it was always a credit able thin;/ — , ir/iy .should 
any one be censured — ? Est profecto divina vis, neqve in his cor- 
poribus atqve in hac imbecillitate nostra inest qviddam, qvod 
vigeat et sentiat, et non inest in hoc tanto naturae tarn praeclaro 
motu (Id. pro Mil. 31), and if there is something in our bodies that 
lives and feels, it cannot be supposed that there is not, Ac,). Qvid 
causae est, cur Cassandra furens futura prospiciat Priamns sapiens 
idem facere non qveat ? (Id. Piv. 1. :>!>). Neminem oportet esse 
tarn stulte arrogantem, ut in se rationem et mentem putet inesse, 
in caelo mundoqve non putet (Jd. Legg. 11.7). A double question 
of this kind is often connected with what precedes by an ("/• — ? ^ 453) : 
An ex hostium urbibus Romara ad nos transferri sacra religiosum 
fuit, nine sine piaculo in hostium urbem Vejos transferemus ° 
(Liv. V. 52). 

. § 439. (Subordinate Combination). Concerning the conjunctions 
with which objective propositions are formed in the Bubjunctw 
the Appendix to Chap. III. of this Part (§ 371 and the following) ; 

896 LATIN GRAMMAR, § 440 

concerning propositions with qvod to denote a relation actually sub- 
sisting, see § 398, b. 

Ons. 1. {Attraction'). In object-clauses with conjunctions, or in de- 
pendent questions, we sometimes find this irregularity, that a substantive 
(or pronoun), that ought to be the subject in the object-clause, is drawn 
into the leading proposition, either as the object of the verb or as the 
subject, in case the verb would otherwise stand impersonally (as intran- 
sitive or in the passive voice). In good prose, however, this Attraction is 
very rare, and is found after an active verb only where the writer at first 
contemplated another turn of expression, and afterwards added the sub- 
ordinate proposition : Istuc, qvidqvid est, fac me, ut sciam (Ter. 
Heaut. I. 1, 32). Siniul vereor Paxnphiluni, ne orata nostra 
neqveat diutius celare (Id. Hec. IV. 1, 60) =ne Pamphilus. Qvae 
tiniebatis, ea ne accidere possent, consilio meo ac ratione provisa 
sunt (Cic. de Leg. Agr. II. 37), instead of provisum est. Nam san- 
gvinem, bilem, pituitam, ossa, nervos, venas, omnem deniqve mem- 
brorum et totius corporis figuram videor posse dicere, unde con- 
creta et qvoniodo facta sint (Id. Tusc. I. 24). NostL Marcellum, 
qvam tardus et parum efficax sit (Gael. Cic. ad Fam. VIII. 10). 

Obs. 2. Where by the pronouns hie and particularly ille, a fact 
related to the main proposition is referred to, which fact is soon to be 
stated, the statement often follows in an independent proposition with 
enim or nam instead of a proposition with qvod : Atqve etiam ilia 
concitatio declarat vim in animis esse divinam. Negant enim 
sine furore qvemqvam poetam magnum esse posse (Cic. de Div. I. 
37). Sed ilia sunt lumina duo, qvae maxime causam istam con- 
tinent. Primum enim negatis fieri posse, &c. (Id. Acad. II. 33). 

§ 440. a. A proposition expressing a result may either be con- 
nected with a demonstrative word preceding, which signifies a 
measure or degree (sic, ita, adeo, tarn, tantus, talis, is, &c.) or 
be annexed without any such correlative word. We should notice 
the use of qvam ut after a comparative, signifying (greater) than 
that, too (great) to. (Also, qvam qvi, § 308, Obs. 1.) 

Obs. 1. Tantum abest, ut — ut (not ut potius) : Tantum abest, ut 
amicitiae propter indigentiam colantur, ut ii, qvi propter virtutem 
minima alterius indigeant, liberalissimi sint atqve beneficentis- 
simi (Cic. Lael. 14). Sometimes, after tantum abest, ut, the second 
proposition is put independently, instead of being connected by ut as a 
proposition expressing a result. Tantum abfuit, ut inflammares 
nostros animos ; vix somnum tenebamus (Cic. Brut. 87). 


Or.s. 2. Both an object-clause with ut and :i i. 
Btand with the same leading proposition: At ceteris forsitan ita 
petitum sit, ut dicerent, ut utrumvis salvo officio facere se poaae 
arbitrarentur (Cic. pro Rose. Am. 1). 

Obs. :>. ut non (in such a way, that — nof) is used after 
proposition to denote a necessary and inevitable com 
without) ; e.g. Ruere ilia non possunt, ut haec non eodem labefacta 
niotu concidant (Cic. pro Leg. Man. 7). The same meaning 
pressed l>v qviu ; e.g. Nunqvam accedo, qvin abs te abeam doctior 
(Ter. Eun. IV. 7, 21). Qvin, that nut (sec § 375, e, Ob*. I), i 
erally employed after negative assertions (nemo, nihil est, oVc.), and 
after questions which have a negative i'^n-v (qvis est, &c.), I 
what holds universally without any exception: Nihil est, qvin 
uarrando possit depravari (Ter. Phorm, IV. 1, 16) qvod non. 
Nullus est cibus tam gravis, qvin is die et nocte concoqvatui 
N. D. II. 9) = qvi non. Hortensius nullum patiebatur esse diem 
qvin aut in foro diceret aut meditaretur extra forum (Id. Brut. 
88). Nunqvam tam male est Siculis, qvin aliqvid facete et com- 
mode dicant (Id. Verr. IV. 43). 

Obs. 4. Ut takes the signification of although, even ntppott that, 
from first signifying, " even if we suppose the case that ; " the proposition 
is therefore a result, and is expressed negatively with ut non: Ut 
qvaeras omnia, qvomodo Graeci ineptum appellent, non reperiea 
(Cic. de Or. II. 4). Verum ut hoc non sit, tamen praeclarum spec- 
taculum mihi propono (Id. ad Att. II. 16). 

Obs. o. Qvo, that so much(=ut eo), is used when a comparative 
follows (qvo facilius, that so much mare easily = that the more easily). 
In a few eases, it is equivalent to a simple ut, or has the meaning 
thereby ; e.g. Deos hominesqve testamur, nos arma neqve contra 
patriam cepisse neqve qvo pericula aliis faceremus (Sail. ( u 
Qvare, also, is sometimes used to signify either that by thoii 
{so) that on that account : Permulta sunt, qvae dici possunt, qvare 
intelligatur, summam tibi fuisse facultatem maleficii suscipiendi 
(Cic. pro Rose. Am. 88). 

Obs. 6. A proposition denoting a design sometimes indicates, not the 
object of the leading proposition given, but the design with which the 
statement is made, the proposition on which it really depends being 
omitted for the sake of brevity : Senectus est natura loqvacior ; ne 
ab omnibus earn vitiis videar vindicare (Cic. Cat. M.-ij. 16), which I 
mention, that I may not, &C. A similar omission i- >oinct imes found 
with si, qvoniam, qvandoqvidem ; e.g. Qvandoqvidem est apud 
te virtuti honos, ut beneficio tuleris a me, qvod in 
trecenti conjuravimus principes juventutis Ronnnae, ut in te 

398 LATIN GRAMMAR. §442 

hac via grassaremur (Liv. I. 12), that you may, &c, I will tdl you, 
three hundred of us, &c. 

§ 441. Concerning the causal conjunctions (which indicate either 
a proper cause, or simply an occasion and some general relation 
which constitutes the motive for an action ; qvod, qvia, qvum, qvo- 
niam, more forcibly expressed qvoniam qvidem, qvando, qvando- 
qvidem), nothing further is to be observed in a grammatical point 
of view (with reference to the form of the proposition) than what 
has been laid down above in Chap. III. (§§ 357, 358) concerning 
the mood of propositions so connected. On the conjunctions of 
time, and the form of the propositions which they connect, see, also, 
Chapters II. and III. (§§ 358, 359, 360). 

Obs. We may also notice ut in the signification of since : Ut illos 
libros edidisti, nihil a te postea accepimus (Cic. Brut. 5) ; also, 
Annus est, qvum (ex qvo) ilium vidi. 

§ 442. a. Of the Conditional Conjunctions it is to be ob- 
served, that si in descriptions and narratives sometimes designates 
rather each repeated occasion (as often as, every time that), than a 
condition (§ 359). The limitations of its meaning are more precise 
in the expressions si modo, si qvidem, if indeed (sometimes nearly 
causal, since), si maxime, if ever so much; si forte, if by chance; 
si jam, if now ; ita si, under the condition, in case that. Sometimes 
a proposition has two conditions annexed to it, the one more general 
(more remote), and the other more special (proximate) : — 

Si qvis istorum dixisset, qvos videtis adesse, in qvibus summa 
auctoritas est, si verbum de republica fecisset, multo plura dix- 
isse, qvam dixisset, putaretur (Cic. Rose. Am. 1). (For the ar- 
rangement, compare § 476, b ; and concerning si as an interrogative 
particle, see below, § 451, d.) 

Obs. 1. Turn, or (more forcibly) turn vero (then, indeed), is some- 
times used in the apodosis, where a circumstance is to be marked em- 
phatically or contrasted with others : Si id actum est, fateor me er- 
rasse qvi hoc maluerim ; sin autem victoria nobilium ornamento 
atqve emolumento reipublicae debet esse, turn vero optimo et 
nobilissimo cuiqve meam orationem gratissimam esse oportet 
(Cic. pro Rose. Am. 49). Haec si et ages et senties, turn eris non 
modo consul, sed magnus etiam consul (Id. ad Fain. X. 6). (Si — 
at, see § 437, c.) 


Obs. l\ In animated discourse, instead of i protaaii snth ai 
dition is sometimes enunciated in an independent proposition, and ihat 
which would have been the apodosis followi also in s distind pi 
tion. In such cases, the indicative is used (sometime! in an im< ■: 
tivc form), when a tiling is spoken of, which actually i 
then, or perhaps will occur, its real existence being bere neither affirmed 
nor denied; otherwise, the subjunctive, as relating to an imaginary 
assumption (§ 352): De paupertate agitur, multi patientes pau- 
peres commemorantur ; de contemnendo honore, multi iuhono- 
rati proferuntur (Cic. Tusc. III. 21). Rides, majore cachinno 
concutitur; flet, si lacrimas conspexit amici (.Juv. 111. LOO). Roges 
me (suppose you woe to ask me) qvalem deorum naturam esse 
ducam, nihil fortasse respondeam ; qvaeras, putemne talem esse, 
qvalis raodo a te sit exposita, nihil dicam mihi videri minus 
N. D. I. 21). Dares hanc vim M. Crasso, ut digitorum percus- 
sione heres posset scriptus esse, qvi re vera non esset heres, in 
foro, mihi crede, saltaret (Id. Off. IK. 1!)). In :i real protasis of ;i 
hypothetical sentence, on the contrary, si is only omitted by the poets in 
some few passages, where the connection and the form of the verb make 
the relation sufficiently obvious : Tu qvoqve magnam partem opere 
in tanto, sineret dolor, Icare, haberes (Virg. A-a\. VI. 80). 

Obs. 3. In order to show that a certain eonseqence docs not follow 
from a particular condition or relation, the negative precedes the condi- 
tional proposition : Non, si Opimium defendisti, Carbo, idcirco te 

isti bonum civem putabunt (Cic. de Or. II. 40). (Non, si , 

idcirco non, it does not follow, that — not § 460.) 

b. Sin (as well as sin antem) stands for si to signify but ft', if. 
on the other hand, either after another protasis with si, or without 
any such preceding it : — 

Si plane a nobis deficis, moleste fero ; sin Pansae assentari 
commodum est, ignosco (Cic. ad Fain. VII. 12). Luxuria qvum 
omni aetati turpis turn senectuti foedissima est ; sin autem etiam 
libidinum intemperantia accessit, duplex malum est (Id. Off. I. 
34). Sive stands for vel si, or it': e.gJ Postulo, sive aeqvum est. 
oro (Ter. Andr. I. 2, 19) = vel, si aeqvum est, oro, as it is all 
pressed. Sive — sive repeated, with a common apodosis, signifies 
ichcthcr — or (§ 332, Obs.). But sive — sive in >y stand in such I uay. 
that each sive forms the protasis to a distinct apodosis, when two 
arc put, and the consequence assigned to cadi (a dilemma) : Sive emm 
ad sapientiam perveniri potest, non paranda solum ea, sed fi l 
etiam est ; sive hoc difficile est, tameu nullus est modus investi- 

400 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 442 

gandi veri (Cio. Finn. I. 1). (In English, this can only be distin- 
guished by a periphrasis from si — sin : For one can either attain wisdom 
or not ; in the first case, &e.) 

Obs. For sive volo, sive nolo, the expression velim, nolim {sup- 
pose I were willing, suppose I were unwilling = whether I wish it or not) 
is also used in familiar language. 

c. A negative condition is expressed by nisi, if not (unless), in 
such a way as to exclude the case in which a thing does not occur ; 
while, when this condition is wanting, it does or would occur, does, 
or would do so. (Ni is antiquated, but occurs in certain expres- 
sions of legal phraseology and of daily life, and in some few other 
instances ; e.g. ita ; ni ita est. For nisi we sometimes find nisi si, 
except if except in case that.) Si non, with an emphasis on the 
negation, is used only where non is united with the following verb 
so as to form one negative idea (not to do, not to be), which is put 
forward in opposition to the affirmative notion, so that the case in 
which a thing holds, or will hold, is negatively expressed : — 

Glebam commosset in agro decumano Siciliae nemo, si 
Metellus hanc epistolam non misisset (Cic. Verr. III. 18) , if Me- 
tellus had omitted to send this letter. Fuit apertum, si Conon non 
fuisset (if it had not been for Conon), Agesiliaum Asiam Tauro tenus 
regi erepturum fuisse (Corn. Con. 2). Aeqvitas tollitur omnis, si 
habere suuni cuiqve non licet (Cic. Off. II. 22), if hindrances are 
laid in the way of every mail's keeping his own. 

In most cases nisi may also be here used, with a slight difference ; e.g. 
Nisi Conon fuisset ; yet not always ; e.g. Si feceris id, qvod os- 
tendis, magnam habebo gratiam ; si non feceris, ignoscam (Cic. 
ad Fam. V. 19). In the signification though not — , yet, we never have 
nisi, but si non (also si minus, chiefly where there is no separate verb 
attached) ; e.g. Si mini republica bona frui non licuerit, at carebo 
mala (Cic. pro Mil. 34). Cum spe, si non bona, at aliqva tamen 
vivere. Hoc si minus verbis, re confiteri cogitur (Cic. de Fat. 10). 
If not, without a verb, in opposition to something going before, is ex- 
pressed by si (sin) minus, more rarely si non : Si id assecutus sum, 
gaudeo; sin minus, hoc me tamen consolor, qvod posthac nos 
vises (Cic. ad Fam. VII. 1). Si qvid novisti rectius istis, candi- 
dus imperti ; si non, his utere mecum (Hor. Ep. I. 6, C7). 

Obs. 1. Nisi forte, unless perchance, except on the sujiposition that, 
connects a limitation and exception with the foregoing : Nemo fere 
saltat sobrius, nisi forte insauit (Cic. pro Mur. 6) . An ironical or 


tainting conjecture is often idded in thi, *«] > Non possum reperiio 
qvamobrem te in istam amentia 

egisti (unless, perchance, this was your object), ut hominibus ne ob- 
livisci qvidem rerum tuarum male gestarum liceret III. 

80). (Nisi vero is always ironical.) 

Obs. 2. Nisi is subjoined to negatives and question* with i 

sense with tlie signification of but or except I Qvod adhuc nemo nisi 
improbissimus fecit, posthac nemo nisi stultissimus non I 
(Cie. Verr. ill. 94). Qvem unqvam senatus civem nisi me ( 
praeter me) nationibus exteris commendavit? (Id. pro 
Nunqvam vidi animam rationis participem in ulla alia nisi hu- 
mana figura (Id. N. D. I. 31). Nihil aliud fecerunt nisi rem de- 
tulerunt (Cie. pro Rose. Am. 37). In this way, non and nisi 
belong to one phrase (not — cxcq>t, only), but in the I - th \ 

are usually separated by their position: Piimum hoc seutio, nisi in 
bonis viris amicitiam esse non posse (Cie. Lai. 6). 

Obs. 3. After a negative proposition (or one which has a negative 
force), nisi (nisi tamen) introduces an exception (only, only to much, 
yet) : De re nihil possum judicare ; nisi ilhid mihi persvadeo, te, 
talem virum, nihil temere fecisse (Cie. ad Fain. XIII. 7:1). Plnra 
de Jugurtha scribere dehortatur me fortuna mea, et jam an tea 
expertus sum, parum fidei miseris esse. Nisi tamen intelligo, 
ilium supra, qvam ego sum, petere (Sail. Jog. 21). (Nisi qvod, 
except in so far as, oecurs also alter allirmative propositions: Tuscu- 
lanum et Pompejanum valde me delectant; nisi qvod me aere 
alieno obruerunt, Cie. ad Att. II. 1). 

§ 443. Concessive Conjunctions are those which denote Bome 
opposing circumstance, notwithstanding which the leading pr 
tion is true, and may signify, either simply that we allow such 
circumstance to be assumed, or that we actually assert it as a fact ; 
such are qvamvis, licet, qvanqvam, etsi, tametsi (tainenetsi), eti- 
amsi, usually employed when the concessive proposition comes first, 
with tamen following. See § 361, with the Observations. (Ut, sty* 
pose even, even if; see § 440, a, Obs. 4. Qvum, whereas, while <>n 
the other hand; see § 358, Obs. 3.) Of these, qvanqvam, etsi, and 
tametsi (most frequently qvanqvam) are also so used, that they 
do not indicate a subordinate proposition, but annex a remark by 
which the preceding statement is limited and corrected, in an inde- 
pendent form as a leading proposition (howerer, and //> '. 
although) : — 


402 LATIN GRAMMAR. §444 

Qvanqvam non sumus ignari, multos studiose contra esse dic- 
turos. Qvanqvam qvid loqvor ? Qvanqvam qvis ignorat, tria 
Gra3Corun esse gen3ia? (This is often donj when the preceding 
train of thought is broken off as useless or superfluous). Etsi persa- 
pientsr et qvodam modo tacite dat ipsa lex potestatem defen- 
dendi (Cic. pro Mil. 4), yet it is superfluous to argue that the laic must 

sometimes gioe way to higher considerations, for the law itself . 

Mini etiam qvi optime dicunt, tamen, nisi timide ad dicendum 
accedunt, et in exordienda oratione perturbantur, paene impu- 
dentes videntur. Tametsi id accidere non potest (Cie. de Or. 
I. 26). 

Obs. Later writers combine concessive particles without a verb of 
their own, not only with participles (see § 424, Obs. 4, § 428, Obs . 2), 
but also with adjectives, and other words used to qualify a pro- 
position ; e.g. Cicero immanitatem parricidii, qvanqvam per se 
manifestam, tamen etiam vi orationis exaggerat (Quint. IX. 2, 53, 
for qvanqvam per se manifesta est). In the earlier writers, qvamvis 
only is found with an adjective, in the signification though ever so ; e.g. 
Si hoc onere carerem, qvamvis parvis Italiae latebris contentus 
essem (Cic. ad Farn. II. 16). 

§ 444. The Comparative Conjunctions are of two kinds. 

a. A resemblance (as, in the same way as) is expressed by the parti- 
cles ut, uti (ut — ita, item; which also signify as, for example), sicut, 
velut (also signifying for example), ceu (in the poets, and later prose- 
writers), tanqvam (also signifying as if, see 06s. 1), qvasi (as if, 
see the same Obs.) ; also, qvemadmodum, in the comparison of two 
propositions (rarely, qvomodo). (Prout, in proportion as ; pro eo, 
tit , pro eo, qvantum .) 

Obs. 1. Tanqvam rarely (and qvasi still more rarely) denotes a 
comparison of two things, both of which are stated as actual facts 
(Artifex partium in republica tanqvam in scena optimarum, Cic. 
pro Sest. 56, an actor, who plays the best part in the state, as well as 
on the stage. Tanqvam poetae boni solent, sic tu in extrema parte 
muneris tui diligentissimus esse debes, Id. ad Q. Fr. I. i. c, 16). 
In this case, the idea is generally expressed by ut, sicut, qvemadmo- 
dum — ita. A hypothetical proposition, which is only assumed for the 
sake of comparison (as if, § 349) is expressed by tanqvam or tanqvam 
si, velut si (ut si, rarely velut alone) and qvasi Qvasi (qvasi vero) 
is particularly used, when in derision, or to correct an erroneous suppo- 
tion, we state what is not the case : Qvasi ego id curem ! As if I 
cared for that ! Qvasi vero haec similia sint (non multum intersit) ! 


(Perinde, or proinde qvasi, perinde tanqvam, in th, ,, ^ jf f 

perinde ac si). 1 

Obs. 2. Qvasi stands before a word, to signify thai it ii used I 
press a thing Bguratively, and by way of approximation ; i 
respublica qvaedain et qvasi civitas domus est (Plin. Ep. \ 'III. 
10). Qvasi morbus qvidam, qvasi qvoddam vinculum.) 

Obs. 8. A comparison by means of ut — ita (sic) is often made 
of, in order to draw attention to a difference, and to limit the fir* mem- 
ber by the second, with the signification certainly — but {mi ike other 
hand): Ut errare potuisti (qvis enim id effugerit ?) sic decipi te 
non potuisse, qvis non videt? (Cic. ad Fain. X. 20). Consul ut 
fortasse vere, sic parum utiliter in praesens certamen respoudit 
(Liv. IV. 6). On the use of ut — ita with qvisqve, .see § 495. Ita 

(with a wish) — ut is used in oaths (to truly , u.s) : Ita me dii 

anient, ut ego nunc non tarn mea causa laetor qvam illius 
(Ter. Heaut. IV. 1, 8) ; the wish may also be inserted in the affirmation 
as a parenthesis, without ut : Saepe, ita me dii juvent, te auctorem 
consiliorum meorum desideravi (Cic. ad Alt. I. 1G). (Compare 
peream, si § 348, Obs. 4.) 

Ons. 4. Notice the form of expression in the following : Ajunt homi- 
nem, ut erat furiosus, respoiidisse, &c. (Cic. pro Rose. Am. 12, where 
the adjective is introduced into the clause expressing comparison, raging 
as he ivas = qvo erat furore, not hominem furiosum, ut erat). 

Ons. 5. Where an example is added to confirm what precedes, this 
is not put, as in English, in a demonstrative form (so, for exampl . 
father lately told me), but relatively with ut (velut) : Ut nuper pater 
tuus mini narravit . 

b. Qvam and ac (atqye) are used as conjunctions which merely 
connect the members of a comparison, without themselves express- 
ing similarity (or equality). Qvam stands after tarn (so — of), after 
comparatives and words with a comparative signification, n^ ante, 
post, supra, malo, praestat. (Dimidius, multiplex qvam.) Ac, 
which is also a simple copulative conjunction, has the signification of 
as, than, &c, with adjectives and adverbs which denote similarity 
or dissimilarity (equality or inequality) ; namely, similis, dissimili?, 
similiter, par, pariter, aeqve, juxta, perinde or proinde, contra- 
rius, contra, alius, aliter, secus, pro eo (in proportion as), and 
sometimes after idem, talis, totidem, for qvi, qvalis, qvot (J 328, 

1 Perinde ac instead of perinde ac si, aud sicut Instead of velut si, are rexe ex- 

404 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 445 

b) ; also in combination with si (perinde, similis, similiter, pari- 
ter, juxta, idem ac si, as if): — 

Amicos aeqve ac semetipsos diligere oportet. Date operam, 
ne siniili utamur fortuna atqve antea usi suinus (Ter. Phorm. Prol. 
38). Similiter facis, ac si me roges, cur te duobus contuear ocu- 
lis (Cic. N. D. III. 3). Aliter, atqve ostenderam, facio (Id. ad 
Fam. II. 3). Longe alia nobis, ac tu scripseras, narrantur (Id. ad 
Att. XI. 10). Non dixi secus, ac sentiebam (Id. de Or. II. 6). 
Philosophia non proinde, ac de hominum vita merita est, lauda- 
tur (Id. Tusc. V. 2). Cornelii filius Sullam accusat, idemqve 
valere debet, ac si pater indicaret (Id. pro Sull. 18). 

Obs. 1. Aeqve. juxta, proinde, contra, and secus, are also, but 
less frequently, constructed with qvam. Alius, aliter, may stand with 
qvam, if the proposition in which they occur is negative, or interroga- 
tive with a negative sense, and sometimes under other circumstances, in 
the later writers (from Livy, downwards) : Agitur nihil aliud in hac 
causa, qvam ut nullum sit posthac in re publica publicum con- 
silium (Cic. pro Rab. perd. 2). Cavebo, ne aliter Hortensius, 
qvam ego velim, meum laudet ingenium (Id. A r err. I. 9). Jovis 
epulum num alibi qvam in Capitolio fieri potest? (Liv. V. 52). 
Te alia omnia, qvam qvae velis, agere moleste fero (Plin. Ep. Vll. 
15) . Instead of nihil (qvid) aliud qvam, we often find nihil (qvid) 
aliud nisi ; e.g. Bellum ita suscipi debet, ut nihil aliud nisi pax 
qvaesita videatur (Cic. Off. I. 23). (See § 442, c, Obs. 2.) 

Oi3S. 2. Instead of similis, similiter, proinde ac si, we also find si- 
milis, similiter, proinde ut si, tanqvam si, qvasi. 

Obs. 3. A copulative clause may occasionally supply the place of a 
comparative ; e.g. Haec eodem tempore Caesari mandata refere- 
bantur et legati ab Aeduis et a Treviris veniebant (Cres. B. G. I. 
37), at one and the same time Ccesar received these orders and ambassa- 
dors came . Et is very rarely found after alius, and other words, 

where it cannot be understood as purely copulative. 

Obs. 4. In the poets, and later writers, the word expressing compari- 
son is sometimes repeated, without a conjunction : Aeqve pauperibus 
prodest, locupletibus aeqve (Hor. Ep. I. 1, 25). 

§ 445. The use of relative propositions in Latin has some pecu- 

A relative proposition may again have a subordinate proposition 
appended to it, to which it stands in the relation of a leading prop- 
osition ; e.g. Ut ignava animalia, qvae jacent torpentqve, si 
cibum iis suggeras. If, then, the relative refers to the same per- 


BOn Or thing (as the demonstrative) in thi subordinate prop 

(likeiisin tin: above example), the relative may be En< 

in the proposition which was subordinate to it, but now take, the 
lead of it, and may have its Ca8e determined by the new COD 
tion (so that in the leading proposition a deiuon>trati\e || to be 
supplied from the subordinate) : — 

Ut ignava animalia, qvibus si cibum suggeras, jacent torpentqvc 
(Tac. Hist. HI. 86) ; just as one inav say, Ignavis animalibus si cibum 
suggeras, jacent torpentqve). Is enim fueram, cui qvum liceret 
majores ex otio fructus capere qvam ceteris, non dubitaverini me 
gravissimis tempestatibus obvium ferre (Cic. It. P. 1. 1) q-vi 
qvum mini liceret , non dubitaverini. 

In the next place a connection may be formed by a relative pro- 
noun between a leading and subordinate proposition (a protasis and 
apodosis), in which the relative pronoun belongs exclusively to the 
subordinate proposition (without being at the same time understood 
as a demonstrative in the leading proposition). Propositions thus 
connected are expressed in English either by resolving the relative 
into a demonstrative (which belongs to the subordinate proposition) 
and a conjunction (belonging to the leading proposition) or by a 
circumlocution; sometimes the subordinate proposition may be ren- 
dered by an infinitive or a substantive with a preposition : — 

Ea svasi Pompejo, qvibus ille si paruisset, Caesar tantas opes, 
qvantas nunc habet, non haberet (Cic. ad Fain. VI. b") — ut, si ille 
iis paruisset, Caesar tantas opes habiturus non fuerit, &c. Noli 
adversus eos me velle ducere, cum qvibus ne contra tc arma fer- 
rem, Italiam reliqvi (Corn. Att. IV.) = against those with whom I was 
so unwilling to bear arms against you, that I left Italy for thai 
reason. Ea mini dedisti, qvae ut conseqverer, qvemvis laborem, 
suscepturus fui, the very tiling for the attainment of which I . &c, 
Populus Romanus turn ducem habuit, qvalis si qvi nunc esse^, 
tibi idem, qvod illis accidit, contigisset (Cic. Phil. II. 7). 

In this way two relatives sometimes come together in the same 
sentence (in different cases), when its subordinate proposition is 
already relative for some other reason : — 

Epicurus non satis politus est iis artibus, qvas qvi tenent. eru- 
diti appellantur (Cic. Finn. I. 7, the possessors of wkicA 
learned, or, the possession of which procures one the appeUaH 
learned). Infima est condicio et fortuna servorum, qvibus 


406 LATIN GRAMMAR. § 447 

male praecipiunt, qvi ita jubent uti ut raercenariis (Id. Off. I. 13). 
(Ea mihi eripere conantur qvae, si adempta fuerint, nulla dignita- 
tis nieae conservandae spes relinqvitur = qvibus ademptis, § 428, 
Obs. 7). 

§ 446. A relative clause is in a peculiar manner introduced into 
or placed before a proposition, to show the relation of this proposi- 
tion to some quality or characteristic of the person or thing spoken 
of in the proposition. This quality, or characteristic, is mentioned 
in the relative clause, of which it is usually the subject, with sum ; 
but it sometimes forms a genitive or ablative of quality with the 
relative, and as such qualifies the subject of the main proposition : — 

Si mihi negotium permisisses, qvi mens amor in te est, confecis- 
sem (Cic. ad Fam. VII. 2), such is my love to you. Spero, qvae tua 
prudentia et temperantia est, te jam, ut volumus, vivere (Id. ad 
Att. VI. 9). Qva es prudentia, nihil te fugiet (Id. ad Fam. XI. 3). 
Ajax, qvo animo traditur (sc. fuisse), millies oppetere mortem 
qvam ilia perpeti maluisset (Id. Off. I. 31) . (The same sense may 
be expressed by pro : Tu pro tua prudentia, qvid optimum factu 
sit, videbis, Cic. ad Fam. X. 27). 

Obs. Qvantus is sometimes used in the same way : Qvanta in- 
genia in nostris hominibus esse video, non despero fore aliqvem 
aliqvando, qvi existat talis orator, qvalem qvaerimus (Cic. de Or. 

I. 21), considering the great abilities which . Illis, qvantum 

importunitatis habent, parum est impune male fecisse (Sail. 
Jug. 31). 

§ 447. Where in English the subject of a proposition is described 
by means of the verb to be, and a superlative, or an ordinal numeral, 
or a substantive with an adjective, followed by a relative clause, in